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JAN 181993 
MAN 6 199S 
JAN 1 7 1995 

The Catholic Encyclopedia 

















Hew l^orfe 

Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908 




Copyright, 1908 
By Robert Appleton Company 

Copyright, 1913 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 



i ' 

List of Contributors to the Third Volume 

ABRAHAM, LADISLAUS, LL.D., Member of the BESSON, JULES, S.J., Professor of Canon Law. 

Academy of Science at Krakow, Professor of University of Toulouse, Director, " Nou- 

Canon Law, Roy'al University, Lemberg, velle Revue Theologique " of Tournai, 

Galicia, Austria. Toulouse, France. 

AIKEN, CHARLES F., S.T.D., Professor of Apol- BIRKHAEUSER, J. A., Racine, Wisconsin. 

ogetics, Catholic University of America, t,,^™ tt^mdv x-r/-»T>r>r<D'r> <-, c r> t 

' BIRT, HI AK\ NOKlil.K I , O.S.B., London. 

ALLARIA, ANTHONY, CR.L, S.T.D., Lector of BOOTHMAN, C. T., Kingstown, Ireland. 

Philosophy and Theology, Abbot of San Teo- BOUDINHON, AUGUST MARIE, D.D., D.C.L., 

doro, Genoa. Director, "Canoniste Contemporain", Pro- 

ALOYSIO, Mother MARY, Academy of the Holy fessor of Canon Law - Institut Catholique, 

Family, Baltic, Connecticut. Fabis. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B.. Downside Abbey, BOURSCHEIDT, PETER J., Secretary of Cen- 

_ „ tral Verein (1899-1907), Member of Execu- 

Bath, England. ,> " 

tive Board, Peoria, Illinois. 

AMADO, RAMON RUIZ, S.J., LL.D., Ph.L., Madrid. T> or . r , T . „ ,, „ T „ „ „ 

BROCK, H. M., S.J., Professor of Physics, Holy 

ARENDZEX, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., B.A., Professor Cross College, Worcester, Massachusetts. 

of Holy Scripture, St. Edmund's College, 

Ware, England. 

BROSNAHAN, TIMOTHY, S.J., Professor of 
Psychology and Ethics, Woodstock College, 
AUCLAIR, ELIE J., B.A., S.T.D., J. CD., Professor, Maryland. 

Laval University, Montreal. BROWNSON, HENRY FRANCIS, LL.D., Detroit, 

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., Westminster, Lon- Michigan. 

BURKE, EDMUND, A.B., Instructor in Latin, 


BALESTRI, GIUSEPPE, O.S.A., Professor Emer- College of the City of New York. 

itus of Sacred Scripture, College of St. 
Monica, Rome. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R. Hist. S., St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England. 

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanic Society of Amer- 

BURTSELL, R. L., Ph.D., S.T.D., Rondout, New 
ica, New York. ,. 


BARRET T. B., S.J., Professor of Moral Theol- BtmN( R gM _ gTL ^ pH D ^^ CoLLEQE> 

ogy, Woodstock College, Maryland 


BARRY, WILLIAM, Canon, S.T.D., Leam.ngton, butler RICHA RD URBAN, O.S.B., Downside 


Abbey, Bath, England. 

CAMM, BEDE, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Birmingham, 

BAOIGARTEN, Rt. Rev. Mgr. PAIL MARIA, England. 

J.U.D., S.T.D., Domestic Prelate. Home. CAM p BE LL, T. J., S.J., Associate Editor, "The 

BECHTEL, F., S.J., Professor of Hebrew and Messenger", New York. 

Sacred Scripture, St. Louis University, St. C APES, FLORENCE MARY, London. 


, „ CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B..B.A. ( Oxon.), Trior op 

BENIGNI, I,, Professor of Ecclesiastical His- gT Thomas > s Ai „ ii;y , Erdinqton, Birmingham, 

tory, Pont, (ollegio I rbano di Propaganda, Fnciand 


CHATTE, P. M., Cape Haitien. 
BERTRIN, GEORGES, Litt.D, Fellow of the 

University, Professor of French Litera- CLEARY, HENRY W ., Editor, "New Zealand 
ture, Institut Catholique, Paris. Tablet". Dunedin, New Zealand. 




COLEMAN, CARYL, B.A., Pelham Manor, New 

CONNOLLY, GEORGE A., A.M., LL.B., San Fran- 

CORBETT, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Holy Scrip- 
ture, Woodstock College, Maryland. 

CORDIER, HENRI, Chinese Mandarin of the 
Third Class, Professor, School for Oriental 
Living Languages, Paris. 

CROWNE, J. VINCENT, A.M., Ph.D., Instructor 
in English, College of the City of New Yi irk. 

the Superior Court of the Province of 

CUTHBERT, Father, O.S.F.C, Hassocks, Sussex, 

D'ALTON, E. A., M.R.I.A., Athenry, Ireland. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, College of the City of New York. 


DELAUNOIT, LEOPOLD, S.J., Fiscal Advocate 
of the Diocese of Calcutta. 

DERRY, GEORGE HERMAN, S.J., Professor of 
Latin, Greek and Comparative Literature, 
Holy Cross College, Worcester, Massachu- 

DE SMEDT, CH., S.J., Brussels. 

DESMOND, HUMPHRY J., A.B., A.M., Milwaukee, 


Prelate and Prothonotary Apostolic, 
Rector of the Campo Santo Tedesco, Rome. 

DIETERICH, KARL, Ph.D., Leipzig-Conewitz, 

sor of Moral Theology, St. Mary's Seminary, 

1)[i INNE, X. E., S.B., M.D., Librarian to the Leg- 
islatirk of Quebec. 

DONOHUE, THOMAS A.. S. I'D.. M.K., Buffalo. 

DONOVAN'. STEPHEN M., O.F.M., Franciscan 
Monastery, Washington. 

rior General, St. Joseph's Convent of Mt. 

( lARME] . I >> r.i Ql i . low \. 

Litt.I)., Dominion Archivist, Ottawa. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., President of St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York. 

New York. 

DUBRAY, C. A, S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of Phil- 
osophy, Marist College, Washington. 

DUFFY, DANIEL P., S.S., A.M., S.T.L., J.C.L., 
Professor of Holy Scripture, St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore. 

DUFFY, JAMES A., Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

DUFFY, P. L., S.T.D., LL.D, Auditor of the Dio- 
cesan Curia, Charleston, South Carolina. 

DUNFORD, DAVID, Diocesan Inspector of 
Schools, Hoddesdon, Herts, England. 

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Professor of Celtic Lan- 
guages and Literature, Catholic University - 
of America, Washington. 

DUNPHY, Sister MARY AMBROSE, Mt. St. Vin- 
cent on the Hudson, Yonkers, New York. 

EGAN, ANDREW, O.F.M., Professor of Theol- 
ogy, The Friary, Forest Gate, London. 

ELLIOTT, WALTER, C.S.P., Professor, Apos- 
tolic Mission House, Washington. 

ville, California. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President of St. 
Austin's College, Brookland, D. C, Pro- 
fessor of Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Semin- 
ary, Baltimore. 

Kaschau, Member of Magnates' House, Kas- 
chau, Hungary. 

FORD, JEREMIAH, D.M., A.B., A.M., Ph.D., 

Smith Professor of the French and Spanish 
Languages, Harvard University. 

FORTESCUE, ADRIAN, Ph.D., S.T.D., London. 

of Belles-Lettres, College de Montreal. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.S., M.E., Associate Professor 
of Physics. College of the City of New York. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, A.B., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New Yore. 

CANS, LEO, J. CD., 1'rofessoh of Canon Law, The 
St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

bridge), London. 


GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London. 

GERLAND, ERNST, Homburg-vor-der-Hohe, 

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., Teacher of Classi- 
cal Languages and /Esthetics, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland. 

GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of Sacred 
Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dun- 
woodie, New York. 

GILDAS, M., O.C.R., La Trappe, Quebec. 



GLANCEY, MICHAEL C, Canon of Birmingham, 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, " Revue de 
Deux Mondes", Paris. 

GRAS, JOSEPH, S.J., Caughnawaga, P. Q. 

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. II., Mrs. I).. K.S.G., M.R. 
I. A.. Rosemount, Enniscorthy, Ireland. 

GREANEY. JOHN J., A.B., S.T.L., Pittsburg, 

GUINEY, LOUISE IMOGEN, Oxford, England. 

GULDNER, B., S.J., St. Joseph's College, Phila- 

of Economics and Sociology, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio. 

HANDLEY, M. L, Madison, New Jersey. 
HARTIG, OTTO, Assistant Librarian of the 
Royal and City Library, Munich. 

HASSETT, MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harrisburg, 

HEALY. PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Church History. Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington. 

Iir.XDRICK. THOMAS A., S.T.D., Bishop of Cebu, 
Philippine Islands. 

HENRY. H. T.. I.itt.D., Rector of Roman Cath- 
olic High School for Boys, Profj - 
English Literature and of Gregorian 
Chant, St. Charles's Seminary, Overbrook, 

HERNANDEZ, PABLO, S.J., Colegio del Salva- 
dor, Buenos Aires. 

HILGENREINER. KARL, S.T.D., Ph.D.. Imperial 
Royal Professor of the University of 

HILGERS, JOSEPH. S.J., Luxemburg. 

HINOJOSA, EDUARDO de, Member of the Span- 
ish Academy, Professor of History, Univer- 
sity of Madrid. 

Lawrence's Priory, Adelaide, Australia. 

idence, Rhode Island. 


HOWLETT, J. A., O.S.B., M.A., Suffolk, England. 

HUARD, V. A., Archbishop's Palace, Quebec 

HUNT, LEIGH, Professor of Art, College of the 
City of New York. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A.. Ox- 
ford, England. 

JAILLET, O, Corpus Chhisti, Texas. 

JENNER, HENRY, F.S.A., Assistant Librarian, 
British Museum, London. 

JERON, OTTO, O.M.Cap., Mt. Calvary, Wisconsin. 


Professor of Logic, Stonyhurst College, 
Blackburn, England. 

KAVANAGH, DENNIS J., S.J., Woodstock Col- 
lege, MARYLAND. 


KELLY, LEO A., Ph.B., Rochester, New York. 

Bayswater, London. 

KIRSCH, Mgh. J. P.. Professor of Patrology and 
Christian Archeology, University of Fri- 
bourg, Switzerland. 

KURTH, GODEFROI, Director, Belgian Histor- 
ical Institute, Liege. 

LABOURT, JEROME, S.T.D., Litt.D., Member 
of the Asiatic Society of Pauis. 

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University ok 
France, Professor, Institut Catholkjue, 

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lector of Philos- 
ophy, St. Fidelis Monastery, Victoria, Kan 


LE ROY, ALEXANDER A.. C.SS.P., Bishop of 
Ai.inda, Superior General of the Congrega- 
tion of the Holy Ghost, Paris. 

LINDSAY, LIONEL ST. G., B.Sc., Ph.D.. Editor in 
Chief, "La Nouvelle France", Quebec. 

LINS, JOSEPH. Freiburg, Germany. 

LOPEZ, TIRSO, O.S.A., Colegio de los Agos- 
tinos, Valladolid, Spain. 


LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Philadel- MING, JOHN J., S.J., Professor of Ethics, Sacred 
phia. Heart College, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 

LUZIO, SALVATORE, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
fessor of Canon Law, St. Patrick's College, 
Maynooth, Dublin. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector of Woodstock College, 

MacCAFFREY, JAMES, S.T.L., St. Patrick's Col 
lege, Maynooth, Dublin. 

Bridge, Prince Edward Island, Canada. 


MOELLER, CH., Professor of General History, 
University of Louvain. 

NACIO, S.T.D., LL.D., Bishop of San Luis 
Potosi, Administrator Apostolic of Tamau- 
lipas, Domestic Prelate to His Holiness and 
Assistant at the Pontifical Throne. Knight 
Grand Cross of the Holy Sepulchre, Knight 
of Isabella the Catholic, Knight Com- 
mander of Charles the Third, Member of the 
Madrid Academy of Languages and History, 
San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

MAIIER, MICHAEL, S.J., Litt.D, M.A. (London MOONEY, JAMES, Ethnologist, Bureau of Amer- 

University), Director of Studies and Pro- jcan ETHNOLOOyi Washington, 
fessor of Pedagogics, St. Mary's Hall, 

Stonyhurst, Blackburn, England. MOREIRA, M. DE, A.M., Litt.D., New York. 

MAKIL, Rt. Rev. Mgr. MATTHEW, S.T.D., Vicar MORICE, A. G., O.M.I., Kamloops City, British 

Apostolic, Changanachery, India. Columbia. 

MANN, HORACE K, Headmaster, St. Cuthbert's MORRISROE, PATRICK, Dean and Professor of 

Grammar School, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Eng- Liturgy, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 

land. Dublin. 

MARCILLA, LOPEZ, Alberto, Campeche, Mexico. 

MARTINDALE, CYRIL C, S.J., B.A. (Oxon.), Pro- 
fessor of Classics, M\nresa House, Roe- 
hampton, London. 

MATRE, ANTHONY, Supreme Secretary, Cath- 
olic Knights of America; National Secre- 
tary, American Federation of Catholic Soci- 
eties; Associate Editor, "The Teacher and 
Organist", St. Louis. 

McKENNA, CHARLES F., Ph.D. (Columbia), Sec- 
KF.TAitY, Catholic Home Bureau, Vice-Presi- 
dent, New York State Probation Commission, 
New York. 

McMAHON, ARTHUR L., O.P., Lector of Sacred 
Theology, Professor of Moral Theology and 
ii Scripture, Dominican House of Stud- 
ies, Washington. 

McNICHOLAS, JOHN T.. O.P., S.T.L., Lector, 
Immac. Conception College, Washington. 


MEIER, T. GABRIEL, O.S.B., Librarian of the 
Monastery of Einsiedeln, Switzerland. 

ciate Professor <>r Moral Theology, Cath- 
olic University of America, Washington. 

MOUGEL, AMBROSE, O. Cart., Charterhouse of 
St. Hugh, Parkminster, England. 

MUELLER, ULRICH F., C.PP.S., Professor of 
Philosophy, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary 
of the Congregation of the Precious Blood, 
Carthagena, Ohio. 

MURPHY, JOHN F. X., S.J., Woodstock College, 

MYERS, EDWARD, M. A. (Cambridge), Professor 
of Dogmatic Theology and of Patrology, St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England. 

NOLAN, PATRICK, O.S.B., Erdington Abbey, 
Birmingham, England. 

St. Mary's Seminary of the WEst, Cedar 
Point, Ohio. 

O'DANIEL, VICTOR F.,O.P, S.T.L., Professor of 
Dogmatic Theology, Dominican House of 
Studies, Washington. 

O'DONOGHUE, D. J., Dublin. 

OESTREICH, THOMAS, O.S.B., Professor of 
Church History and Sacred Scripture, Mary- 
help Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina. 

O'KANE, MICHAEL M., O.P., Ph.D., S.T.L., Lim- 
erick, Ireland. 

MEKSIIMAN, FRANCIS. O.S.B., S.T.D., Professor o'LFAHV. LOUIS JAMES, S.T.D., J.C.D., Chan- 
of Moral Theology, ( 'anon Law, and Liturgy, CELL or of the Diocese, Chatham, N. B. 

St. John's University, Colleoeville, Minne- 
sota. O'NEIL, LEO F., A.B., S.T.L., Boston. 



ORBAN, ALEXIS J. T., S.T.D., A.M., Sulpician 
Convent, Frascati, near Rome. 

of Chiapas, Mexico. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the 
History of Philosophy, St. John's Univer- 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

PETERSON, JOHN B., Professor of Ecclesias- SAGMULLER, JOHANNES BAPTIST, Professor 
tical History and Liturgy, St. John's Semin- of Theology, University of Tubingen, Wur- 

ary, Brighton. Massachusetts. temberg, Germany. 

RYAN, JAMES J., J.C.B. (Lovan.), President and 
Professor of Church History, St. Patrick's 
College, Thurles, Ireland. 

RYAN, MICHAEL JAMES, Ph.D., S.T.D., Profes- 
sor of Logic and of the History of Philos- 
ophy, St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, 
New York. 

RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London. 

PETIT, L., A.A., Constantinople. 

PETRIDES, S., A.A., Constantinople. 

PHILEMON, Brother, Provincial Superior of 
the Brothers of Charity, Longue-Pointe, 


POWER, ALICE, R.S.H., Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Kenwood, Albany, New York. 

Teacher of Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brooklyn, New York. 

REID, GEORGE JOSEPH, S.T.L., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture and Hebrew, The St. Paul 

Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. 


REILLY, W. S., S.T.D., S.S., Professor of Sacred 
Scripture, St. John's Seminary, Brighton, 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., A.M., Ph.D., Adjunct-Pro- 
fessor of Germanic Philology, Columbia 
University, New York. 

RICKABY, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Ethics, St. 
Mary's Hall, Stonyhurst, Blackburn, Eng- 

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Professor of 
Theology, Franciscan Monastery, Washing- 

Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria. 


ROY, J. EDMOND, Litt.D., F.R.S.C, Officer ok 
the French Academy, Director, "Notarial 
Review", Levis, Quebec. 

RUDGE, F. M.. M.A., Yoi nqstown, Ohio. 

Academy, Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

RYAN, J. A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral Theol- 
ogy, The St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minne- 


rister at Law (Middle Temple, London), 
LL.B (Cambridge), Colombo, Ceylon. 

structor in the Latin Language and Litera- 
ture, College of the City of New York. 

SALTER, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Editor, "Rundschau", 
Professor of Theology, University of Frei- 
burg, Germany. 

SAXTON, E. F., Baltimore. 

SCANNELL.T. B., S.T.D., Editor, "Catholic Dic- 
tionary", Folkestone, England. 

fessor of Church History, The St. Paul Sem- 
inary, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

veld bei Lichtenvoorde, Holland. 

SCHRANTZ, CHARLES B., S.S., A.M., Catholic 
University of America, Washington. 

Liturgy, Latin and French, St. Charles's Sem- 
inary, Overbrook, Pennsylvania. 

SCHWERTNER, THOMAS M., O.P., Washington. 

Musical Director, Downside Abbey, Bath, 

Philosophy, St. Charles's Seminary, Over- 
brook, Pennsylvania. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph, 

SLATTERY, J. L., Manager, School of Industry, 
Irish Christian Brothers, St. John's, New- 

New York. 

versity of Pennsylvania), Philadelphia. 


VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor op Church His- 
tory and of Canon Law, University of 

VAN KASTEREN, JOHN P., S. J., Maastricht, Hol- 


tor and Professor of Moral Theology, Mak- 
ist College, Washington. 

Ph.D., Professor of Holy Scripture and 
Hebrew, Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis. 

SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., University of Stras- 
burg, Germany. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Editor, 
"The Messenger", New York. 

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud. Gloucester- 
shire, England. 

in English Literature, College of the City 
of New York. 


TIERNEY, JOHN J., A.M., S.T.D., Professor of 
Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. St. 
Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, England. 

Thomas's College, Villanova, Pennsylvania. 

Apostolic, Boston. 

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Logic and of the History of Philosophy, 
Catholic University of America, Washing- 

turer in Modern History, Balliol College, 

VAILHE, S., A.A., Constantinople. 
Vv.\ 1)1 R ESSEN, LEON, Litt.D., Ph.D., College ZIMMERMAN, B., O.D.C., St. Luke's Priory, 
du Pape, Louvain. Wincanton, Somerset, England. 

VOLZ, JOHN R., O.P., Washington. 

WALDRON, AUGUSTINE, O.P., Professor of 
Theology, Immaculate Conception College, 

WALSH, JOSEPH, M.D., A.M., President of the 
Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis, Assistant Medical Director of 
the Henry Phipps Institute. 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, President of St. Ed- 
mund's College, Ware, England. 

WARREN, KATE MARY, Lecturer in English 
Literature under University of London at 
Westkield College, Hampstead, London. 

bridge, England. 

WEBER, N.A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Apolo- 
getics and Church History, Marist College, 


WEBSTER, RAYMUND, O.S.B., M.A. (Oxon.), 
Downside Abbey, Bath, England. 


S.T.D., Ph. D., Battle, Sussex, 


WITTMANN, PIUS, Ph.D., Reichsarchivrath, 

WOODS, JOSEPH M., S.J., Professor of Eccle- 
siastical History, Woodstock, Maryland. 

Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encyclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum). 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annus, 


ap in (Lat. apud). 

art article. 

Assyr Assyrian. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 

b born. 

Bk Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

can canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context I, 

cf compare (Lat. confer). 

cod codex. 

col column. 

concl conclusion. 

const., const it. . . .Lat. constitutio. 

cura by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnairc). 

disp Lat. disputatio. 

diss Lat. dissertalio. 

dist Lat. distinctio. 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

Ep., Bpp letter, letters (Lat. epistola). 

Fr French. 

gen genus. 

Gr < ircck. 

II. I",., Hist. Keel. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

ill., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

Id the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumcnta. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat. National. 

Old Fr.,0. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) pars (part). 

par paragraph. 

passim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q., QQ., qiuest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qucestio). 

q. v which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

I! S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS Lat. Sanctus, Sancti, "Saint". 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Scptuagint. 

Sess Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint. Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra). 

s. v Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. sub voce). 

torn volume (Lat. lomus). 


tr. translation or translated. By it- 
self it means "English transla- 
tion", or "translated into Eng- 
lish by". Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

v see (Lat. vide). 

Ven Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — Abbreviations of Titles. 

Acta SS Acta Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, Annuaire pontifical 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq. . .Smith and Cheetham (ed.), 
Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.), Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chret.. .Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnaire d'ar- 
cheologie chretienne et de litur- 

Diet, de theol. cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 
Dictionnaire de theologie 

Diet. Nat. Biog Stephen and Lee (ed.), Diction- 
ary of National Biography. 

Hast., Diet, of the 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Kirchenlex Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexi- 


P. G Migne (ed.), Patres Grceci. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Patres Latini. 

Vig., Diet, dela Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de 
la Bible. 

Note I. — Large Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Rashdall, 
Universities of Europe, I, ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

Note II. — Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
"Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophic"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example: " I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh, article of the 
sixth question in the first part of the second part, in the response to the second objection. 

Note III. — The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Ecclesiasticus is indicated by 
Ecclus.. to distinguish it from Ecclesiastes (Eccles.). It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V.; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked difference 
between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parentheses. 

Full Page Illustrations in Volume III 

Frontispiece in Colour page 

Buffalo 38 

Erythraean Sibyl — Michelangelo Buonarotti 60 

Coronation of the Virgin — Burgkmaier 64 

The Abbey of St. Edmund, before the Reformation 86 

St. Sophia, Constantinople 94 

California 174 

California Missions 182 

Camaldoli 206 

Cambridge 214 

< Janada 234 

Tomb of the Archduchess Maria < Ihristina- -Canova 298 

The Cathedral, Canterbury 300 

Presentation of Christ in the Temple — Carpaccio 372 

The Rock of Cashel 402 

Catacombs 426 

Benvenuto Cellini 490 

( Vnii 'I < tv 504 

Sisters of Charity 606 

Charlemagne Frescoes, Rathaus, Aachen 612 

( Jharles V— Titian 626 

Cathedral of Notre Dame, Chartres 634 

Chasubles 638 

Chicago 654 

Cincinnati 774 


Byzantine Empire 120 

I lanada 238 

Empire of Charlemagne 616 

South America ; . . 662 

China and Korea 686 



Brownson, Orestes Augustus, philosopher, es- 
sayist, reviewer, b, at Stockbridge, Vermont, Q. S. A., 
16 September. 1S(>3; d. at Detroit, Michigan, 17 
April, 1870. His childhood was passed on a small 
farm with plain country people, honest and upright 
Congregationalists, who treated him with kindness 
and affection, taught him the Lord's Prayer, the 
Apostles' Creed, and the Assembly's Catechism; to 
be honest and industrious, truthful in all circum- 
stances, and never to let the sun go down on his wrath. 
With no young companions, his fondness for reading 
grew rapidly, though he had access to few books, 
and those of a grave or religious nature. At the age 
of nineteen he had a fair knowledge of grammar and 
arithmetic and could translate Virgil's poetry. In 
October, 1822, he joined the Presbyterian Church, 
dreamed of becoming a missionary, but very soon 
felt repelled by Presbyterian discipline, and still more 
by the doctrines of unconditional election and repro- 
bation, and that God foreordains the wicked to sin 
necessarily, that He may damn them justly. Rather 
than sacrifice his belief in justice and humanity on the 
altar of a religion confessedly of human origin and 
fallible in its teachings, Brownson rejected Calvinism 
for so-called liberal Christianity, and early in 1824, at 
the age of twenty, avowed himself a Universalist. 
In June, 1826, he was ordained, and from that time 
until near the end of 1829, he preached and wrote as 
a Universalist minister, calling himself a Christian; 
but at last denying all Divine revelation, the Divinity 
of Christ, and a future judgment, he abandoned the 
ministry and became associated with Robert Dale 
Owen and Fanny Wright in their war on marriage, 
property, and religion, carried on in the "Free En- 
quirer" of New York, of which Brownson, then at 
Auburn, became corresponding editor. At the same 
time he established a journal in western Xew York 
in the interest of the Workingmen's Party, which 
they wished to use for securing the adoption of their 
system of education. But, besides this motive, 
Brownson's sympathy was always with the labouring 
class, and he entered with ardour on the work of 
elevating labour, making it respected and as well 
rewarded in its manual or servile, as in its mercantile 
or liberal, phases, and the end he aimed at was moral 
and social amelioration and equality, rather than 
political. The introduction of large industries car- 
ried on by means of vast outlays of capital or credit 
had reduced operatives to the condition of virtual 

slavery; but Brownson soon became satisfied that 
the remedy was not to be secured by arraying labour 
again-,* capital by a political organization, but by 
inducing till classes to co-operate in the efforts to pro- 
cure the improvement of the workingman's condition. 
He found, too, that he could not advance a single step 
in this direction without religion. An unbeliever in 
Christianity, he embraced the religion of Humanity, 
severed his connexion with the Workingmen's Party 
III.— 1 

and with "The Free Enquirer", and on the first 
Sunday in February, 1831, began preaching in Ithaca, 
New York, as an independent minister. As a Uni- 
versalist, he had edited their organ, "The Gospel 
Advocate"; he now edited and published his own 
organ, "The Philanthropist". 

Finding, from Dr. W. E. Channing's printed ser- 
mons, that Unitarians believed no more of Christi- 
anity than he did, he became associated with that 
denomination, and so remained for the next twelve 
years. In 1832 he was settled as pastor of the Uni- 
tarian Church at Walpole, New Hampshire; in 1834 he 
was installed pastor of the First Congregational Church 
at Canton, Massachusetts; and in 1836 he organized 
in Boston "The Society for Christian Union and 
Progress", to which he preached in the Old Masonic 
Temple, in Tremont Street. After conducting 
various periodicals, and contributing to others, the 
most important of which was "The Christian Ex- 
aminer", he started a publication of his own called 
"The Boston Quarterly Review", the first number of 
which was dated January, 1838. Most of the articles 
of this review were written by him; but some were 
contributed by A. H. Everett, George Bancroft, 
George Ripley, A. Bronson Alcott, Sarah Margaret 
Fuller, Anne Charlotte Lynch, and other friends. 
Besides his articles on literary and philosophical 
subjects, his political essays in this review attracted 
attention throughout the country and brought him 
into close relations with the leaders of the Democratic 
Party. Although a steadfast Democrat, he disliked 
the name Democrat, and denounced pure democracy, 
called popular sovereignty, or the rule of the will of 
the majority, maintaining that government by the 
will, whether that of one man or that of many, was 
mere arbitrary government, and therefore tyranny, 
despotism, absolutism. Constitutions, if not too 
easily alterable, he thought a wholesome bridle on 
popular caprice, and he objected to legislation for the 
especial benefit of any individual or class; privileges, 
i. e. private laws; exemption of stockholders in cor- 
porations from liability for debts of their corporation; 
tariffs to enrich the moneyed class at the expense of 
mechanics, agriculturists, and members of the liberal 
professions. He demanded equality of rights, not 
that men should be all equal, but that all should be 
on the same footing, and no man should make him- 
self taller by standing on another's shoulders. 

In his "Review" for July, 1840, he carried the 
democratic principles to their extreme logical conclu- 
sions, and urged the abolition of Christianity; mean- 
ing, of course, the only Christianity he was acquainted 
with, if, indeed, it be Christianity; denounced the 
penal code, as bearing with peculiar severity on the 
poor, and the expense to the poor in civil cases; and, 
accepting the doctrine of Locke, Jefferson, Mirabeau, 
Portalis, Kent, and Blackstone, that the right to 
devise or bequeath property is based on statute. 



Orestes Augus 

not on natural, law, he objected to the testamentary 
and hereditary descent of property; and, what gave 
more offence than all the rest, he condemned the 
modern industrial system, especially the system of 
labour at wages. In all this he only carried out the 
doctrine of European Socialists and the Saint- 
Simonians. Democrats were horrified by the article; 
Whigs paraded it 
as what Democrats 
were aiming at; 
and Van Buren, 
who was a candi- 
date for a second 
term as President, 
blamed it as the 
main cause of his 
defeat. The man- 
ner in which he 
was assailed arous- 
ed Bro wnson's in- 
dignation, and he 
defended his essay 
with vigour in the 
following number of 
his "Review", and 
silenced the clam- 
ours against him, 
more than regain- 
ing the ground he 
had lost, so that 
he never c o m- 
manded more attention, or had a more promis- 
ing career open before him, than when, in 1844, he 
turned his back on honours and popularity to be- 
come a Catholic. At the end of 1842 the " Boston 
Quarterly Review" was merged in the "U. S. Demo- 
cratic Review", of New York, a monthly publication, 
to each number of which Brownson contributed, 
and in which he set forth the principles of "Synthetic 
Philosophy" and a series of essays. on the "Origin 
and Constitution of Government", which more than 
twenty years later he rewrote and published with 
the title of "The American Republic". The doc- 
trine of these essays provoked such repeated com- 
plaints from the editor of the "Democratic Review", 
that Brownson severed his connexion with that 
monthly and resumed the publication of his own 
review, changing the title from "Boston" to 
"Brownson's Quarterly Review". The first number 
was issued in January, 1844, and the last in October, 
1875. From January, 1S65, to October, 1872, he 
suspended its publication. 

The printed works of Brownson, other than con- 
tributions to his own and other journals, from the 
commencement of his preaching to the establishment 
of tliis review consisted of his sermons, orations, 
and other public addresses; his "New Views of 
Christianity, Society, and the Church" (Boston, 
l*v'.o), in which he objected to Protestantism that 
it is pure materialism, to Catholicism, that it is mere 
spiritualism, and exalts his "Church of the Future" 
as tin- synthesis of both; "Charles Elwood" (Boston, 
1840), in which the infidel hero becomes a convert to 
what the author rails Christianity and makes as little 
removed as possible from bald' deism; and "The 
Mediatorial Life of Jesus" (Boston, 1842), which is 
almost Catholic, and contains a doctrine of life which 
leads i" the door of the Catholic Church. Be soon 

alter applied to the Bishop of Boston for admission, 
anil in October, 1844, was received by the Coadjutor 
Bishop, John B. Fitzpatrick. 

I'h.' Catholic body in the United States was at 

that time largely composed of men anil women of 

the labouring cla . who had emigrated from a coun- 
try in which they ami their forefathers had suffered 
cent iiiies ,,f persecution for the Faith, and hail too 
long felt themselves a down-trodden people to be able 

to lift their countenances with the fearless indepen- 
dence of Americans; or. if they were better-to-do, 
feared to make their religion prominent and extended 
to those of other faiths the liberal treatment they 
hoped for in return. It was Brownson's first labour 
to change all this. He engaged at once in contro- 
versy with the organs of the various Protestant sects 
on one hand, and against liberalism, latitudinarian- 
ism, and political atheism of Catholics, on the other. 
The American people, prejudiced against Catholicity, 
and opposed to Catholics, were rendered more preju- 
diced and opposed by their tame and apologetic tone 
in setting forth and defending their Faith, and were 
delighted to find Catholics labouring to soften the 
severities and to throw off whatever appeared ex- 
clusive or rigorous in their doctrine. But Brown- 
son resolved to stand erect; let his tone be firm and 
manly, his voice clear and distinct, his speech strong 
and decided. So well did he carry out this resolu- 
tion, and so able and intrepid an advocate did he 
prove in defence of the Faith, that he merited a letter 
of approbation and encouragement from the Bishops 
of the United States assembled in Plenary Council at 
Baltimore, in May, 1S49, and from Pope Pius IX, in 
April, 1854. In October, 1855, Brownson changed 
his residence to New York, and his "Review" was 
ever after published there — although, after 1857, he 
made his home in Elizabeth, New Jersey, till 1S75, 
when he went to live in Detroit, where he died in the 
following April. A little over a year before moving 
to New York, he wrote, "The Spirit Rapper" (Bos- 
ton, 1854), a book in the form of a novel and a biogra- 
phy, showing the connexion of spiritism with modern 
philanthropy, visionary reforms, socialism, revolu- 
tionism; with the aim of recalling the age to faith in 
the Gospel. His next book, written in New York. 
was "The Convert; or, Leaves from my Experience'' 
(Xew York, 1857), tracing with fidelity his entire 
religious life down to his admission to the bosom of 
the Catholic Church. 

Brownson had not been many years in New York 
before the influence of those Catholics with whom 
he mainly associated was perceptible in the tone of 
his writings, in the milder and almost conciliatory 
attitude towards those not of the Faith, which led 
many of his old admirers to fear he was becoming 
a "liberal Catholic". At the same time, the Wai 
of the Rebellion having broken out, he was most 
earnest in denouncing Secession and urging its sup- 
pression, and as a means to this, the abolition of 
slavery. This alienated all his Southern and many of 
his Northern supporters. Domestic affliction was 
added by the death of his two sons in the summer of 
1864. In these circumstances, he felt unable to go 
on with his "Review", and in October of that year 
announced its discontinuance. But he did not sit idle. 
During the eight years that followed, he wrote "The 
American Republic; Its Constitution. Tendencies, 
and Destiny" (New York, 1865); leading articles in 
the New York "Tablet", continued till within a few 
months of his death; several series of articles in "The 
\\ e Maria"; generally one or two articles a month 
in "The Catholic World"; and, instructed by the 
"Syllabus of Errors" condemned by Pope Pius IX. 
' Conversations on Liberalism and the Church" 
(New York, 1869), a small book which shows that if. 
for a short period of his Catholic life, he parleyed with 
Liberalism, he hail too much horror of it to embrace 
it. In January, lsTo. "Brownson's Quarterly Re- 
view" appeared again and regularly thereafter till 
the end ot 1875 Hi- la-1 article was contributed to 

the "American Catholic Quarterly Review", for 

January, 1876. Brownson always disclaimed having 

originated any system of philosophy and acknowl- 
edged freely whatever he borrowed from Others; 
but he had worked out and arrived at substantially 
the philosophy of his later writings before he ever 



heard of Gioberti, from whom he obtained the formula 
ens treat existentias, which Gioberti expressed in the 
formula ens creat existens, to indicate the ideal or 
intelligible object of thought. By the analysis of 
thought he finds that it is composed of three insepar- 
able elements, subject, object, and their relation, 
simultaneously given. Analysis of the object shows 
that it is likewise composed of three elements simul- 
taneously given, the ideal, the empirical, and their 
relation. He distinguished the ideal intuition, in 
which the activity is in the object presenting or offer- 
ing itself, and empirical intuition or cognition, in 
which the subject as well as the object acts. Ideal 
intuition presents the object, reflection takes it as 
represented sensibly; that is, in case of the ideal, as 
represented in language. Identifying ideas with 
the categories of the philosophers, he reduced them 
to these three: Being, Existences, and their Relations. 
The necessary is Being; the contingent, Existences; 
and their relation, the creative act of Being. Being 
is God, personal because He has intelligence and will. 
From Him, as First Cause, proceed the physical laws; 
and as Final Cause, the moral law, commanding to 
worship Him, naturally or supernaturally, in the 
way and manner He prescribes. 

Orkstks A. Brownsox, The Convert (New Y'-rk. 1857); 
Henry F. Bhowxso.v, Broitnson's Earhi. Middle, anil l.oWr 
l.ije i Detroit. 1898-1900); Idem, ed„ Broumam't Works (De- 
troit, 1883-87). 

Sarah M., daughter of Orestes A. Brownson, 
b. at Chelsea. Massachusetts, 7 June, 1839; married 
William J. Tenney, of Elizabeth, New Jersey, 
26 November, 1873; died at Elizabeth, 30 October, 
1876. She wrote some literary criticisms for her 
father's "Review", and many articles, stories, 
and poems which appeared mainly in Catholic 
magazines. Her other works were: "Marian El- 
wood, or How Girls Live" (New York, 1863); 
"At Anchor; a story of the American Civil War" 
(New York, 1865); " Heremore Brandon; or the 
Fortunes of a Newsboy" (in "The Catholic World", 
I860); and "Life of Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, 
Prince and Priest" (New York, 1873). Her novels 
arc interesting, genuine, and original, and all that, 
she published is stamped with her distinguishing 
traits of character, and shows that she thought for 
herself, expressed herself freely, with good sense 
and judgment, without undue bitterness, and with 
great benevolence towards the poor; and she scatters 
over her pages many excellent reflections. The 
life of Gallitzin is her principal production, for which 
she spared no pains to collect such materials as 
remained. She more than once visited the scenes 
of the missionary's labours, and formed the ac- 
quaintance of priests and others who had known 
him, collecting such facts and anecdotes of him as 
they remembered. It is a sincere and conscientious 
tribute to the rare virtues and worth of an extraor- 
dinary man, devoted priest, and humble missionary. 
Henry F. Brownson. 

Brownsville, Vicariate Apostolic op, erected 
1X71. Previous to this date the entire State of 
Texas was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of 
Galveston. It was then divided into two dioceses: 
Galveston, comprising all that part of the State 
north and north-west of the Colorado River; San 
Antonio, comprising all the territory south of the 
Colorado River and north of the Nueces River, with 
tin' exception of Bee, San Patricio, Refugio, Goliad, 
and Aransas Counties and the Vicariate Apostolic 

of Brownsville comprising Cameron, SidalgO, Starr, 

Zapata, and Webb Counties, bordering on the Rio 

Grande; Encinal, Duval, and Nueces, situated north 
of the-.- counties; the part of La Salle, McMullen, 
and Live Oak, south of the Nueces River, and finally 
San Patricio, Bee, Refugio, Goliad, and Aransas 

Counties, north of the Nueces River, a territory com- 
prising 22,391 square miles. 

Its principal cities and towns are Laredo (Texas 
side), with 12,000 inhabitants; Brownsville, near the 
mouth of the Rio Grande, with S,000; Corpus Christi, 
on the Corpus Christi Bay, with 7,000; San Diego, in 
Duval County, with 2,000; Alice, in Nueces County, 
with 1,000; Rockport, on Aransas Bay, with 1,000; 
Goliad and Refugio with about the same population; 
Beeville, in Bee Count}', with 2,000. There are other 
towns with less population, Skidmore in Bee County, 
Kingsville in Nueces County, Falfurrias, Benavides, 
Realitos, Hebbronville, Edinburgh, Hidalgo, Carrizo 
(or Zapata), Minas, Rio Grande City, each with a 
population of 1,500. The Catholic population is 
estimated at. 79,000, mostly Mexicans; there are 
about 3,000 English-speaking Catholics. The total 
population is about 110,000. 

This southern part of Texas was inhabited by 
Indians less than sixty years ago. Corpus Christi 
had for its first settler Capt. Kenny, who had a store 
several times visited by hostile Indians. Browns- 
ville owes its beginning to Major Brown, who came 
there at the time of the Mexican War. The church 
there was begun in 1852. San Patricio and Refugio 
were settled by Irish colonists under the Mexican 
Government. La Bahia is the most ancient settle- 
ment; it was built by the Spaniards to oppose the 
encroachments of the French under La Salle. After 
La Bahia the oldest place is Laredo, built at the end 
of the eighteenth century. In 1866 there was not a 
fence nor a railroad to be seen from San Antonio to 
Brownsville; now the whole country is fenced in, 
and there are six railroad lines in operation. 

The Oblate Fathers, whose missions extend from 
San Ignacio to the mouth of the Rio Grande, located 
in Texas in 1852, their first superior being Father 
Verdet. Within a week he was drowned in the 
Gulf on his way from Brownsville to New ( rrleans. 
The mission of Rio Grande City was begun in 1872, 
the "lie at Roma in 1864, the San Diego mission in 
1866. Laredo was in charge of Mexican priests 
until Father Girandon came in 1855. San Patricio 
was under the care of Irish priests. Father O'Reilly 
built in 1856 the first Catholic church of Corpus 
Christi. Brownsville, Laredo, Corpus Christi, Re- 
fugio, and Beeville have large and well decorated 
churches. There are twelve churches with resident 
pastors: Brownsville, Rio Grande City, Roma, 
Laredo, San Diego, Corpus Christi, Rockport, Goliad, 
Refugio, Beeville, and San Patricio. There are also 
forty chapels where regular monthly services are 
held. The vicariate has two hospitals, one in Laredo, 
under the care of the Sisters of Mercy, and a new one 
in Corpus Christi, under the care of the Sisters of 
the Incarnate Word, of San Antonio. 

There are four academies, namely, Brownsville, 
Corpus Christi, Laredo, and Rio Grande City, with 
about 60 boarders in all, and about 200 scholars. 
Besides, there are nine parochial schools, with about 
500 pupils, under the care of 52 teaching sisters, 
assisted by 20 lay sisters. There are, in addition to 

these, 12 hospital sisters, and 6 engaged in teaching 
non-Catholic public schools. There is but one college 
(in Brownsville, under the care of the ( )blate Fathers), 
with about 100 pupils. 

The Reverend Dominic Manucy. then rector of 
St. Peter's church. Montgomery, Alabama, was ap- 
pointed first Vicar Apostolic of Brownsville, and 
consecrated Titular Rishop of Dulma, 8 December, 
1878. He was born 20 December, 1823, and ordained 
priest, at Mobile, 15 August, 1850. He took po 

sion at Brownsville, 11 February, 1.N75 and remained 

there until he was transferred to the Diocese of Mobile 
upon the death of Bishop Quintan, 9 March, 1883. 
He resigned tin See of Mobile the following year 
and was reappointed to Brownsville, with the Titular 



See of Maronia. He died at Mobile, 4 December, 
1885. Bishop Neraz of San Antonio, Texas, was then 
appointed administrator of Brownsville, and directed 
its affairs until 1890, when the Rev. Pedro Verdaguer, 
pastor of the church of Our Lady of Angels, Los 
Angeles, California, was appointed to Brownsville by 
a Brief, dated 3 July. He was consecrated 9 Novem- 
ber, 1890, at Barcelona, Spain, Titular Bishop of 
Aulon, and was installed at Brownsville, 21 May, 
1891. He was born 10 December, 1835, at San 
Pedro de Torello, Cataluna, Spain, and ordained 
priest, 12 December, 1862, at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, U. S. A. 

Shea, Hist. Cath. Ch. in V. S. (New York, 1904); Reuss, 
Biaq. Cycl. of the Cath. Hierarchy (Milwaukee, 1898); The 
Catholic Directory (1907). 

C. Jaillet. 

Bruchesi, Paul.. See Montreal, Archdiocese 

Brack, Heinrich, ecclesiastical historian and 
bishop, b. at Bingen, 25 October, 1831; d. 4 Novem- 
ber, 1903. He followed for some time the cooper's 
trade. After a course of studies under the direction 
of a distinguished ecclesiastic, Dr. Joseph Hirschel, 
he entered the seminary at Mainz. He was or- 
dained to the priesthood in 1855, exercised for some 
time the sacred ministry, made a postgraduate 
course at Munich under Dollinger, and at Rome, and 
in 1857 was appointed to the chair of ecclesiastical 
history in the seminary of Mainz. He continued to 
teach until his elevation to the episcopate, with the 
exception of the years from 1878 to 1887, when the 
seminary was closed by order of the Government. 
In 1S89 he became a canon of the cathedral; he re- 
ceived also several positions of trust in the adminis- 
tration of the diocese. In 1899 he was chosen Bishop 
of Mainz; as such he directed the diocese with zeal 
and intelligence. The merit of Bruck consists chiefly 
in his literary activity. Perhaps his best known 
work is his manual of church history, "Lehrbuch der 
Kirchengeschichte" (Mainz, 1874; 8th ed., 1902). It 
has been translated into English, French, and Italian, 
all of which translations passed through second edi- 
tions before 1899, an evidence that its excellent 
qualities were widely appreciated. The author shows 
himself possessed of extensive knowledge not only in 
history, but also in theology and canon law. A more 
special work is his "Geschichte der katholischen 
Kirche in Deutschland im neunzehnten Jahrhundert" 
— " History of the Catholic Church in Germany in the 
Nineteenth Century", in five volumes (1887-1905). 
It contains a rich store of information, arranged with 
thoroughness and sound critical judgment, and was 
received with universal approval by Catholic scholars. 
He was also the author of an account of rationalistic 
movements in Catholic Germany (1865), a life of 
Dean Lennig (1870), and a work on secret societies 
in Spain (1881). 

ScHAEFER, Dr. Heinrirh Bruck, Bisehof von Mainz in Der 
hollmlil, i I IivpimUt, HUM; in pamphlet form, Mainz, 1904); Dr. 
lh nn i'h /;./,,/,, /t' rim Mainz in Dintseher HavsBchatz 
(1904), XXX; Dr. Hnnrich Bruck, Bischoj ran Maim, ein nkblatt (Mainz, 1903). 

Francis J. Schaefer. 
Brael (Brtjuus), Joachim, theologian and his- 
torian, b. early in tin- seventeenth century at Yorst, 
a village of the province of Brabant, Belgium; d. 
29 June, 1653. After entering the order of the 
Augustinians he was sent to Bourses, France, to 

finish his studies in philosophy and theology. At 

Bourses he received the degree of Master in Sacred 
Theology. In 1038 he was chosen prior of the con- 
vent of his order at Cologne. Twice afterwards 
(1610 and 16 19) he filled the oilier of prior provincial. 
lh is of special interest to the student of Peruvian 

and Chinese missions. 

Among his published works are: (1) "Historian 
Peruana- Ordinis Eremitarum S. P. Augustini: Libri 

octodecim". This work follows the Spanish "Cro- 
nica moralizada del Orden de San Augustfn en el 
Peru", published by Fra Antonio de la Calancha, 
Barcelona, 163S; continued by Fra Diego de Cordova, 
and printed at Lima, 1653. Bruel's Latin version 
was printed at Antwerp, 1651. (2) He made also 
a Latin translation of Mendoza's monumental his- 
tory of China, "Rerum Morumque in Regno Chi- 
nensi'' etc. 

Francis E. Touhscher. 

Brueys, David-Augustin de, a French theo- 
logian and dramatic author, b. at Aix in 1640; d. 
25 November, 1723, at Montpellier. His family 
was Protestant, and he was brought up a Calvinist. 
After devoting some time to the study of law, he 
applied himself to theology with so much success 
that he was made a member of the consistory of 
Montpellier. In 1681, he published an answer 
to Bossuet's "Exposition of Catholic Doctrine", 
entitled "Response au livre de M. de Condom in- 
titule' Exposition de la doctrine catholique" (Ge- 
neva, 1681). He was soon, however, converted 
by Bossuet himself, abjured Protestantism in 16S2, 
and, after his wife's death, became a priest. Be- 
fore his conversion he wrote, besides the "Response", 
the "Suite du Preservatif (de Jurieu) contre le 
changement de religion" (1682). 

His principal works, written after his conversion, 
are: "Examen des raisons qui ont donned lieu a la 
separation des protestants" (Paris, 1683), in which 
he explains the reasons of his conversion; "Trait<5 
de la sainte messe" (Paris, 1683); "DeTense du 
culte exteVieur de PEglise catholique" (Paris, 
1686); "Response aux plaintes des protestants contre 
les moyens que Ton emploie en France pour les 
reunir a l'Eglise" (Paris, 1686); "Traits de 1'Eglise" 
(Paris, 1686); "Trade de l'Eucharistie" (Paris, 
16S6); "Histoire du fanaticisme de notre temps" 
(I, 1692; II, 1709; III and IV, 1713); "Traite" de 
l'obeassance des chi6tiens aux puissances tem- 
porelles" (Paris, 1710); "Traits du legitime usage 
de la raison prineipalement sur les objets de la 
foi" (Paris, 1717). 

In collaboration with Palaprat, Brueys also wrote 
several comic plays and a few tragedies, most of 
which were produced with great success. They 
were published in two volumes in 1712, under the 
title of "CEuvres dramatiques". A new edition of 
three volumes appeared in 1735, with the author's 
life by De Launay; again in 1755 (5 vols.), under 
the title of "GSuvres de Brueys et Palaprat"; and 
finally in 1812 (2 vols.) as "CEuvres choisies". 

De Launay. Life of Brneys in the first volume of his dramatic 
works (ed. 17.35); Haag, La From;: protestants (Paris, 184(1-59), 
III. 41-44; Rass, Die Conrrrtiten stit der Information (Frei- 
burg, 1S06-S0), VIII, 232-240. 


Brugere, Louis-Frederic, professor of apologet- 
ics ami church history, b. at Orleans, S October, 
1823; d. at Issy, 11 April, 18S8. He studied with the 
Christian Brothers at St. Euverte, and at the Petit 
Seminaire of Orleans. His poem of 300 lines de- 
scribing an inundation of (he Rhone and composed 
in 1841, was printed and sold for the benefit of the 
flood victims af Lyons. He entered the Grand Semi- 
naire of Orleans in 1841, and the Paris seminary 
in 1845, where he received flic degrees of Bachelor, 

Licentiate, and Doctor. From 1846 to 1861, with 
the exception of two years spent as assistant in the 
parish of St. Aignan, Brugere taught the classics 

and philosophy in the Orleans diocesan college of 

I.a Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin. In 1862 he entered the 

society of Saint-Sulpiee and was appointed professor 
ci apologetics in the seminary at Paris "here, in 
1868, he occupied I hi' chair of church history in 
addition lo his other labours. 

Brugere's teaching was characterized by rare tact 



ami discernment. It was his settled conviction that, 
in order to assist in the establishment of communica- 
tion between the naturally darkened mind and the 
radiance of revealed truth, the Christian apologist 
must consider the individual mental attitude of those 
whom he would direct. Thus he was a strong ad- 
vocate of the methodvx ascendens ab intrinseco, which 
was introduced towards the end oi the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and which holds that the apologist should first 
arouse interest by setting forth the needy condition 
of the human soul, with its problems unsolved and 
its cravings unsatisfied; then gradually suggest the 
unchanging organization which offers satisfaction 
and peace. Curiosity and interest thus intensified, 
and the admirable adjustment of Christianity to 
the needs of the soul once recognized, fairminded- 
ness urging further research, the honest inquirer will 
learn how moral certitude, though differing from 
metaphysical and physical certitude, is neverthe- 
less true certitude, excluding all reasonable fear of 
error, and is not to be confounded with probability, 
however great. Thus, only when prepared to recog- 
nize in the genuine miracle the credentials of the 
Divinity, may this inquirer be conducted back 
through history, from fulfilment to prediction, in 
the hope of discovering, by well authenticated mira- 
cles, that the Almighty has stamped as His own 
the Christianity preserved, defended, and explained 
by His one true ( Ihurch. 

Such, in brief outline, is the method advocated in 
" I)e Vera Religione" and " De Feclesia", two 
treatises which Brugere published in 1873, and 
which, from their adaptability to the needs of the 
day, merited the approval of competent judges. 
In addition to these treatises, Brugere published 
"Tableau de l'histoire et de la Ifl t era tun- de 1'Eglise". 
Hut it is chiefly as a professor that Brugere is re- 
membered, (lifted with a remarkable memory, 
his mind was a storehouse of exact information which 
he freely imparted, embellishing it with anecdote 
and illustration, so that students gladly sought him 
out for pleasure and profit. 

Bertrand, BM. Suipit., II. 459, 461, 600; Hubert, Ann. 
relig. du dioe. d'OrUans (1888), Juno. July, Aucust; leuin. 
firrulain- (tsssi; Bulletin dee ancient ilkva ./■ St. Sulpice 
(19041; Pacaud, L'QSuvre d'apol. dc M. Brugere; Revue prahcpie 
d'apol. (1906). 

Daniel P. Duffy. 

Bruges, the chief town of tin' Province of 
West 1 landers in the Kingdom of Belgium. Pope 
Nicholas I in 863 effected a reconciliation between 
Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks, and his 
vassal Baldwin " Bras-de-Fcr"; by it the latter's ab- 
duction of his daughter Judith was forgiven and the 
union legalized. The Prankish king further invested 
his Bon-in-law with sovereign power over the north- 
ern marches enclosed by the North Sea, the Scheldt, 

and the RiverCanche, later known as Royal Flanders, 

of which he thus became the first count. On the 
ruins of an old burg, said to have dated from :i<iti. 
Baldwin built himself a new stronghold, with a. 
chapel for the relics of St. Donatian. the gift of 
1.1. bo. Archbishop of Reims, the metropolitan see 
at that time of most of the Belgian dioceses, and by 
his valour and untiring energy speedily checked the 

inroads of the ravaging Northmen. The security he 
was thus able to afford his subjects caused merchants 
and artisans to gather round the new settlement, 
which rapidly grew in size and in wealth. Such was 
the origin of Bruges. But it was under the rule of 
the third count. Arnulph the Great (918-989), that 
the Church attained the full measure of its vitality 
in Flanders. This prince not only founded and richly 
•rnlowed the famed Chapter of St. Donatian, but lie 

established collegiate churches in the neighbouring 
towns of Aardenburg and Thorholt, and built or re- 
stored eighteen great monasteries, besides a number 
of minor foundations; and such was his prestige that 

it was to him St. Dunstan turned for shelter in the 
hour of danger, much as St. Thomas of Canterbury 
at a later epoch (1164) besought the protection of his 
successor, Thierry of Alsace, against the wrath of 
Henry II. Under the fostering care of the monastery 
learning and the arts speedily revived, while com- 
merce and agriculture made equally rapid strides 
under the patronage of the court. The great charter 
of liberties conferred by Baldwin IV (988-1036) pro- 
vided a new incentive to business, which increased 
by leaps and bounds, and the town so outgrew its 
boundaries that his successor was compelled in 1039 
to rebuild and extend its walls. The epoch of the 
Crusades (1096-1270) contributed in no small meas- 
ure to the fame and prosperity of Bruges. Count 
Robert II from the first of these great undertakings 
brought back from Ca>sarea in Cappadocia the relics 
of St. Basil; Thierry of Alsace returned from the 
second with the relic of the Holy Blood presented 
to him by his cousin Baldwin, King of Jerusalem, as 
the reward of his great services; while Baldwin IX, 
who took part in the fourth, was raised to the im- 
perial throne on the founding of the Latin Empire 
after the fall of Constantinople, 9 April, 1204. From 
7 April, 1150, the day on which Thierry of Alsace 
returned to his capital with the precious relic, it has 
played no small part in the religious life of the city. 
The solemn Procession of the Holy Blood, insti- 
tuted in 1303 to commemorate the deliverance of 
the city, by the national heroes Brcidel and De 
Coninck, from French tyranny in May of the previous 
year and which takes place annually on the. Monday 
following the first Sunday in May, is to this day one of 
the great religious celebrations in Belgium, to which 
thousands congregate from all parts. By the close 
of the thirteenth century Bruges had attained the 
height of its prosperity: it boasted a population of 
150,000, a seaport with 60,000 inhabitants at Damme 
at the end of the Zwijn, three miles away, an im- 
portant harbour at Sluus at the mouth of the Zwijn, 
seven miles further, besides several subordinate town- 
ships, and was one of the three wealthiest cities of 
Northern Europe. In 1296 the staple of wool was 
fixed at Bruges, in 1300 it became a member of the 
Hanseatic League, and by 1356 it was the chief 
emporium of the cities of the League. 

With the removal of Baldwin IX the long line of 
purely Flemish counts came to an end, and Flanders 
passed under French domination. This period of 
foreign rule, which lasted the best part of a century, 
was a time of almost continual warfare between the 
suzerain power and the vassal people, complicated 
by internecine strife with the rival town of Ghent; 
and though humiliating disasters alternated with 
glorious victories, this the heroic epoch of Flemish 
history closed without the commercial prosperity of 
Bruges having suffered any very serious check. With 
the advent of the House of Burgundy in 1384, Flan- 
ders unhappily became involved in the religious 
troubles which were then agitating Europe. The new 
prince, Philip " le Hardi" (1384 I 101), who favoured 
the pretensions of the antipope, soon proceeded from 
aimless sympathy to open proselytism, but the edict 
by which he forbade obedience to the Pope of Rome 
was utterly disregarded by his turbulent subjects, 
the clergy, almost to a man, and the great mass of t he 
people acknowledging Urban VI. The ( 'lenient me 
Bishop of Tournai, whose spiritual administration 
embraced Bruges, came hither to ordain schismatic 
priests, but the people refused their ministrations, 
and a period of persecution followed during which 
public worship was entirely suspended. {Jhenl, 
however, had purchased the right to liberty of con- 
science, and so in 1394 the strange spectacle w.e 
witnessed of B whole town's population on pilgrimage 
from Bruges to Ghent to fulfil their Faster duties. 
Philip's successors, John the Fearless (1404-19) and 




Philip "l'Asseurt;" (1419-67), pursued this policy of 
subjugation, until in 1440, the year of "the Great 
Humiliation", the burghers of Bruges were com- 
pletely at the mercy of their prince. The next 
quarter of a century was a period of pomp and 
pageantry, a feverish succession of gorgeous tourna- 
ments, public banquets, and triumphal entries, and a 
display of opulence out of all proportion to the true 
productive forces of the commonwealth. Like a 
true Duke of Burgundy Philip revelled in the splen- 
dour of his court. It was he who on 10 January, 1429, 
founded at Bruges the Order of the Golden Fleece. 
Munificent in all things, he gathered about him all 
the great luminaries of his day. It is also on record 
that within the twenty-four hours of one day about 
1450, no less than one hundred and fifty foreign ves- 
sels entered the basin and canals of Bruges under the 
auspices of the resident consuls of seventeen king- 
doms, several of whom were established there in 
sumptuous palaces. Industry at the time boasted 
no less than fifty-four incorporated associations or 
guilds, fifty thousand of whose members found con- 
stant employment within the city's walls. The days 
of Charles the Bold (1467-77) saw the culmination of 
all this splendour. And then suddenly the blow fell. 
The great haven of the Zwijn was found to be fast 
silting up; before the close of the century no vessel 
of any considerable draught could enter the port of 
Damme, and by the middle of the sixteenth century 
Bruges was entirely cut off from the sea. 

By the marriage of the daughter of Charles the 
Bold to Archduke Maximilian Flanders passed under 
the rule of the House of Austria (1477), and from 
14S5 the decay of the old Flemish city steadily set in. 
A period of continual disturbances, ruthlessly re- 
pressed by a government destitute of stability, pro- 
duced a feeling of uneasiness in the commercial world. 
Antwerp at the time was already proving a dangerous 
rival, and gradually the merchant princes, enticed 
by the greater security offered and the many ad- 
vantages held out to them, removed to the city of 
the Scheldt. The religious disturbances of the last 
quarter of the sixteenth century hastened the exodus, 
even to the removal of the last of the foreign consuls. 
The severities of the Emperor Charles V (1519-56) and 
the harsher rule of Philip II (1556-98) and the Duke 
of Alva led to the capture of Bruges by the Calvinists 
in March, 1578, when for six years Catholic worship 
was entirely proscribed. The clergy were exiled or 
murdered, the churches pillaged and desecrated, 
some even levelled to the ground; and when peace 
returned in 1584 the population scarcely numbered 
30,000. A period of utter misery followed, in which 
was developed among the wealthy, under the guidance 
of the Church — Bruges had been created an episcopal 
see in 1558 — that great spirit of charity which led to 
I he founding of innumerable Godshuizen (God's 
houses) which exist to this day for the relief of an 
impoverished community. Flanders then became the 
cockpit of Europe: there was the unsuccessful bom- 
bardment of Bruges by the Dutch in 1704, the sur- 
render to the Allies in 1706, its surprise-capture by 
the French in 170X. its capture by Marlborough in 
1712, its surrender to the French again in 1745. and 
eventually its return to the rule of Austria in 1748; 
in 1792 the French again took it. were expelled, and 
retook it in 1794, when it became the chief town of 
the department of the Lys; by the Treaty of Vienna 

(1815) it was incorporated in the new Kingdom "i 

|he Nelherlanils, eventually, as a result of the Revo- 
lution of 1830, becoming the chief town of the Prov- 
ince of West Flanders in the then constituted King- 
dom of Belgium. In 1*77 the idea of recreating the 

port of Bruges by tin- const met ion of a large niaril inie 
canal with an outer harbour abreast of lleyst was 
first mooted, thus reviving an old scheme of the 
painter aud engineer Lancelot Blondeel (1496-1561), 

discovered in the local archives. Eventually the 
project, despite the determined opposition of Ant- 
werp, received the sanction of the legislature on 
11 September, 1895, the cost of the undertaking 
being fixed at 38,969,075 francs. Seven years was 
the limit allowed for the completion of the work, but 
it was not until 29 May, 1905, that the informal 
opening of the canal to navigation took place, the 
official inauguration being celebrated in July of 1907. 
The result has been a large increase in population 
(which stood at 56,587 in 1906), the establishment of 
considerable industries, and a corresponding de- 
crease in the chronic poverty of the city; so that it is 
not surprising if its good folk are already indulging 
dreams of a revival of its medieval grandeur and 

It were difficult to exaggerate the importance at- 
taching to Bruges from the point of view of art. 
Singularly ill-favoured as West Flanders was in re- 
spect of building material, the only local stone avail- 
able (veld stecn) being of a description little adapted 
to weather the centuries, Bruges presents no exam- 
ples of stone architecture of the early period; and 
later, when suitable stone came to be imported from 
Tournai and from France, the master masons em- 
ployed in its use and treatment were likewise of 
foreign origin. In respect of civic and domestic 
brick architecture, however, Bruges stands un- 
rivalled, both for number and variety of design. 
Her school of sculpture was early held in high esteem, 
eliciting a large foreign demand for stalls and other 
descriptions of church and domestic furniture in oak, 
and the revival of the art during the past half-century 
has been attended with marked success. In equally 
high esteem stood her wrought-iron work, and in 
even greater her engraved monumental brasses, which, 
prior to the Calvinist outbreak in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, were exceedingly numerous throughout Flan- 
ders, and examples of which are of frequent occurrence 
in England, Germany, Scandinavia, and Spain, from 
which countries there was a constant influx of orders. 
In the department of embroidery and lace work 
Bruges likewise enjoyed a high reputation, especially 
in respect of ecclesiastical vestments, in the produc- 
tion of which, as of lace, a large number of hands are 
employed to this day. But above all, Bruges, since 
the second quarter of the fifteenth century, has been 
celebrated for her paintings. Owing to the greater 
peace and security enjoyed within her walls many 
master painters from the valley of the Maas. from 
Holland, and from Brabant were attracted thither at 
that period. These, however, had all learned their art 
elsewhere. John van Eyck, who worked there from 
1431 to 1441, exercised a considerable influence, and 
the scheme of his altar-piece in the Town Museum 
was imitated by the Brabanter Peter Christ us, the 
Rhenish Hans Mcmline, and the Hollander Gerard 
David. The Town Museum anil the Hospital of St. 
John are treasure houses of paintings from the brush 
of these great artists. Gerard David was the fust to 
form a school, whose traditions were carried on until 
the seventeenth century; anil he with his pupils ami 

followers produced an immense number of paintings, 
scattered all over Europe, Inter on Feter I'ourbus 
of Gouda ami the ( ilaeissens adhered to the old tradi- 
tions, which held the field in Bruges longer than any- 
where else. In the matter of illuminated books ami 
miniatures it also enjoyed considerable celebrity, and 
examples of both are to be found in almost every 

library of importance. 

In 1558 I'ope Paul IV, at the request of Philip II. 

raised Bruges to a separate bishopric. The diocese 

at the present day comprises the entire province of 

West Flanders, an area ol 1,249 square miles with 

828,152 inhabitants, almost exclusively Catholics. 

Twenty-! wo bishops have so far administered I he see 

For the purposes of administration the diocese is 



divided into the archpresbytery of Bruges and 14 
rural deaneries, the former being subdivided into 
8 parishes ministered to by 151 priests, and the latter 
into 286 parishes served by 642 priests. The cathe- 
dral chapter consists of 10 titular and 19 honorary 
canons, with 6 chaplains. The diocesan seminary at 
Bruges has more than a hundred students, advanced 
from the preparatory seminary at Holders. For the 
purposes of general education there is an episcopal 
college at Bruges and eight similar colleges at the 
larger centres of the diocese in which all the humani- 
ties are taught, 1 "'sides four others at minor centres 
where the studies are not so advanced; for technical 
education there is a normal school at Bruges and 
four in other parts of the diocese, all these institu- 
tions being almost entirely taught by ecclesiastics. 
Most <>f the religious orders, both male and female. 
have houses in the diocese, besides hospitals and 
asylums fur the aged and the poor. 

Bruges returns J members to the Senate and 4 
members to tli.' House of Representatives while 
other portions of the Province elect a total of 7 
senators and 16 representatives, the Provincial 
Council further electing 3 senators. Under the law 
of proportional representation, which first came into 
operation in 1900, Bruges returns 1 Catholic and 1 
Liberal to the Senate, ami ;; Catholics and 1 Liberal 
to the House of Representatives; other portions of 
the Province return 5 Catholics and 2 Liberals to the 
Senate, and 12 Catholics, 3 Liberals, and 1 Socialist 
to the House of Representatives; the 3 members re- 
turned to the Senate by the Provincial Council belong 
to the Catholic party; the result is that West Flanders 
(otherwise the Diocese of Bruges') is represented in 
the Senate by 9 < 'at holies and :i Liberals (in addition 
Count of Flanders, who is a member by virtue 
of his title), and in the House of Representatives by 
15 Catholics, I Liberals, and 1 Socialist. The govern- 
ment of the province is entirely in the hands of the 
Catholics, the governor and the great majority of 
the Provincial Council belonging to that party. As 
much may be said of the local administration of 
Bruges, the Communal Council (which consists of 
the burgomaster, 5 aldermen, and 24 councillors) 
with the exception of 6 councillors (five of whom are 
Liberals and one a Christian Democrat) being in the 
hands of the I 'atholic party. 

Miiun., Rerun Belgicarum Annates (Brussels, 1625); 
Gilliodts, lnvenlaire des Archives de la vwe de Bruues, avec 
Production: tables and glossary by Emv. Gailliard 
(Bruges. 1878-85); Gilliat-Smii u. Tht Story of Bruges (Lon- 
don, 1901 : Robinson, Bruges: tin ,s/./,/, (Bruges, 
1890 : Verschelde, De KathedraU van Sint Saivator te Brugge: 
Gewnedkundigt Beschryving Bruges, L863); Les anciennes 
* ['.rimes. IS7.") 1 ; \V. II .twos Weale, Huns 
< -. 1901); Gerard 
David, P ninator il.Hii.inn 1 s<r, . \,,-, Boden- 

hausen i Munich, 1905); Fran- 

. i- ('. WEALE, Hubert and John van Eye* I London, 1903). 
J. Cyril M. We.vle. 

Brugiere, Pierre, a French priest, Jansenist, and 
Juror, b. at Thiers, 3 Oct., 1730: d. at Paris. 7 Nov.. 
1 so.;. He was chaplain of the Ursulines and canon in 
his native place when his refusal to siim the formula of 
the acceptation of the Bull " Unigenitus" forced him 
to leave. He wenl to Paris where for twelve years 
he remained with the community of Si. Koch. A 
strongly Jansenistic hook which lie wrote, "Instruc- 
tions catholiques stir la devotion au Sacre-Coeur" 
(Paris. 1777). brought this connexion to an end. 
When the Revolution broke out lie welcomed it with 

enthusiasm. He rushed headlong into the fray with 
two hooks calling loudly for reform: "Doleances des 
eglisiers" and " Relation sommaire el veritable de <-f 
qui s'est passe dans I' Assembled du clergei" (1789). 
Brugiere no! only took the Constitutional Oath on 
the daj fixed, 9 Jan., 1791, but be l> cami it were. 
the In-. I of the Constitutional Church. 

Elected cure of St. Paul's he defended the civil con- 

stitution of the clergy against episcopal and papal 
censures in his "Discours patriotique au sujet des 
brefs du pape" and " La lanternc sourde " (aimed at 
Bonal, Bishop of Clermont). It is to his credit, 
however, that he energetically condemned the mar- 
riage of priests which the Constitution was doing its 
utmost to encourage. Against this practice he 
wrote his "Reflexions d'un cure", and "Lettre d'un 
cure ' (1791), and together with several other con- 
stitutionals he denounced its advocates without 
mercy in " Le nouveau disciple de Luther" (1792). 
This brochure was aimed at Aubert, a married priest 
appointed by Gobel cure of St. Augustin. Brugiere's 
fearless preaching placed him in the hands of the 
Revolutionary tribunal, and it was while he was 
imprisoned that he wrote to his followers the " Lettre 
dun cure du fond de sa prison a ses paroissiens" 
(179.3). Set. at liberty, he continued his pastoral 
ministrations in spite of the charge of treasonable 
conduct, a dangerous thing in those days. But his 
ministrations were of a novel kind. Mass was said 
and the sacraments were administered by him in 
French, and in support of that singularity an appeal 
>\as made to the people, "Appel au peuple francais" 

Brugiere had rebuked the bishops who condemned 
the oath. He had likewise rebuked the priests who 
married. Now he was no less violent against the 
Jurors who began to retract. He attended the two 
councils of 17117 and 1S01 which were trying hard 
to sustain the ebbing life of the Constitutional Church, 
and he founded a society for its protection: "Societe 
de philosophic chretienne". liven after the promul- 
gation of the Concordat of 1S01 he clung to the then 
dead Constitutional Church. Besides the works 
already mentioned, Brugiere wrote a number of 
pamphlets' and left many sermons which were pub- 
lished after his death: " Instructions choisies" (Paris, 
1804). Two contemporaries, the Abbe Massy and 
the i Ihristian Brother Renaud, wrote his life under the 
title: " Memoire apologetique de Pierre Brugiere" 
(Paris, 1804). 

Feller in Biographic iiniverselle (Paris, 18C6); Constantin 
in Diet, de thiol, cath. 


Brugman, John, a rcnow T ned Franciscan preacher 
of the fifteenth century, b. at Kempen in the Diocese 
of Cologne, towards the end of the preceding century; 
d. at Nimwegen, Netherlands, 19 Sept., 1473. He 
became lector of theology, vicar-provincial, and one 
of the founders of the Cologne Province of the Friars 
of the Minor Observance. For twenty years his 
name was celebrated as the most illustrious preacher 
of the Low Countries. Being the friend of Denis 
the Carthusian, it was due to his suggestion that the 
latter wrote his work: " I >. regulis vita? 

Christiana;", dedicating it to Father Brugman. He 
also espoused the cause of the Brothers of the Com- 
mon Life, which congregation, successfully devoted to 
the interests of education, had been established by two 
priests, Gerhard Groote and Florentius Radewiyns. 
He addressed them in the two letters which are 
still extant to strengthen them in the persecution 
to which they were subjected. He died in the odour 
of sanctity and is commemorated in the " Martyrolo- 
gium Minorit ico-Belgicum " on the 19th of September. 
I ather Brugman wrote two Uvea of St. Lidwina, the 
lirst of which, printed at Cologne in 1433, was re- 
printed anonymously at Louvain in 1448, and 
later epitomized by Thomas a Kempis at Cologne. 

The second life appeared at Schiedam in 1498; 

both have been embodied by the Bollandists in the 

Acta SS., '_' April. He also wrote a devout " Life of 
Jesus". Fiit her Brugman ranked among the best 
poets of his day. Two of his poems "0 Kwich is so 
lane!'' and I he Zielejacht" are included by Hoff- 
mann von Fallersleben in his " Horu; Belgicie " (II, 




36-41). His life was written by Dr. Mohl under the 
title "Joannes Brugman en het Godsdienstegen 
Leven Onzer Vaderen in de Vijftiende eeuw", and 
published at Amsterdam in 1S54. It consists of two 
volumes, the second containing Bruginan's unedited 
works. Andrew 

Brugnato, Diocese of. See Luni-Sarzaxa and 

Brumidi, Constantino, an Halo- American his- 
torical painter, celebrated for his fresco work in 
the Capitol at Washington, b. at Rome, 1805; d. at 
Washington, 19 February, 1880. His father was a 
native of Greece and his mother a Roman. He 

Fresco in Dome of the Capitol, Washington 

showed his talent for fresco painting at an early age 
and painted in several Roman palaces, among them 
being that of Prince Torlonia. Under Gregory XVI 
he worked for three years in the Vatican. The 
occupation of Rome by the French in 1849 apparently 
decided Brumidi to emigrate, and he sailed for the 
United States, where he became naturalized in 
1852. Taking up his residence in New York City, 
the artist painted a number of portraits. Sub- 
sequently he undertook more important works, 
the principal being a fresco of the Crucifixion in 
St. Stephen's Church, for which he also executed 
a ".Martyrdom of St. Stephen" and an "Assump- 
tion of the Virgin". In 1854 Brumidi went to the 
city of Mexico, where he painted in the cathedral 
an allegorical representation of the Holy Trinity. 
On his way back to New York he stopped at Wash- 
ington and visited the Capitol. Impressed with 
the opportunity for decoration presented by its 
vast interior wall spaces, he offered his services for 
that purpose to Quartermaster-General Meigs. This 
offer was accepted, and about the same time he was 
commissioned as a captain of cavalry. His first 
art work in the Capitol was in the room of the House 
Committee on Agriculture. At first he received 
right dollars a day, which Jefferson Davis, then 
Secretary of War of the United States, caused to 
be increased to ten dollars. His work attracting 
much favourable attention, he was given further 
commissions, and gradually settled into the posi- 
tion of a Government painter. His chief work in 
\\ i hington was done in the rotunda of the Capitol, 
and included the apotheosis of Washington in the 
dome, as well as other allegories, and Bcenes from 
American history. His work in thi' rotunda was left 

Unfinished at hi death, bul he had decorated many 

other parts of the building. In the Catholic Cathe- 
dral of Philadelphia he pictured St. Peter and St. 
Paul, Brumidi was a capable, if conventional 
painter, and his black-and-white modelling in the 
work at Washington, in imitation of bas-relief, is 
strikingly effective. 


Brumoy, Pierre, b. at Rouen in Normandy, 16S8; 
entered the Society of Jesus in 1704; d. in Paris, 
1742. Brumoy belonged to that distinguished 
group of humanists who shed lustre upon the Society 
of Jesus shortly before its suppression in France. 
Between the years 1722 and 1739 he contributed 
many articles to the celebrated " Journal de Trevoux " 
of which he was for some time the editor. Gf the 
"History of the Gallican Church", which had been 
begun by Fathers Longueval and Fontenay, he wrote 
volumes XI and XII (1220-1320). He also com- 
posed several college tragedies on sacred subjects 
and many poems and discourses in Latin and in 
French. His Latin didactic poem " De motibus 
animi" (on the passions) was highly esteemed by his 
contemporaries. His most important work, " Le 
theatre des Grecs", which was first published in 
1730 in three volumes, has often been reprinted. 
It contains translations and analyses of the Greek 
tragedies, supplemented by keen critical and 
aesthetic observations. An English translation was 
made by Mrs. Charlotte Lennoxwith the assistance 
of the Earl of Cork and Dr. Samuel Johnson, and 
first published in London in L759. 

Sommervogi l. BM\ ithegue de In c. de J., II, col. 243-251: 
de Rochemonteix. I'n college di J (suites nu XVII'el A I 111* 
siecles. III, 9fi sefq.; Baumgartner, Geschichte der WeUHteratuir t 
IV. 634; V. 421, 422. B. GuLDNER. 

Brunault, Joseph. See Nicolet, Diocese of. 

Brunellesco (or Brunelleschi), Filippo, archi- 
tect and sculptor, b. at Florence, 1377; d. there 
16 April, 1446. As an architect Brunellesco was one 
of the chief leaders in the early period of the Renais- 
sance movement. Though rather unprepossessing 
in appearance, he was of a cheerful and congenial 
disposition, of an 
active and inven- 
tive mind, and with- 
al somewhat quick- 
tempered. Even in 
his childish games 
he evinced a decided 
inclination towards 
the mechanical. Be- 
ginning as a gold- 
smith, and later 
turning to sculp- 
ture, he finally ap- 
plied himself exclu- 
sively to architec- 
ture without, how- 
ever, neglecting his 
general culture. He 
read the Bible and 
Dante to feed his 
fancy, but devoted 

himself with decided preference to the study of 
perspective which he was the first to apply to art 
in accordance with definitely formulated rules. 
The correlated studies of mathematics and geometry 
also received his attention. He was considerably 
influenced by the lifelong friendship of the mathe- 
matician, Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli, by his joint 
studies with his younger friend Donatello, by the 
artists and art-works of his native Florence, par- 
ticularly by the monuments of Rome, to the study 
of which lie devoted many years. Classical antiquity 
was already, at this period, well known and highly 

Sculpture. — The Duomo of Pistoia contains 
several examples of niello-work and two silver 
statues of prophets - lid to be the earliest works of 

Brunellesco. A wooden Magdalen in tin' church 
of Santo Spirito at I iorenee was destroyed by fire 

in 1171. His wooden crucifix in Santa Maria No- 
vella is true to nature and beautiful, while that by 
his friend Donatello, in Santa Croce, deserved the 



•Ss^p . - -f < 

1 .^? 


Filippo Brunellesco 



criticism ascribed to Brunellesco: "This is .a rustic pointed octagonal, clustered-arches. lie (hen braced 
hanging on the cross". Two of his perspectives it not only by means of the octagonal drum, pre- 
created a great sensation in Florence. Seventy viously agreed on, but also borrowed from the Bap- 
years later they are described at length by his first tistery, besides its lantern, the idea of a protective 
anonymous biographer. Masaccio learned perspec- roof, not an ordinary roof, but a second and lighter 
tive 'from Brunellesco and according to Vasari, dome. This novel concept of a dome made of two 
the architect's second biographer, it was also applied shells greatly relieved the weight of the structure, 
to intarsia. Brunellesco entered into competition gave to the exterior an agreeable rounded finish, 
with Ghiberti and other masters in 1401, "hen and in the space between the shells furnished room 
models for the reliefs of the second bronze- door of for ribbing, passageways, and stairs. In technical 
the Baptistery at Florence were called for. The or constructive skill the dome of St. Peter's marked 
designs of both are exhibited side by side in the no advance on the work of Brunellesco; it is superior 
National Museum at Florence. We may agree with only in formal beauty. The crowning lantern, a 
the verdict of the commission which awarded the statically important weight, adds sixteen metres to 
first prize to Ghiberti and the second to Brunellesco. the height of the dome which is ninety-one metres; 
Ghiberti's relief is noteworthy for its agreeable it is inadequate, however, to the lighting of the 
dignity, while that of Brunellesco looks restless and edifice. Brunellesco 's work remained, in its essential 

laboured. Soon af- 
ter Brunellesco went 
to Rome and for 
many years explored 
its ancient ruins, 
alone and with Don- 
atello. The remains 
of the classic build- 
ings SO enraptured 
him that he decided 
to make architecture 
his lifework, instead 
of, as heretofore, an 
occasional occupa- 
tion. In the mean- 
time the much dis- 
cussed problem of 
the completion of 
th'- Duomo (Santa 
Maria del Fiore) of 
Florence seems to 
have awakened in 
him the ambition to 
attain iii tin- way 
undisputed suprem- 
acy in one of the 
plastic arts. 

Architecture. — 
At the end of the 
thirteenth century 
Aroolfo di Cambio 
had begun the con- 
struction of Santa 
Maria del Fiore. sub- 

Btantially a Gothic 

cathedral, and car- 
ried it as far as the 

dome whose span 

1. 1 |. irty metres (one 
linn. lied and I hirt y- 

eighl and one-half 
feet i. nearly equal to 
that of the Pantheon, 


7 \ 

i IS i 


Chcrch of the Holy Spirit, Florenxe 

features, a model 
for succeeding ages. 
The lantern was not 
completed until five 
years after the death 
of the master. 

Inspired by classi- 
cal art , he executed 
other domical struc- 
tures and basilicas, 
in all of which the 
essential character- 
istics of the new style 
appear. For the 
sacristy of San Lor- 
enzo at Florence he 
built its polygonal 
dome, without a 
drum, on a square 
plan, by means of 
pendentives (pro- 
jecting spherical tri- 
angles). As a cen- 
tral feature for Santa 

Maria degli Angeli 
in Florence, he de- 
signed a dome rest- 
ing on a substruc- 
ture, octagonal on 
the interior and six- 
teen-sided on the ex- 
terior. On a free- 
standing centralized 
plan he built a still 
more charming 
structure, the 1'azzi 

Chapel. Over the 
middle portion of 
the rectangular hall 
a dome with radial 
ribbings is carried 
on arches and flank- 
ed on two Bides by 

i t completion all contemporary barrel vaults. The square sanctuary rises on the long 

architects. In 1117 a conference of experts failed to side of this rectangular hall and is covered with a 

arrive al a solution. Brunellesco. who was present, dome. The corresponding square on the entrance side 

did not fully declare himself, bul instead visited Home is also domed; he added to it an antique colonnade 

again, manifestly for tie- purpose of coming forward covered in by a barrel vault, thus forming a loggia 

with greater assurance. The following year (March, that extends the entire width of the building. The 

the most noted architects took interior wall surface-, are decorated with Corinthian 
.id m the discussion relative to tin cathedra] pilasters. Thestraight entablature, the rounded win- 
dome Brunellesco with full confidence proposed to flows, the coffered ceiling, the medallions.complete on 
complete it without centering, since ii was impossible s small scale an ideal Renaissance edifice. It is 
to construct scaffolding for such a height \t tut probable that the cruciform and domical church 
he was regarded as a fool, bul later was actually of Badia di Fiesole was built from Brunei: 

commissioned i" execute the work, with two other design. In all these works he treated antique 

ociates. Whether to harmonize it with classical principles rather freely. In larger chvj 

the pointed arches of the rest of the design or to his practical mind induced him to return to the 

relieve the substructure of the greater thrust, Bru- basilica plan, In San Lorenzo, it is true, he found 

nellesco built the dome not on spherical, but on the cruciform plan already fixed; he added, however, 




a wooden coffered ceiling for the nave, spherical 
vaults for the side aisles, and rectangular chapels 
with barrel vaults along the outer walls; lateral 
aisles also surround the transept. The external cor- 
nice is carried out in a straight line; the height of the 
nave is double its width; the Corinthian columns 
bear the classical triple entablature but with arches 
springing therefrom; to increase the height these 
arches bear another broad triple entablature. We 
are frequently reminded in this edifice of the ancient 
Christian and the Romanesque basilicas. Its dome 
was completed by Manetti, who allowed himself 
here, and to a greater degree in Santo Spirito, a 
certain liberty in dealing with the designs of Bru- 
nellesco. The plan of the latter church is in the main 
the same as that of San Lorenzo; the interior niches 
are rounded, though their exterior walls are rec- 
tangular. These niches follow the lateral aisles 
around the transepts and the apse. Over the meet- 
ing of the great nave and apse rises a low drum sup- 
porting a ribbed dome; it is finished with round 
windows and a lantern. Brunellesco executed also 
no little domestic architecture. He supervised the 
construction of the Foundling Hospital (Spedale 
degli Innocenti) and drew the model of a mag- 
nificent palace for Cosimo de'Medici which the 
latter failed to carry out through fear of envy. 
Finally he built a part of the Pitti Palace, and in 
this work left to posterity a model method of the 
use of quarry-faced stone blocks for the first story. 
In recognition of his merits this epoch-making archi- 
tect, no less distinguished in the decorative than 
in the constructive arts, was buried within the 
sacred precincts of the cathedral. 

Scott, Filippo di Ser Brunellesco (London. 1901); Fabriczy. 
FUippo BrwneUeschi, sein Leben und seijie Werke (Stuttgart, 
1S92); DrRM. Die Baukunst der Renaissance in Italien (Stutt- 
gart, 1903); Schnaase, Ocschiehie der bildenden Kuntte (.Stutt- 
gart, 1879i, VIII. 

G. GlETMA>™. 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, a French critic and 
professor, b. at Toulon, 19 July, 1S49; d. at Paris, 
9 December, 1906. After finishing his studies at 
the Lyc6e Louis-le-Grand, he took the entrance ex- 
amination of-the Ecole Normale, a higher training- 
school for teachers, but failed on account of de- 
ficiency in Greek. When the Franco-German war 
broke out, he enlisted in the heavy-armed infantry. 
After the war he returned to Paris and led a very 
precarious life as a teacher in private schools. In 
1S74, he began to write for the "Revue des Deux 
Mondes", then edited by Charles Buloz, whose 
principal associate he soon became. From the 
first he was an opponent of the Naturalist School, 
which in retaliation feigned to ignore him and de- 
clared that the name of Brunetiere was the pseu- 
donym of some writer of no account. His mastery 
of criticism and his immense and minute learning. 
which were combined with a keen and cutting styli . 
soon proved his intellectual power. The editor- 
ship in chief of the "Revue des Deux Mondes'' was 
tendered to him in 1893. Although he had not 
attained the higher academic degrees, he was ap- 
pointed professor of the French language and lit- 
erature in the Ecole Normale in 1886, a position he 
held up to 190,5, when the school was reorganized. 
On account of Ins conversion to Catholicism, he was 
dropped from the list of professors. He was elected 

to the French Academy in 1 893 

In 1897, M. Brunetiere lectured in the United 

States, under the auspices of the Alliance Franeaise. 
After delivering nine lectures on French poetry in 

the annual coins, ■ of the Percy Tumbull lectures 
on poetry, ai the Johns Hopkins University, lie 
travelled through the country speaking to enthusias- 
tic audiences on classical and contemporary liter- 
ature. He met with a success that no French 
lecturer before him had ever attained. In New York 

more than three thousand persons gathered to hear 
him. His most famous lecture was on Zola, whose 
so-called lifelike pictures of the French bourgeois, 
of the workman, soldier, and peasant, he described 
as gloomy, pessimistic, and calumnious caricatures. 

Brunetiere was the greatest French critic of the 
last twenty years of the nineteenth century. His 
articles in the "Revue des Deux Mondes" resemble 
a strongly framed building, without frivolous orna- 
ment, majestic in proportion, impressive through 
solidity. They have been published in about 
fifteen volumes bearing various titles, as: " I 
critiques sur l'histoire de la litterature franeaise''; 
"Questions de critique"; "Essais sur la litterature 
contemporaine", etc. Brunetiere was a dogmatist, 
judging literary works not by the impression they 
made upon him, but according to certain princi- 
ples he had laid down as criteria. According to 
his dogmatic system, a literary work derives its 
value from the general ideas it contains, and the 
originality of a writer consists only in setting his 
own stamp upon a universal design. A good sur- 
vey of his ideas may be had from the "Manuel de 
litterature franchise" (tr. New York). This form 
of criticism was more or less borrowed from D6- 
site Nisard. About the year 1S89. M. Brunetiere 
changed his method and applied to literature the 
theories of evolution, explaining the formation, 
growth, and decay of the various literary genres in 
their development from a common origin, by the 
same principles as those by which Darwin explained 
the development of the animal species. (L'^volu- 
lution des genres; L 'Evolution de la po6sie lyrique 
au XIX e siecle.) However weak the basis of such 
a system may be, all the details are interesting. 
In 1892 M. Brunetiere showed himself an orator of 
the highest rank. His lectures at the Odeon thea- 
tre on "Les epoques du Theatre Francais" proved 
very successful. In 1893 he delivered a course of 
public lectures at the Sorbonne on "L'evolution 
des genres", and in 1894 on "Les sermons de 
Bossuet ". When he was deprived of his professor- 
ship at the Ecole Normale, in 1905, he became 
ordinary lecturer to the Societe des Conferences. 
M. Brunetiere was master of the difficult art of 
convincing a large audience. He had all the quali- 
ties of a true orator: clearness of exposition, strength 
and logic of reasoning, an unusual command of 
general ideas, a fine and penetrating voice, and 
above all, a certain strange power of conviction which 
won the immediate sympathy of the most prejudiced 

M. Brunetiere became a convert to Catholicism, 
in consequence of long and thorough study of Bos- 
suet's sermons, and. strange to say. by a logical 
process of deductions which had boon -u^'i-ted 
to him by Auguste Comte's philosophy. (See Dis- 
cours de combat. L'd series, p. 3.) In giving up 
his materialistic opinions to adopt the Catholic 
Faith he was prompted by a deep conviction, and 
there was no emotional clement in this radical 
change. The article he wrote in 1895, "Apres unc 
visite au Vatican", augured his conversion to Cathol- 
icism. In this article, M. Brunetiere showed that 
science, in spite of its solemn promises, had failed 
to give happiness to mankind, and that faith alone 
was able to achieve thai result. Soon after. M. 
Brunetiere publicly adhered to Catholicism and 
for ten years he made a 

pari of France, to defend his new faith against 
the attacks of free-thinkers. Among these addn — - 
may be mentioned: " I.e besoin de croire ', Besan- 
cpu 1898; "Fes raisons actuelles de croire". Lille, 

1899; " I. idee de solidarite". Toulouse, I'.IDII; "Fac- 
tion catholique", fours. 1901; "Lea motifs d'ee- 
Lyons, L901, etc. He devoted himself 
to this (ask with the greatest energy, for he was 




naturally a man of will and a fighter. The most 
interesting feature of his apology is his attempt 
to show how much the positivism of Auguste Comic 
was akin to Catholicism. He endeavoured to prove 
that modern thought contained in itself, without 

■cting it. the seed of Catholicism. (See " Stir 
les chemins de la eroyance. Premiere 6tape, 1. 'utili- 
sation du positivisme.") On one occasion, in the 
course of a discussion with a Socialist, he went so 
far as to infer the identity of the social aspirations 

itholicism and the aspirations ot the Socialists 
for a general reform of the world. 

Pellissier. Li mnurirn.rit litteriiire eimlemjinrnin (1901); 

Hatzfeld, Les critiques litleraires du XIX' eiecU (1894); 
I 'mi ;.: in Annates politigues el litUraires (16 December, 
190ti); De Yogi e in Revue des Deux Mondea (1 .January, 
19071; Petit de Jullevili.e, ,1, !,, Imuju, el de In 
ire imni;iiise; American Review of Reviews (1S97), 
XV, 69. 

Louis N. Delamarre. 

Brunforte, Ugouno, Friar Minor and chronicler, 
born c. 1262; died c. 1348. His father Rinaldo, Lord 

of Sarnano in the Marches, belonged to an ancient and 
noble family of French origin, from which sprang the 
famous Countess Matilda. Ugolino entered the Order 
of Friars Minor at the age of sixteen ami served his 
novitiate at the convent of Roccabruna, but passed 
most of his life at the convent of Santa Maria in 
Monte Giorgio, whence he is often called Ugolino of 
Monte Giorgio. In 1295 lie was chosen Bishop of 
Abruzzi (Teramo) under Celestine V, but before his 
consecration the pope had resigned and Boniface VIII 
who suspected Ugolino as belonging to the Zelanti 
annulled the appointment (see Bull "In Suprema? 
Dignitatis Specula" in "Bullarium Francis.", IV, 
376 Nearly tiny years later he was elected provin- 
cial of Macerata. Most scholars arc now agreed on 
fixing upon Ugolino a- the author of the " Fioretti " 
i of St. Francis" in their original 

form. For recent research has revealed that this 
classic collection of narratives, which forms one of 
the most delightful productions of the Middle Ages, 
or rather the fifty-three chapters which form the true 
texl of the" Fioretti " (for the four appendixes are ad- 
ditions of later compilers) were translated into Italian 
by an unknown fourteenth-century friar from a 
larger Latin work attributed to Ugolino. Although 
this Latin original has not come down to us, we have 
in the "Actus B. Francisci et Sociorum Ejus", edited 
by Paul Sabatier in "Collection d'Etudes" (Paris, 
1902. IV), an approximation to it which may he con- 
sidered on the whole as representing the original of 
the " Fioretti ". That Ugolino was the principal com- 
piler of the "Actus" seems certain; how far he may 
lie considered the sole author of the " Fioretti " of the 
primitive "Actus Fioretti " is not so clear. His 
labour which consisted chiefly in gathering the flowers 
for his bouquet from written and oral local tradition 
appears to have been completed before 1328. 

i-lNG. Script, ord. \hn (1650 . 179; Si, mom \. Sup- 

plementum (1806). addenda 727; Luxgi DA Fabbiano, Dm- 

in- istorica intorno aW -Hi (FabriaBO, 

1883); ' anU Pravincia 

Ptcena (Quaracchi, 1886 , 232 sqq.j Manzom. Finn if i _'n.l e<l., 

B v tick. Floretum S. I 

(Paris. 1902), preface; Milium, Primordi Glorwri deW ardme 

Castelplanio, 1903i. VI; Arnold, The 

Ion, 1904 : Pace, L'autore del 

XIX, fasc. II; Van 

Obtbot in Annal. Botland., XXI. 443 Bqq. 

Paschal Robinson. 

Bruni, Leoxardo. an eminent Italian humanist, 
b. of poor and humble parents at Arezzo, the birth- 
place of Petrarch, in 1369; d. at Florence. (I March. 
1444. He is also culled Aretino from the city of 
his birth. Beginning at lir-t the atudj of law, he 
later, under the patronage of SalutatO and the in- 

fluence of the Greek scholar Chrysoloras, turned 

his attention to the study of the classics. In L40S 
he obtained through his friend Poggio the post of 

Apostolic secretary under Pope Innocent VII. He 
remained at Rome for several years, continuing as 
ary under Popes Gregory XII and Alexander V. 
In 1410 he was elected Chancellor of the Republic 
of Florence, hut resigned the office aftera few months, 
returning to the papal court, as secretary under 
John XXIII. whom he afterwards accompanied to 
the ( louncil of Constance. On the deposition of that 
pope in 141.5, Bruni returned to Florence, where he 
spent the remaining years of his life. 

Here he wrote his chief work, a Latin history of 
Florence, "Historiarum Fdorentinarum Libri XII" 
(Strasburg, 1610). In recognition of this great work 
the State conferred upon him the rights of citizen- 
ship and exempted the author and his children from 
taxation. In 1427 through the favour of tin' Medici 
he was again appointed state chancellor, a post 
which he held until his death. During these seven- 
teen years he performed many valuable services to 
the State. Bruni contributed greatly to the re- 
vival of Greek and Latin learning in Italy in the 
fifteenth century and was foremost among the 
scholars of the Christian Renaissance. He, more 
than any other man. made the treasures of the 
Hellenic world accessible to the Latin scholar through 
his literal translations into Latin of the works of 
Greek authors. Among these may be mentioned his 
translations of Aristotle, Plato, Plutarch, Demosthe- 
nes, and ^Eschines. These were considered models 
of pure Latinity. 

His original works include: "Commentarius Rerum 
Suo Tempore Gestarum"; "De Romse Origine"; 
"De Bello Italico adversus Gothos"; and ten volumes 
of letters, "Epistolse Familiar es", which, written in 
elegant Latin, are very valuable for the literary 
history of the fifteenth century. He was also the 
author of biographies in Italian of Dante and Pe- 
trarch and wrote in Latin the lives of Cicero and 
Aristotle. So widespread was the admiration for 
Brum's talents that foreigners came from all parts 
to see him. The great esteem in which he was held 
by the Florentines was shown by the extraordinary 
public honours accorded him at his death. His corpse 
was clad in dark silk, and on his breast was laid a 
copy of his "History of Florence". In the presence 
of many foreign ambassadors and the court of Pope 
Eugenius, Manetti pronounced the funeral oration 
and placed the crown of laurel upon his head. He 
was then buried at the expense of the State in the 
Cemetery of Santa Croce, where his resting-place is 
marked by a monument executed by Rosseflino. 

Symonds, Renaissance in Italy (New v'erk. 1900). II; The 
h'liiriiln; 1. 1 , nutria; Yon.], I)u II iiiicrbeUbung ties dassischen 
Alterthums I Berlin, 1SS93); the most complete ed. of Bruni a 
\viirk> is that of Mehus (Florence, 1731 ). 

Edmund Burke. 

Brunn, Diocese of, suffragan of the Archdiocese 
of Olmtitz, embracing the south-western part of 
Moravia, an area of 3S25 sq. m., and containing, ac- 
cording to the "Catalogus cleri Diceceseos Brunen- 
eis 1007", about 1,051,654 inhabitants, 1,000,607 of 
whom are Catholics. 

I. History. — The erection of the Diocese of 
Brunn was due to Empress Maria Theresa. The 

territory pi I . ■ :.. i ._-.-. I i i 

very early period to the Diocese of Olmutz. To 
obviate the difficulties arising from the administra- 
tion of such a vast territory. Maria Theresa in 1 773 
entered into negotiations with Pope Clement XIV. 
Olmutz was to be raised to the rank of an arch- 
bishopric and two newly created bishoprics! — Brunn 
and Troppau — assigned it as suffragans. Eventually, 
however, only one wis treated. By a papal Bull 
of Pius VI, dated 5 December, 1777, Olmtitz was 
made an archbishopric and Brunn erected into 
an episcopal see. i ite chapter of the 

provostship of Sts. Peter and Paul which had been 




in existence in Brilnn since 1296 was constituted the 
cathedral chapter, and the provost-church was made 
the cathedral. Matthias Franz, Count von Chorin- 
sky, mitred provost of the chapter was appointed 
by the empress first bishop. He was succeeded by 
Johann Baptist Lachenbauer (1787-99), Vincenz Jo- 
seph von Schrattenbach (1800-16), Wenzel Urban 
Ritt.r von Stuffier (1817-31), Franz Anton von 
Gindl (1832-41), Anton Ernst, Count von Schaff- 
gotsche (1842-70), Karl Nottig (1871-82), Franz 
Sales Bauer (1882-1904), since 1904 Archbishop of 
Olmutz, and Paulus, Count von Huyn, b. at Briinn, 
1868, appointed bishop 17 April, 1904, and con- 
secrated 26 June, 1904. 

II. Statistics. — For the cure of souls the diocese 
is divided into 7 archipresbyterates and 37 deaneries 
with 429 parishes and the same number of parish 
churches, 30 simple benefices, 545 mission churches 
(Filiulkiirhcn) and oratories. In 1907 the num- 
ber of secular clergy was 751,612 engaged in the care 
of souls, 102 in other offices (professors, military 
chaplains, etc.), and 47 retired from active duty; 
regulars, 101, of whom 54 are engaged in the active, 
ministry. The cathedral chapter consists of a dean, 
an archdeacon, 4 canons capitular, 6 honorary 
canons, and 1 canon extra station; the consistory is 
composed of 15 members. In Nikolsburg there is a 
collegiate chapter with 6 canons and 4 honorary 
canons. The bishop and the 4 capitulars are ap- 
pointed by the emperor, the dean by the cathedral 
chapter, and the archdeacon by the bishop. Among 
the benefices, 26 are by free collation, 106 subject 
to appointment by administrators of the religious 
fund, 8 by administrators of the fund for students, 23 
by ecclesiastical patrons, 2.50 by lay families, 22 are 
incorporated with monasteries, and 2 of mixed pafr- 
ronage. For the training of the clergy there is a 
seminary, in connexion with which is a theological 
school with 11 ecclesiastical professors, also an epis- 
copal -preparatory school for boys. In the inter- 
mediate schools of the diocese 67 priests are engaged 
in teaching religion, in the primary schools and inter- 
mediate schools for girls 79 priests. 

The following religious congregations have estab- 
lishments in the diocese: Men: Premonstratensians 
1 abbey {Neureisch) with 12 priests; Benedictines 1 
abbey in Raigern (from which is issued the well-known 
periodical "Studien u. Mitteilungen aus dem Bene- 
diktiner- und Cistercienserorden ") , with 20 fathers 
;iinl _' clerics; the Hermits of St. Augustine 1 founda- 
tion in Brunn, with 16 priests and 5 clerics; the 
Piarists 1 college at Nikolsburg with 2 fathers and 
3 lay brothers; the Dominicans 1 monastery with 
7 fathers and 7 brothers; the Franciscans 2 convents 
with 7 fathers and 5 brothers; the Minorites 1 mon- 
astery with 2 priests and 2 lay brothers; the Ca- 
puchins 3 monasteries witli 9 fathers and S brothers; 
the Brothers of Mercy, 2 foundations with 3 priests 
and 15 brothers. Women: 32 foundations ami 379 
sisters engaged in the education of girls and the care 
of the sick: 1 Cistercian abbey (Tischnowitz) with 
25 religious; 1 Ursuline convent with 21 sisters; 
1 Elizabethan convent with 19 sisters; 3 foundations 
of the Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul, with 

34 sisters; 9 houses of the Sisters of Mercy of St. 
Charles Borromeo, with 71 sisters; 2 bouses of the 
Daughters of the Divine Saviour witli 26 sisters; 
6 convents of the I' of Notre Dame with 

35 sisters; 1 house of Daughters of Divine Love, 
with 21 sisters; 1 mother-house and 5 branches of 
tlic Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis, with 
108 sisters, and 1 foundation of the Order of St. 
Hedwig, with 4 sisters. The above Damed congrega- 
tions of women conduct 4 boarding schools for girls, 

21 Bel Is for girls, (i hospitals, 4 orphan asylums, 

13 creches, 5 hospital stations, 2 asylums for aged 
women, 2 homes for the aged, 1 institution for the 

blind, and 1 home for servant girls. Among the 
associations to be found in the diocese may be men- 
tioned: the Catholic Journeymen's Union (Gesellen- 
verein), 7; the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, 9 con- 
ferences; the Association of Christian Social Workers, 
the Apostolate of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, the St. 
Joseph's Verein for men and young men. 

Chief among the churches of the diocese is the 
Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul at Briinn; built 
between the thirteenth and fifteenth century in 
Gothic style, it was destroyed in 1645, rebuilt as a 
Renaissance structure (1743-80), remodelled in 
1906 and two towers added. The stateliest and most 
beautiful Gothic church of the diocese is the church 
of St. James at Briinn, begun as early as the thir- 
teenth century but completed only in 1511. Other 
prominent ecclesiastical buildings are the church of 
St. James at Iglau, erected 1230-43, the first Gothic 
church with porticoes in Moravia; the royal monastic 
church in the old section of Briinn built 1323-53 
in Gothic style; the former monastic church of 
Tischnowitz erected 1233-50 in the Roman transition 
style, with a noble, richly adorned portico; the 
church of the former Benedictine monastery at 
Trebitsch, built 1230-45, with three naves, a spacious 
choir, and a Roman portico; the Jesuit church at 
Briinn, erected in 1582 in the Barocco style. 

Wolny, Kirchliche Topographie von Mahren (4 vols., 
Briinn, 1857-61), Division II; Weinbrenner. Mahren w. 
das Bistum Briinn (1S77); Prokop, Mahren in kunstgeschicht- 
licher Beziehung (4 vols., Vienna, 1904); Trautenberger, 
Chronik tier Landeshaitptstadt Brunn [5 vols., Briinn, 1K93- 
97); Die katholuiche Kirche in Wort u. Bild (2nd ed., Munich. 
1907), II. 

Joseph Lins. 

Brunner, Francis de Sales, founder of the Ameri- 
can Congregation of the Precious Blood, b. 10 Jan- 
uary, 1795, at Muemliswil, Switzerland; d. at the 
Convent of Schellenberg, Duchy of Lichtenstein, 
29 December, 1859. He received in baptism the 
name of Nicolaus Joseph. After the death of his 
father he entered, 11 July. 1812. the Benedictine 
monastery near his residence in Maria Stem. He 
made his vows two years later and studied for the 
priesthood under the direction of the pious Abbot 
Pfluger. Ten years after his ordination (1S19) he 
felt a vocation for a stricter life and joined the Trap- 
pists of Oehlemberg, also near his home. This con- 
vent being suppressed, he offered his services for 
foreign missions to Gregory' XVI, and was to have 
gone as Apostolic missionary to China, but shortly 
before the time set for his departure the order was re- 
called. Next he founded a school for poor boys in 
the castle of Lowenberg, which he had purchased 
from the Count de Montfort. In 1833 witli his pious 
mother he made a pilgrimage to Rome, where they 
were both enrolled in the Archconfratemity of the 
Most Precious Blood. Returned to Lowenberg, his 
mother gathered around her pious virgins to "hold 
a perpetual (day- and night) adoration and dedicate 
their lives to the education of orphans and the fur- 
nishing of vestments for poor churches". 

Thus began the Sisters of the Most Precious Blood; 
their foundress died in 1836, and the community was 
brought to America under the second mother su- 
perior, Sister Clara, \\h<> died in 1876 at Griinewald, 
Ohio. Meanwhile, in 1838, Father Brunner had made 
a second visit to Home, ami had entered the Con- 
gregation of the Most Precious Blood at Albano. 
After his novitiate he returned, continued the work 
he had previously begun, and also began educating 
boys for the priesthood, so as to inaugurate a German 
province of the congregation. The Government in- 
terfering more and more with his school, he accepted 

the invitation of Archbishop Pun-ell of Cincinnati, 

brought to him by Monsignor Heiini. to establish 
his community in America. Accompanied by eight 
priests, he landed, 21 December, 1813, at New Orleans 




and, ascending the Ohio River, arrived at Cincinnati 
on New Year's Day. From Cincinnati they proceeded 
to St. Alphonsus, near Norwalk, Ohio, where the first 
station was erected. Their missionary circuit in- 
cluded all the Germans within a radius of 100 miles; 
they began to erect, convents and parishes and en- 
trusted the schools to t lie Sisters of the Most Precious 
Blood, who had followed them on the 22nd of July, 
1844. After this Father Brunner made several trips 
to Europe in the interests of his institution, and it 
fl as during the last of these that he died. He was an 
indefatigable missionary and a very prolific writer 
on religious subjects. Many of his writings, all of 
which are in German, still await publication. 

Leben una) Wirkm dea I'. F. S. Brunner (Carthagena, 1S82); 
Nuntius Aula, I-X. 

U. F. Miller. 

Brunner, Sebastian, a versatile and voluminous 
writer, b. in Vienna, 10 December, 1S14; d. there, 
27 November, 1S93. He received his college educa- 
tion from the Benedictines of his native city, his 
philosophical and theological training at the Vienna 
University, was ordained priest in 1838, and was for 
some years professor in the philosophical faculty 
of the Vienna University. The University of Frei- 
burg honoured him with the degree of Doctor of 
Theology. In the revolutionary year, 1848, he 
founded the "Wiener Kirchenzeitung", which he 
edited until 18G5, and in which he scourged with 
incisive satire the Josephinist bondage of the Church. 
It is mainly owing to his fearless championship, 
which more than once brought him into conflict 
with the authorities, that the Church in Austria 
to-day breathes more freely. He wrote some asceti- 
cal books ami many volumes of sermons, also a 
biography of Clemens Hofbauer, the apostle of 
Vienna. His books <>f travel dealing with Germany. 
France. England, Switzerland, and especially Italy, 
are distinguished by keen observations on men and 
manners, art and culture, and most of all on religion, 
and are thus closely connected with his apologetic 
and controversial writings. Among the latter may 
be mentioned his book on " The Atheist Renan and 
his Gospel". Brunner's voluminous historical works 
are very valuable, particularly those on the history 
of the Church in Austria. It is, however, as a 
humorist that Brunner takes a permanent place 
in the history ol literature, for he counts among 
the best modern German humorous writers. His 
works of this class were composed partly in verse, 
which at times reminds the reader of Hudibras, 
and partly in the form of prose stories. One of the 
best of the former is " Der Ncbeljungen Lied"; of 
the latter, "Die Prinzenschule zu Mdpselgluek". 
These works, conceived with a high and noble pur- 
pose, are marked by brilliant satire, inexhaustible 
wit, and genuine humour, combined with great 
depth of feeling. A collection of his stories in prose 
and verse was published in eighteen volumes at 
RatisboE in 1864, I' is not surprising, though it is 
regrettable, that an author whose literary output 
vast and varied, often shows signs of haste 
and a lack of artistic finish. In his later years he 
turned his satirical pen against the undiscriminating 
worship of modern German Literary celebrities. 

Autobiography) (Ratisbon. 1890-91); 
S, Bl e HI ii. Sebastian Brunner (Wiirzburg ami Vienna. 1890 ; 
L]NI>i:mann. Ijtsrhirhte <!' r tlnitsr/nn>rntur [ Freiburg mi 
Br., 1S98), 93S. 939: AUgemeine deuUche Biographie, XLVII 
(Supplement. 190; 

B. Gfl.DNER. 

Bruno, Saint. Archbishop of Cologne, 1>. 925; d. 
at Reims, ii October, 965; was the youngest sou 
of Henry I of Germany (sumamed the Fowler) and 
St. Mathilda, and brother of the Emperor Otto I. 
He inherited his mother's piety and was even from 
boyhood destined for the Church. In his fourth 
year he was confided to the learned Bishop Bald- 

erich in one of the Carlovingian collegiate schools at- 
tached to the cathedral at Utrecht. He read widely 
in Latin literature, classical and patristic; his pillow 
book, as Ruotger avers, was tlte Christian poet, 
Prudentius. Through some Greeks sojourning tit his 
brother's court, Bruno became proficient also in the 
Greek language, and he never lost his early love for 
learning. After a stay of ten years at Utrecht, he 
was recalled by Otto I in 939. From the beginning 
of Otto's reign, in 93(1, many learned men from Ger- 
many and abroad collected at his court; by the side 
of so characteristic a product of Carlovingian culture 
as Ratherius, Bishop of Verona, were Scots, Romans, 
and Greeks. From all, Bruno found much to learn. 
Soon he himself began to teach, and a notable re- 
nascence of higher studies ensued in the schools. 

In 940, Bruno began to exercise the functions of 
imperial chancellor (Mon. Germ. Dipl., I, 120 nr. 35). 
After he had received deacon's orders in 941 or 912, 
the emperor appointed him, despite his youth, Abbot 
of the monasteries of Lorsch, near Worms, and of 
Corvei on the Weser. In both communities he soon 
restored the strict observance of St. Benedict's Rule. 
He was ordained priest about 950 and in 951 became 
archchancellor (Mon. Germ. Dipl., 1,218, nr. 138 sq.); 
even from the year 940 on, all Otto's state papers 
were prepared by Bruno's hand. As the executive 
administration of affairs was conducted chiefly 
through the royal chancery, Bruno's influence now 
extended to all parts of the empire. Relations be- 
tween Germany and France were by his good offices 
greatly improved. He took part in the Synod of 
Verdun, in 947, and assisted in the adjustment of 
the quarrel, of such consequence to the Kingdom of 
France, about the Archbishopric of Reims. In 951 
he accompanied the Emperor Otto to Italy. In the 
troublous times which soon followed during the revolt 
of Ludolf, Otto's eldest son and heir-apparent, and 
Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, Bruno proved his loyalty 
and devotion to his brother. For this service, after 
the death (9 July, 953) of Wicfrid, Archbishop of 
Cologne, the emperor caused Bruno to be elected his 
successor in that see. and likewise entrusted to him 
the administration of the Duchy of Lorraine. On the 
21st of September, the nobility of that province swore 
allegiance to Bruno at Aachen, and on the 25th he 
was consecrated and enthroned a1 Cologne. Through 
Bruno's mediation Ludolf was reconciled with his 
father, and the rebellion of Conrad effectually quelled. 
In the struggle between the last of the Carloving- 
ians and the rising house of Capet, Bruno's prestige 
enabled him to act, in the name of his imperial 
brother, as a supreme arbitrator in French affairs, 
countless disputes being satisfactorily settled by liis 
prudence and tact. 

In Bruno's personality as prince-bishop, was rep- 
resented the perfect union of Church and State which 
was the corner-stone of the policy of Otto the Great; 
for Bruno, despite his tireless temporal activities, 
was a great bishop and zealous pastor. He ruled by 
personal piety and singular holiness of life. With 
scrupulous care he watched over the moral discipline 
of his diocese, improved the higher education of the 
clergy and lavished his resources on monastic and 
ecclesiastical institutions throughout the realm. The 
monastery of St. Pantaleon at Cologne, begun in 966, 
was his foundation. The literary distinction to which 
Lorraine, before other parts of the kingdom, early 

attained may lie accounted not tin' least remarkable 

result of his work. Bruno's favourite abode was Bonn. 

When Otto set out a second time for Italy in 961, 

to be crowned emperor at Rome, the government of 

the realm and the guardianship of ( Itto II were con- 
tided to Bruno and to William. Archbishop oi Mainz. 

Soon after the kaiser's return, Bruno was summoned 
again on a mission of peace to liaiice; it was while on 
this journey that he died, at Reims. His body, at 




his own request, was carried back and buried in the 
monastic church of St. Pantaleon at Cologne. From 
time immemorial the Diocese of Tournay has had a 
special office for St. Bruno on June the 18th, and as 
the day of his death was always celebrated at St. 
Pantaleon as the anniversary of a saint, the feast of 
Bruno, Confessor, is now observed throughout the 
Diocese of Cologne as a double on the 11th day of 

Rcotger, Vita Brurwnis in Acta SS., Oct.. V, 698. also found 
in Mon. Germ. Hist.. IV, 252. and in I'. I... (XXXIV, 938; 
Altera Vita Brurwnis (a later life, written in the 12th century 
at St. Pantaleon ), in Mon. Germ. Hist.. IV, 275; P. Z...CXXXIV, 
978; von Hefele. s. v. in Kirchenlex .. II; Hauck, Kirchenge- 
sclnchte Deutsrhlands I Leipzig, 1896), III, 40; Id. in Hehzog- 
HAUCK Reul-Enci/k. lur prat. Thiol, unit Klrche I Leipzig, 18971; Brurm 1 (Arnsherg, 1851 I; Meyer, He Brunune I (Ber- 
lin, 1870); Pfeiffer, Hisl.-krit. Beitrage zur Geschichte Brims I 
(Cologne, 1870); Strebitzki. Quellenhr. I'ntersuch. (Neustadt 
in Westpreussen, 1875); Giesebrecht, Kaiserziit (3d ed., 
Brunswick, 18631, I, 321; K.n'KE and Di', Kaiser Otto 
d. Gr. (Leipzig, 1876i. imssirn; Giesebrecht, Allgena-irie 
Deutsche Bionrajihie, III, 424; Mittag, Die Arbeitsleeise Ruot- 
gersindrr Vita Brunonis ( Berlin, 1896); Annlecla Bollandtana, 
XVI, 202 and XVIII, 57; Wattenbach, Gesch.-(.>tifllen (6th 
ed., Berlin, 1893), I, 321; Ki.einermanns, Die Heiligen auf 
dem bisehi'llichen bezw. erzbischo}lichen Slulde von Koln (Co- 
logne, 1895-98). 

George H. Derry. 

Bruno, Saint, Bishop of Segni, in Italy, b. at 
Solero, Piedmont, about 1048; d. 1123. He received 
his preliminary education in a Benedictine monastery 
of his native town. After completing his studies at 
Bologna and receiving ordination, he was made a 
canon of Sienna. In appreciation of his great learning 
and eminent piety, he was called to Rome, where, as 
an able and prudent counsellor, his advice was sought 
by four successive popes. At a synod held in Rome 
in 1079 he obliged Berengarius of Tours, who denied 
the real presence of Our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, 
to retract his heresy. He enjoyed the personal 
friendship of Gregory VII, and was consecrated 
Bishop of Segni by him in the Campagna of Rome, in 
1080. His humility caused him to decline the car- 
dinalate. He is called "the brilliant defender of the 
Church" because of the invincible courage he evinced 
in aiding Gregory VII and the succeeding popes in 
their efforts for ecclesiastical reform, and especially 
in denouncing lay investiture, which he even declared 
to be heretical. 

He accompanied Pope Urban II in 1095, to the 
Council of Clermont in which the First Crusade 
was inaugurated. In 1102 he became a monk of 
Monte Cassino and was elected abbot in 1107, with- 
out , however, resigning his episcopal charge. With 
many bishops of Italy and France, Bruno rejected 
the treaty known in history as the "Privilegium", 
which Henry V of Germany had extorted from Pope 
Paschal II during his imprisonment. In a letter 
addressed to the pope he very frankly censured him 
for concluding a convention which conceded to the 
German king in part the inadmissible claim to the 
right of investiture of ring and crosier upon bishops 
and abbots, and demanded that the treaty should be 
annulled. Irritated by his opposition, Paschal II 
commanded Bruno to give up his abbey and to return 
to his episcopal see. With untiring zeal he continued 
to labour for the welfare of his flock, as well as for 
the common interest of the Church al large, till his 
death. Be was canonized by Pope Lucius III in 
1183. His feast is celebrated on the 18th of July. 
St. Bruno was the author of numerous works, chiefly 
Scriptural. Of these are to be mentioned his com- 
mentaries mi the Pentateuch, t he Book of Job, the 
Psalms, the four Gospels, and the Apocalypse. 

Hefele, Hist, of tl . v . I , vj; ' • -.gmann, 

Diss. Il"> Eccl., I\, D. 23, 30; Cheralur, Bio. bibliogr. 
i Pari . 1905, 2nd ed.) s. v. 


Bruno, Saint, Confes or, ecclesiastical writer, and 
founder .if the Carthusian Order. He was born at 

Cologne about the year 1030; d. 6 October, 1101. 
He is usually represented with a death's head in his 
hands, a book and a cross, or crowned with seven 
stars; or with a roll bearing the device O Bonitas. 
His feast is kept on the 6th of October. According to 
tradition, St. Bruno belonged to the family of Harten- 
faust, or Harde- 
viist, one of the 
principal families 
of the city, and it 
is in remembrance 
of this origin that 
different members 
of the family of 
Hartenfaust have 
received from the 
Carthusians either 
some special pray- 
ers for the dead, 
as in the case of 
Peter Bruno Hart- 
enfaust in 1714. 
and Louis Alexan- 
der Hartenfaust. 
Baron of Laach. in 
1740; or a personal 
affiliation with the 
order, as with 
Louis Bruno of 
Hardevust, Baron 
of Laach and Bur- 
gomaster of t lii- 
town of Bergues-S. 
Winnoc, in the 
Diocese of Cam- 
brai, with whom 
the Hardevust 
family in the male 
line became extinct 
on 22 March, 1784. 

St. Bruno (Statue b 
in Church of S. Ma 
Angeli, Rome) 

We have little information about the childhood 
and youth of St. Bruno. Born at Cologne, he would 
have studied at the city college, or collegial of St. 
Cunibert. While still quite young (a pueris) he went 
to complete his education at Reims, attracted by 
the reputation of the episcopal school and of its 
director, Heriman. There he finished his classical 
studies and perfected himself in the sacred sciences 
which at that time consisted principally of the study 
of Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers. He became 
there, according to the testimony of his contempo- 
raries, learned both in human and in Divine science. 
His education completed, St. Bruno returned to 
Cologne, where he was provided with a canonry at 
St. Cunibert's, and, according to the most probable 
opinion, was elevated to the priestly dignity. This 
was about the year 1055. In 1056 Bishop Gervais 
recalled him to Reims, to aid his former master 
Heriman in the direction of the school. The latter 
was already turning his attention towards a more 
perfect form of life, and when he at last left the 
world to enter the religious life, in 1057, St. Bruno 
found himself head of the episcopal school, oricoUUre, 
a post difficult as it was elevated, for it then included 
the direction of the public schools and the oversight 
of all the educational establishments of the diocese. 
For about twenty years, from 1057 to KI7.Y he 
maintained the prestige which the school of Reims 
had attained under its former masters. Remi of 
Auxcrre. Hucbald of St. Amand, Gerbert, and lastly 
Heriman. Of the excellence of his teaching we have 
a proof in the funereal titles composed in his hon- 
our, which celebrate his eloquence, his poetic, phil- 
osophical, and above all his exegetical and theologi- 
cal, talents; and also in the merits of his pupils, 
amongst whom were Eudes of Chatillon, afterwards 
Urban II, Rangier, Cardinal and Bishop of Ueggio, 




Robert, Bishop of Langres, and a large number of 
prelates and abbots. 

In 1075 St. Bruno was appointed chancellor of 
the church of Reims, and he had then to give him- 
self especially to the administration of the diocese. 
Meanwhile the pious Bishop Gervais, friend of St. 
Bruno, had been succeeded by Manasses de Gournai, 
who quickly became odious for his impiety and 
violence. The chancellor and two other canons were 
commissioned to bear to the papal legate. Hugh of 
Die, the complaints of the indignant clergy, and at 
the Council of Autun. 1(177. they obtained the sus- 
pension of the unworthy prelate. The latter's reply 
was to raze the houses of his accusers, confiscate their 
goods, sell their benefices, and appeal to the pope. 
Bruno then absented himself from Reims for a 
while, and went probably to Rome to defend the 
justice of his cause. It was only in 1080 that a 
definite sentence, confirmed by a rising of the people, 
compelled Manasses to withdraw ami take refuge 
with the Kmperor Henry IV. Free then to choose 
another bishop, the clergy were on the point of 
uniting their vote upon the chancellor. He, however, 
had far different designs in view. According to a 
tradition preserved in the Carthusian Order, Bruno 
was persuaded to abandon the world by the sight 
of a celebrated prodigy, popularized by the brush 
of Lesueur — the triple resurrection of the Parisian 
doctor, Raymond Diocres. To this tradition may 
be opposed the silence of contemporaries, and of the 
first biographers of the saint; the silence of Bruno 
himself in his letter to Raoul le Vert, Provost of 
Reims; and the impossibility of proving that he ever 
visited Paris. He had no need of such an extraor- 
dinary argument to cause him to leave the world. 
Some time before, when in conversation with two 
of his friends, Raoul and Fulcius. canons of Reims 
like himself, they had enkindled with the 
Cud and the desire of eternal goods that they 
had made a vow to abandon the world and to em- 
brace the religions life. This vow, uttered in 1077, 
could not be put into execution until 1080, owing to 
various circumstances. 

The first idea of St. Bruno on leaving Reims 
io have been to place himself and his com- 
panions under the direction of an eminent solitary, 
St. Robert, who had recently (1075) settled at 
Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, together with 
a band of other solitaries who were later on (1098) to 
form the Cistercian Order. But he soon found that 
this was not his vocation, and after a short sojourn 
at Seche-Fontaine near Molesme, he left two of his 
companions, Peter and Lambert, and betook him- 
self with six others to Hugh of Chateauneuf, Bishop 
of Grenoble, and, according to some authors, one of 
his pupils. The bishop, to whom God had shown 
these men in a dream, under the image of seven 
stars, conducted and installed them himself (1084) 
in a wild spot on the Alps of Dauphino named 
( 'hart reuse, about four leagues from Grenoble, in 
the midst of precipitous rocks and mountains almost 
always covered with snow. With St. Bruno were 
Landuin, the two Stephens of Bourg and Die. canons 
of St. Rufus, and Hul'Ii the Chaplain, "all. the most 
learned men of their time", and two laymen. Andrew 
and Guerin. who afterwards became the first lay 
brothers. They built a little monastery where thej 
lived in deep retreat and poverty, entirely occupied 
in prayer and study, and frequently honoured by 
the visits of St. Hugh who became like one of i hem- 
selves. Their manner ol life has been recorded by 

a contemporary, Guiberl of Nogent, who visited 
them in their solitude. 1 1 >e vitfl -ua. I, ii. ) 

Meanwhile, another pupil of St. Bruno, Eudes of 

Chatillon, had become pope under the name of 
Urban II (1088). Resolved to continue the work 
of reform commenced by Gregory VII, and being 

obliged to struggle against the anti-pope, Guibert 
of Ravenna, and the Emperor Henry IV, he sought 
to surround himself with devoted allies and called 
his ancient master ad Scdis Apoatolicw servitium. 
Thus the solitary found himself obliged to leave the 
spot where he had spent more than six years in 
retreat, followed by a part of his community, who 
could not make up their minds to live separated 
from him (1090). It is difficult to assign the place 
w huh he then occupied at the pontifical court, or 
his influence in contemporary events, which was 
entirely hidden and confidential. Lodged in the 
palace of the pope himself and admitted to his coun- 
cils, and charged, moreover, with other collaborators, 
in preparing matters for the numerous councils of 
this period, we must give him some credit for their 
results. But he took care always to keep himself 
in the background, and although he seems to have 
assisted at the Council of Benevento (March, 1091), 
we find no evidence of his having been present at the 
Councils of Troja (March, 1093), of Piacenza (March, 
1095), or of Clermont (November, 1095). His part 
in history is effaced. All that we can say with 
certainty is that he seconded with all his power the 
sovereign pontiff in his efforts for the reform of the 
clergy, efforts inaugurated at the Council of Melfi 
(1089) and continued at that of Benevento. A short 
tame after the arrival of St. Bruno, the pope had been 
obliged to abandon Rome before the victorious forces 
of the emperor and the anti-pope. He withdrew 
with all his court to the south of Italy. 

During the voyage, the former professor of Reims 
attracted the attention of the clergy of Reggio in 
further Calabria, which had just lost its archbishop, 
Arnulph (1090), and their votes were given to him. 
The pope and the Norman prince, Roger, Duke of 
Apulia, strongly approved of the election and pressed 
St. Bruno to accept it. In a similar juncture at 
Reims he had escaped by flight; this time he again 
escaped by causing Rangier, one of his former pupils, 
to be elected, who was fortunately near by at the 
Benedictine Abbey of La Cava near Salerno. But 
he feared that such attempts would be renewed; 
moreover he was weary of the agitated life imposed 
upon him, and solitude ever invited him. He begged, 
therefore, and after much trouble obtained, the 
pope's permission to return again to his solitary life. 
His intention was to rejoin his brethren in Dauphin^, 
as a letter addressed to them makes clear. But the 
will of Urban II kept him in Italy, near the papal 
court , to which he could be called at need. The place 
chosen for his new retreat by St. Bruno and some 
followers who had joined him was in the Diocese 
of Squillace, on the eastern slope of the great chain 
which crosses Calabria from north to south, and in a 
high valley three miles long and two in width, cov- 
ered with forest. The new solitaries constructed a 
little chapel of planks for their pious reunions and. 
in the depths of the woods, cabins covered with mud 
for their habitations. A legend says that St. Bruno 
whilst at prayer was discovered by the hounds of 
Roger, (ireat Count of Sicily and Calabria and uncle 
of the Duke of Apulia, who was then hunting in the 
neighbourhood, and who thus learnt to know and 
venerate him; 1ml the count had no need to wail 
for thai occa ion io know him, for it was probably 
upon his invitation that the new solitaries settled 
upon his domains. That same year (1(191 ) he visited 
them, made them a grant of the lands they occupied, 
and a dose friendship was formed between them. 
More than once St. Brunowenl to Mileto to take part 
in the joy- and sorrows of the noble family, to visit 
the count when el. i 1098 and 1 1(11 i, and to baptize 
In- -on Roger (1097), the future King of Sicily. Hut 
more often it was Roger who went into the desert 

to visit hi- frii i ii. through his generosity, 

the monaster} of St, Stephen was built, in 1095, near 




the hermitage of St. Mary, there was erected adjoin- 
ing it a little country house at which he loved to pass 
the time left free from governing liis State. 

Meanwhile the friends of St. Bruno died one after 
the other: Urban II in 1099; Landuin, the prior of the 
Grande Chartreuse, his first companion, in 1100; 
Count Roger in 1101. His own time was near at hand. 
Before his death he gathered for the last time his 
brethren round him and made in their presence a 
profession of the Catholic Faith, the words of which 
have been preserved. He affirms with special em- 
phasis his faith in the mystery of the Holy Trinity, 
and in the real presence of Our Saviour in the Holy 
Eucharist — a protestation against the two heresies 
which had troubled that century, the tri-thcism of 
Roscelin, and the impanation of Berengarius. After 
his death, the Carthusians of Calabria, following a 
frequent custom of the Middle Ages by which the 
Christian world was associated with the death of 
its saints, dispatched a rolliger, a servant of the 
convent laden with a long roll of parchment, hung 
round his neck, who passed through Italy, France, 
Germany, and England. He stopped at the principal 
churches and communities to announce the death, 
and in return, the churches, communities, or chap- 
ters inscribed upon his roll, in prose or verse, the 
expression of their regrets, with promises of prayers. 
Many of these rolls have been preserved, but few are 
so extensive or so full of praise as that about St. 
Bruno. A hundred and seventy-eight witnesses, 
of whom many had known the deceased, celebrated 
the extent of "his knowledge and the fruitfulness of 
his instruction. Strangers to him were above all 
struck by his great knowledge and talents. But his 
disciples praised his three chief virtues — his great 
spirit of prayer, an extreme mortification, and a 
filial devotion to the Blessed Virgin. Both the 
churches built by him in the desert were dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin: Our Lady of Casalibus in 
Dauphine, Our Lady Delia Torre in Calabria; and, 
faithful to his inspirations, the Carthusian Statutes 
proclaim the Mother of God the first and chief patron 
of all the houses of the order, whoever may be their 
particular patron. 

St. Bruno was buried in the little cemetery of the 
hermitage of St. Mary, and many miracles were 
worked at his tomb. He has never been formally 
canonized. His cult, authorized for the Carthusian 
Order by Leo X in 1514, was extended to the whole 
Church by Gregory XV, 17 February, 1623, as a 
semi-double feast, and elevated to the class of doubles 
by Clement X, 14 March, 1674. St. Bruno is the 
popular saint of Calabria; every year a great multi- 
tude resort to the Charterhouse of St. Stephen, on 
the Monday and Tuesday of Pentecost, when his 
relics are borne in procession to the hermitage of 
St. Mary, where he lived, and the people visit the 
spots sanctified by his presence. An immense num- 
ber of medals are struck in his honour and distributed 
to the crowd, and the little Carthusian habits, which 
so many children of the neighbourhood wear, are 
blessed. He is especially invoked, and successfully, 
for the deliverance of those possessed. 

As a writer and founder of an order, St. Bruno 
occupies an important place in the history of the 
eleventh century. He composed commentaries on 
the Psalms and on the Epistles of St. Paul, the 
former written probably during his professorship a1 
Reims, the latter during his stay at the Grande 
Chartreuse if we may believe an old manuscript Been 
byMabiUon "Explicit glosarius Brunonia beremitse 

super Epistolas B. l'auii . " Two letters of his still 
remain, also his profession of faith, and a short 
elegy on contempt for the world which shows that 
he cultivated poetry. The " Commentaries " disclose 
to us a man of learning; he knows a little Hebrew 
and Greek and uses it to explain, or if need be, to 

rectify the Vulgate; he is familiar with the Fathers, 
especially St. Augustine and St. Ambrose, his fa- 
vourites. "His style", says Dom Rivet, "is concise, 
clear, nervous and simple, and his Latin as good as 
could be expected of that century: it would be 
difficult to find a composition of this kind at once 
more solid and more luminous, more concise and 
more clear". His writings have been published 
several times: at Paris, 1509-24; Cologne, 1611-40; 
Migne, Latin Patrology, CLII, CLIII, Montreuil-sur- 
Mer, 1891. The Paris edition of 1524 and those of 
Cologne include also some sermons and homilies 
which may be more justly attributed to St. Bruno, 
Bishop of Segni. The Preface of the Blessed Virgin 
has also been wrongly ascribed to him; it is long 
anterior, though he may have contributed to intro- 
duce it into the liturgy. 

St. Bruno's distinction as the founder of an order 
was that he introduced into the religious life the 
mixed form, or union of the eremitical and cenobite 
modes of monasticism, a medium between the 
Camaldolese Rule and that of St. Benedict. He wrote 
no rule, but he left behind him two institutions 
which had little connexion with each other — that of 
Dauphine and that of Calabria. The foundation of 
Calabria, somewhat like the Camaldolese, comprised 
two classes of religious: hermits, who had the direction 
of the order, and cenobites who did not feel called 
to the solitary life; it only lasted a century, did not 
rise to more than five houses, and finally, in 1191, 
united with the Cistercian Order. The foundation 
of Grenoble, more like the rule of St. Benedict, com- 
prised only one kind of religious, subject to a uniform 
discipline, and the greater part of whose life was 
spent in solitude, without, however, the complete 
exclusion of the conventual life. This life spread 
throughout Europe, numbered 250 monasteries, and 
in spite of many trials continues to this day. 

The great figure of St. Bruno has been often 
sketched by artists and has inspired more than one 
masterpiece: in sculpture, for example, the famous 
statue by Houdon, at St. Mary of the Angels in Rome, 
" which would speak if his rule did not compel him to 
silence"; in painting, the fine picture by Zurbaran. 
in the Seville Museum, representing Urban II and 
St. Bruno in conference; the Apparition of the 
Blessed Virgin to St. Bruno, by Guercino at Bo- 
logna; and above all the twenty-two pictures forming 
the gallery of St. Bruno in the museum of the Louvre, 
"a masterpiece of Le Sueur and of the French 
school ' '. 

Le Couteulx, Annates Clrd. Cart., I; Tromby, Storia del Slo 
Patriarca S. Brunnnc, I, II; Acta SS.. Ij October; Zanotti. 
Mom tli S. Brunone i Bologna, 1741 1; I.> pebvre, Saint Bruno 
et L'Ordrr del i hartn , c Paris, 1883 I '■ * - s rini Kruno. ]tar 
un religicuj- ,1. ■<, ■ ■■ i ' . -ru* Montreuil-eup-Mer, 1898 . 
Tappert, Dcr heSigt Bruno Luxemburg, 1872); Lobbel, 

Drr Stifter det i artl m Ordent Munster, 1899 ; l.a Grande 

Chartreuse par un Chartrcux (1896 . 

Ambrose Moigel. 

Bruno, Giordano, Italian philosopher, b. at Nola 
in Campania, in the Kingdom of Naples, in 1548; d. 
at Rome, 1600. At the age of eleven he went to 
Naples, to study "humanity, logic, and dialectic", 
and, four years later, he entered the Order of St. 
Dominic, giving up his worldly name of Filippo and 
taking that of Giordano. He made his novitiate at 
Naples and continued to study there. In 1572 he 
was ordained priest. It seems, however, that, even 
as a novice, lie attracted attention by the originality 
of his views and by 1 1 is outspoken criticism of accepted 

theological doctrines. Alter his ordination things 

reached such a pass that, in 1576, formal accusation 
i.i heresy was brought against him. Thereupon he 
went to Rome, but, apparently, did not mend his 
manner of speaking of the mysteries of faith; for 
the accusations were renewed against him at the 
convent of the Minerva. Within a few months of 




his arrival he fled the eity and east off all allegiance 
to his order. From this point on, his life-story is 
the tale of his wanderings from one country to another 
and of his failure to find peace anywhere. He tarried 
awhile in several Italian cities, and in 1">79 went to 
Geneva, where he seems to have adopted tin' Cal- 
vinisl faith, although afterwards, before the ecclesi- 
astical tribunal at Venice, he steadfastly denied 
that he had ever joined the Reformed Church. 
This much at least is certain; he was excommuni- 
cated by the Calvinist Council on account of 
his disrespectful attitude towards the heads of 
that Church and was obliged to leave the city. 
Thence he went to Toulouse, Lyons, and (in 15S1) 
to Paris. 

At Lyons he completed his "Clavis Magna'', or 
"Great Key" to the art. of remembering. In Paris 
he published several works which further developed 
his art of memory-training and revealed the two- 
fold influence of Raymond Lully and the neo- 
Platonists. In 1582 he published a characteristic 
work, "II candelaio", or "The Torchbearer", a 
satire in which he exhibits in a marked degree the 
false taste then in vogue among the humanists, many 
of whom mistook obscenity for humour. While at 
Paris he lectured publicly on philosophy, under the 
auspices, as it seems, of the College of Cambrai, the 
forerunner of the College of France. In 1583 he 
crossed over to England, and, for a time at least, 
enjoyed the favour of Queen Elizabeth and the 
friendship of Sir Philip Sidney. To the latter he 
dedicated the most bitter of his attacks on the Catho- 
lic Church, "II spaccio della bestia trionfante", 
"The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast", pub- 
lished in 1584. He visited Oxford, and, on being 
refused the privilege of lecturing there, he published 
(1584) his "Cena delle ceneri", or "Ash-Wednesday 
Supper", in which he attacked the Oxford professors, 
saying that tiny knew more about beer than about 
tlrok. In 15S5 he returned to France, and during 
the year which he spent in Paris at this time made 
several attempts to become reconciled to the Catholic 
Church, all of which failed because of his refusal to 
accept the condition imposed, namely, that he 
should return to his order. 

In Germany, whither he went in 1587, he showed 
i he same spirit of insolent self-assertion as at < Oxford. 
In Ib-lmstudt he was excommunicated by the 
Lutherans. After some time spent in literary ac- 
tivity at Frankfort, he went, in 1501, to Venice at 
the invitation of Mocenigo, who professed to be inter- 
ested in hia system of memory-training. Failing 
to obtain from Bruno the secret of his "natural 
magic", Mocenigo denounced him to the Inquisition. 
Bruno was arrested, and in his trial before the Vene- 
tian inquisitors first took refuge in the principle 
of "two-fold truth", saying that the errors imputed 
to him were held by him "as a philosopher, and not 
as hi honest Christian"; later, however, he solemnly 
abjured all his errors and doubts in the matter of 
Catholic doctrine and practice (Berti, Docum., XII. 
2.' and XIII. 15). At this point the Roman Inqui- 
sition intervened and requested his extradition. 
After some hesitation the Venetian authorities 
agreed, and in February, 1593, Bruno was sent to 
Rome, and for six years was kept in the prison of 
the Inquisition. Historians have striven in vain to 
discover the explanation of this long delay on the 
i the Roman authorities. In the spring of 
1599, the trial was begun before a commission of 
the Roman Inquisition, and, after the accused had 
been granted several terms of respite in which to 
' his errors, he was finally condemned (January. 
1600 . handed over to the secular power (8 February), 
and burned at the stake in the Campo dei Fiori in 
Rome (17 February). Bruno was not condemned 
for his defence of the Copernican system of astronomy, 

m.— 2 

nor for his doctrine of the plurality of inhabited 
worlds, but for his theological errors, among which 
were the following: that Christ was not God but 
merely an unusually skilful magician, that the Holy 
Ghost is the soul of the world, that the Devil will be 
saved, etc. 

To the works of Bruno already mentioned the 
following are to be added: "Delia causa, principio 
ed uno"; "Dell' infinito uni verso e dei mondi"; "De 
Compendiosa Architecture "; "De Triplici Minimo"; 
"De Monade, Numero et Figura ". In these "the 
Nolan" expounds a system of philosophy in which 
the principal elements are neo-Platomsm, material- 
istic monism, rational mysticism (after the manner 
of Raymond Lully), and the naturalistic concept of 
the unity of the material world (inspired by the 
Copernican astronomy). His attitude towards Aris- 
totle is best illustrated by his reiterated assertion 
that the natural philosophy of the Stagirite is viti- 
ated by the predominance of the dialectical over 
the mathematical mode of conceiving natural phe- 
nomena. Towards the Scholastics in general his 
feeling was one of undisguised contempt; he ex- 
cepted, however, Albert the Great and St. Thomas, 
for whom he always maintained a high degree of 
respect. He wished to reform the Aristotelean 
philosophy, and yet he was bitterly opposed to his 
contemporaries, Ramus and Patrizzi, whose efforts 
were directed towards the same object. He was 
acquainted, though only in a superficial way, with 
the wTitings of the pre-Socratic philosophers of 
Greece, and with the works of the neo-Platonists, 
especially with the books falsely attributed to 
Iamblichus and Plotinus. From the neo-Platonists 
he derived the tendency of his thought towards 
monism. From the pre-Socratic philosophers he 
borrowed the materialistic interpretation of the One. 
From the Copernican doctrine, which was attracting 
so much attention in the century in which he lived, 
he learned to identify the material One with the 
visible, infinite, heliocentric universe. 

Thus, his system of thought is an incoherent ma- 
terialistic pantheism. God and the world arc one; 
matter and spirit, body and soul, arc two phases of 
the same substance; the universe is infinite; beyond 
the visible world there is an infinity of other worlds. 
each of which is inhabited: this terrestrial globe has a 
soul; in fact, each and even- part of it, mineral as 
well as plant and animal, is animated; all matter is 
made up of the same elements (no distinction between 
terrestrial and celestial matter); all souls are akin 
(transmigration is, therefore, not impo ible). This 
unitary point of view is Bruno's justification of 
"natural magic". No doubt, the attempt to estab- 
lish a scientific continuity among all the phenomena 
of nature is an important manifestation of the modi I n 
spirit, and interesting, especially on account of its 
appearance at the moment when the medieval point 
of view was being abandoned. And one can readily 
understand how Bruno's effort to establish a unitary 
concept of nature commanded the admiration of such 
men as Spinoza, Jacobi, and Hegel. < >n the other 
hand, the exaggerations, the limitations, and the 
positive errors of his scientific system; his intolerance 
of even those who were working for the reforms to 
which he was devoted; the false analogies, fantastic 
allegories, and sophistical reasonings into which his 
emotional fervour often betrayed him have justified. 
in the eyes of many. Bayle's characterization of him 
as "the knight-errant of philosophy". His attitude 
of mind towards religious truth was that of a ration- 
alist. Personally, lie failed to feel any of the vital 
significance of Christianity as a religious system. 
It was not a Roman Inquisitor, but a Prod 
divine, who said of him that he was "a man of great 
capacity, with infinite knowledge, but not a trace of 




The latest edition of Bruno's works is by Torco, Opere 
latine di G. B. (Florence. 1889); Opere inedite (Naples, 1891); 
(Leipzig. 1829. 1S301. See also: McIntyre, Giordano Bruno 
(London and New York, 1903); Frith, Life of G. B, (London 
and Boston, 1SS7); Adamson in Development of J7<W< rn 
Philosophy (London, 1903), II, 23-44; Hoffding, Hist, of 
Modern Philosophy, far. Meter (London, 1900), I, 110 sqq.; 
Stockl, Gesch. der Phil, des Mittelaiters (Mainz, 1866), III, 
106 sqq.; Turner, Hist, of Phil. (Boston. 1903), 429 sqq. 

William Ttjhnek. 

Bruno of Querfurt (also called Bbtjn and Boni- 
face), Saint, second Apostle of the Prussians and 
martyr, b. about 970; d. 14 February. 1009. He is 
generally represented with a hand cut off, and is 
commemorated on 15 October. Bruno was a mem- 
ber of the noble family of Querfurt and is commonly 
said to have been a relative of the Emperor Otto III, 
although Hefele (in Kirchenlex., II. s. v. Bruno) 
emphatically denies this. When hardly six years old 
he was sent to Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg 
to be educated and had the learned Geddo as his 
teacher in the cathedral school. He was a well- 
behaved, industrious scholar; while still a lad he 
was made a canon of the cathedral. The fifteen- 
year-old Otto III became attached to Bruno, made 
him one of his court, and took him to Rome when 
the young emperor went there in 996 to be crowned. 
At Rome Bruno became acquainted with St. Adalbert, 
Archbishop of Prague, who was murdered a year later 
by the pagan Prussians to whom lie had gone as a 
missionary. After Adalbert's death Bruno was 
filled with an intense desire for martyrdom. He 
spent much of his time in the monastery on the 
Aventine where Adalbert had become a monk, and 
where Abbot Johannes Canaparius wrote a. life of 
Adalbert. Bruno, however, did not enter the monas- 
tic life here, but in the monastery of Pereum, an 
island in the swamps near Ravenna. 

Pereum was under the rule of the founder of the 
Camaldoli reform, St. Romuald, a saint who had great 
influence over the Emperor Otto III. Under the 
guidance of St. Romuald Bruno underwent a severe 
ascetic training; it included manual work, fasting 
all the week except Sunday ami Thursday, night 
vigils, and scourging on the bare back; in addition 
Bruno suffered greatly from fever. He found much 
pleasure in the friendship of a brother of the same 
age as himself, Benedict of Benevento, who shared his 
cell and who was one with him in mind and spirit. 
The Emperor Otto III desired to convert the lands 
between the Elbe and tin ( >der, which were occupied 
by Slavs, to Christianity, and to plant colonies there, 
lie hoped to attain these ends through the aid of 
a monastery to be founded in this region by some 
of the most zealous of Romuald 's pupils. In 1001, 
therefore. Benedict and another brother of the same 
monastery, Johannes, went, laden with gifts from 
the emperor, to Poland, where they were well re- 
ceived by tin' Christian Duke Boleslas, who taught 
them the language of his people; During this lime 
Bruno studied the language in Italy, where he re- 
mained with Otto and awaited the Apostolic ap- 
pointmenl by the pope. Sylvester II made him 
archbishop over the heathen and gave him the 
pallium, but left the consecration to the Archbishop 

of Magdeburg, who had 1 he supervision of the mission 
to the Slavs. Quitting Pome in 1003, Bruno was 
consecrated in February, loni, by Archbishop Tagino 
of Magdeburg and gave his property for the founding 

of a monastery. As war had broken out between 
the Emperor Henry II and the Polish Duke, Bruno 

not able to go at once to Poland; so. starting 

from Rat i bo t t he I lanube, he went into Hui 

where St. Adalbert had also laboured. Here he 

finished his life of St. Adalbert, a literary memorial 
of much worth. 

Bruno sought to convert the Hungarian ruler 
Achtum anil his principality of "Black-Hungary", 
l.ut he met wnh so much opposition, including that 

of the Greek monks, that success was impossible. 
In December, 1007, he went to Russia. Here the 
Grand duke Vladimir entertained him for a month 
and then gave him a territory extending to the 
possessions of the Petschenegen, who lived on the 
Black Sea between the Danube and the Don. This 
was considered the fiercest and most cruel of the 
heathen tribes. Bruno spent five months among 
them, baptized some thirty adults, aided in bring- 
ing about a treaty of peace with Russia, and left 
in that country one of his companions whom he had 
consecrated bishop. About the middle of the year 
1008 he returned to Poland and there consecrated 
a bishop for Sweden. While in Poland he heard 
that his friend Benedict and four companions had 
been killed by robbers on 11 May, 1003. Making use 
of the accounts of eyewitnesses, he wrote the touch- 
ing history of the lives and death of the so-called five 
Polish brothers. Towards the end of 1008 he wrote a 
memorable, but ineffectual, letter to the Emperor 
Henry II, exhorting him to show clemency and to 
conclude a peace with Boleslas of Poland. Near the 
close of this same year, accompanied by eighteen 
companions, he went to found a mission among the 
Prussians; but the soil was not fruitful, and Bruno 
and his companions travelled towards the borders of 
Russia, preaching courageously as they went. On the 
borders of Russia they were attacked by the heathen, 
and the whole company were muidered, Bruno with 
great composure meeting death by decapitation. 
Duke Boleslas bought the bodies of the slain and had 
them brought to Poland. It is said that the city of 
Braunsberg is named after St. Bruno. 

Soon after the time of their death St. Bruno and 
his companions were reverenced as martyrs. Little 
value is to be attached to a legendary account of the 
martyrdom by a certain Wipert. Bruno's fellow- 
pupil, Dithmar, or Thietmar, Bishop of Merseburg, 
gives a brief account of him in his Chronicle, VI, 58. 

The writings, already referred to. of Bruno himself; Acta 
N.N'., 14 February; Bi Ti.ER. Lives of the Saints. 19 .lime; Uiese- 
brkciit. Deutsche Kaiserzeit, II; Histor. Jahrbueh <1.NH21. XIII; 
Kolbehg, Der hi. Bruno rem Querfurt (Braunsberg, 1884); 
SHmmen aus Maria-Loach (Freiburg im Br.. 18971. LIII. 

Gabriel Meier. 

Bruno the Saxon (Saxonicus). a < ierman 
chronicler of the eleventh century and author of the 
"Historia de Bello Saxonico". Little is known of 
his life. He was apparently a Saxon monk belong- 
ing to the household of Archbishop Werner, of 
Magdeburg, who was a vigorous opponent of Henry IV 
and one of the leaders of the Saxon uprising against 
the emperor. After the death of the archbishop in 
1078 at the hands of peasants. Bruno attached him- 
self to Werner. Bishop of Merseburg, to whom, in 
ION.', he dedicated the work, "De Bello Saxonico", 
by which he is chiefly known. As its name indicates, 
it is a record of the struggles of the Saxons with the 
Emperor Henry IV. The author begins with an ac- 
count of the youth of Henry and the evil influence 
exerted over him by Adalbert of Bremen after he 
had passed from the stern tutelage of Anno. Arch- 
bishop of Cologne. He then traces the relations of 
the emperor with the Saxons and narrates at length 
the causes and events of the rebellion, ending with 
the election of Hermann of Luxemburg as king in 

There has been a difference of opinion regarding 
the historical value of Bruno's work. It was written 
during the contentions between Henry and Greg- 
ory VII, and the author has been classed with those 
partisans who. either through ignorance or malice, 
endeavoured to lower Henry in the esteem of his 
subjects (Stenzel). Bruno indeed supported the 
pope's cause, and his Saxon sympathies manifest 
themselves at times in his writings, hut of his sin- 
cerity :nid l»is expressed purpose to narrate the truth 
there can be no doubt. He made the most of hiij 




sources of information and, in spite of occasional 
omissions, gives a vivid picture of the times from the 

fwiiiit of view of an interested contemporary. The 
etters of the Saxon bishops and other original docu- 
ments wbiofa he includes in his history give an added 
value to the work. The text of the ''De Hello 
Saxonico" is given in the "Monum. Germ. Hist." 
(Pertz, Hanover, 1848), V. 327-384. A German 
translation, with an introduction, was published by 
W. Wattenbach (Berlin, 1853). For an extended, 
though not unbiased, history of the time, cf. Stenzel, 
"Geschichte Deutschlands unter den frankischen 
Kaisern" (Leipzig, 1827). 

W \ i tf.nbach. Deutschlamls Gfsc/iichtsguellen (fith ed., Ber- 
lin, 1893), II, S6-88. 

Hi \ky M. Brock. 

Brunswick (Braunschweig), a duchy situated 
in the mountainous central part of Northern Ger- 
many, comprising the region of the Harz mountains. 
Territorially the duchy is not a unit, but parcelled 
into three large, and six smaller, sections. Moth 
in extent of territory and in population it ranks 
tenth among the confederated states of the ( Serman 
Empire. The inhabitants are of the Lower Saxon 
race. The census of 1900 enumerated 404.333 in- 
habitants. Of these 432,570 were Lutherans, 4400 
Reformed, 24,175 Catholics, and 1S24 Jews. The 
Government is a constitutional monarchy, hereditary 
in the male line of the House of Brunswick-Luneburg. 
The elder line having become extinct in 1SS4 by the 
death of Duke Wilhelm, the younger line, repre- 
sented by the Duke of Cumberland, should have 
succeeded to the throne. For political reasons, how- 
ever, Prussia objected to his taking possession, and 
by decree of the Bundesrat he was excluded. The 
present regent, chosen by the legislature, is Duke 
Johann Aibrecht of Mecklenburg. Agriculture, 
industries, and commerce are highly developed in 
the duchy. It is stated that the first potatoes 
raised in Germany were planted in Brunswick from 
five of the tubers brought to Europe by Francis 
Drake. The town Brunswick (Brim/mix incus, 
Bruno's village), which has given its name to the 
duchy, was founded in the second half of the ninth 
century. The country was part of the allodial lands 
of Henry the Lion. After his defeat and exile in 
1180, he lost all his possessions. Brunswick, however, 
was restored to his grandson Otto, who was made 
first Duke of Brunswick by Frederick II. In the 
fourteenth century the town became a centre of the 
Hanseatic League, as well as of the confederation 
of the Lower Saxon towns. 

Christianity dates from Charlemagne's conquest 
of the Saxon country of which Brunswick is a part. 
Charlemagne found and destroyed an ancient Ger- 
man idol in the place where now Brunswick stands. 
At Kissenbriick many of the conquered Saxons were 
baptized. During the Middle Ages the country was 
partly under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Ilal- 
berstadt, partly under that of Hiklesheim. At the 
end of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth 
century St. Ludger laboured in the neighbourhood 
of Helmstedt, ulnae he founded a monastery. The 
pious Duke of Eastphalia and his devout wife 
founded, in 852, the monastery of Brunshausen. 
near Gandersheim, for Benedictine nuns, where 
his daughter Hathumod was first abbess. It was her 
brother Bruno who some years later founded the 
town of Brunswick. When, in 881, the church and 
monastery of Gandersheim were completed, the 
community was transferred thither, under the abbe 
Gerberga, sister of Hathumod. This monastery 
reached its highest point of prosperity in the tenth 
century. as is shown by the life of llrotswitha, the 
celebrated "nun of Gandersheim", who s;m» the 
praises of Otto the Great and wrote Latin comedie 
after the manner of Terence. Other Benedictine 

monasteries founded in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries were Steterburg, Lutter, and Clus. The 
great Cistercian Order also flourished in Brunswick. 
The three monasteries of Amelungsborn, Marienthal, 
and Riddaghausen were founded in the twelfth 
century. The Augustinians also had a monastery 
for men and one for women at Helmstedt. 

In the town of Brunswick religion flourished from 
an early period. Among tin' older monasteries 
should be mentioned St. Blasius and St. Cyriacus, 
also the Benedictine monastery built in honour of 
Si. Autor, whose relics were brought from Trier, 
and who became the patron saint of the town. In 
the twelfth century Henry the Lion did much for 
his town of Brunswick. He rebuilt some monas- 
teries and erected several churches. The Franciscans 
made a foundation in the town in the thirteenth, 
the Dominicans, early in the fourteenth, century. 
The town also possessed several hospitals and 
Beguinages. .Mention must here be made of the 
great reform of monasteries which was wrought 
in North Germany in the fifteenth century. The 
celebrated reformer of monasteries, Johannes Busch, 
canon regular of Windesheim, extended his benefi- 
cent labours to Brunswick. The Benedictine Con- 
gregation of Bursfeld, which at the end of the fif- 
teenth century counted 142 monasteries, may be said 
to have sprung from the monastery of Clus near Gan- 
dersheim. (See I'' 1 i.'sfeld.) 

With regard to the religious revolution of the 
sixteenth century it will be necessary to consider 
the town of Brunswick separately. It was a proud 
and rich town and had long sought to make itself 
independent of the authority of its dukes. Hence 
the revolutionary doctrines of (he Reformers were 
readily accepted by the townsmen. Lutheranism 
was introduced as early as 1521, and firmly estab- 
lished by Bugenhagen in 1528, not without ruthless 
fanaticism. In the country, however, Duke Henry's 
authority prevailed, and the Reformers gained no 
foothold until 1542, when, owing to the victory of 
the Smalkaldic League, the duke fell into captivity, 
Bugenhagen was recalled, and the external observ- 
ance of the new religion was forced upon the people 
with much violence and cruelty. When Henry re- 
covered his duchy, in 1547. he re-established the Cath- 
olic religion. His son and successor made the whole 
district Lutheran, and it has since remained a Protes- 
tant stronghold. Duke Julius did not destroy all the 
monasteries, but allowed many of them to persist 
as so-called Protestant convents. Among these was 

the once celebrated Gandersheim which was only 
sed during the general spoliation and seculari- 
zation of 1802. Prominent among the Dukes of 
Brunswick in post-Reformation limes is Anton 
I'lrich, said to have been the mosl learned prince of 
his time, a patron of the arts and sciences, himself 
a poet, and a student of the early lathers. He took 
a lively interest in the movemenf for the reconcilia- 
tion of the Protestant sects with the Church, the 
same movement with which Leibniz was identified. 
Early in 1710 the duke abjured Protestantism and 

a few months later published his "fifty Re 
Why the Catholic Church is Preferable to Pi 
tantism". (See Pass, Convertiten, IX.) Two of 
In- daughters followed him into the Catholic Church. 
I In- only result of his conversion so far as the duchy 

was concerned was his erection of two Catholic 

churches, one in Brunswick, the other in Wolfen- 

buttel. to which according to his desire Franciscan 
Fathers were appointed. 

Pope Gregory N\ I placed (lie Catholics of the 
Duchy of Brunswick under the jurisdiction of the 

Bishop of Bildesheim. They are merely tolerated 

in the duchy. The Constitution of 1S32. it is true. 

granted liberty of conscience and the right of public 
worship, but subjected all churches to the "super- 




vision of the Government", that is to say, of the 
Lutheran church authorities. The Law of 1S4S 
brought little relief to the Catholics. No ecclesiasti- 
cal ordinance or pontifical constitution may be 
published without the government's placet; all Catho- 
lic congregations were incorporated in Protestant 
parishes. This last intolerable law was abolished 
in 1867 for three Catholic parishes, henceforth 
' recognized as such by the State, viz., Brunswick, 
Wolfenbuttel, and Helmstedt, all the others re- 
maining parts of Protestant parishes. Catholic 
priests (with the three aforesaid exceptions) may 
not perform baptisms, marriages, or hold funeral 
services without giving previous notice to the Protes- 
tant pastor and obtaining his leave. And no priest, 
unless duly recognized by the State, may perform 
any ecclesiastical function without falling under 
the penalty of the law. Non-recognized priests 
are even fined for conferring baptism in case of 
necessity, and for administering the last sacraments. 
The same intolerance prevails with regard to schools 
and the education of children of mixed marriages. 
The State contributes nothing towards the support 
of Catholic worship. In the year 1864 a law was 
passed abolishing Stolgebilhren, i. e. all perquisites 
and fees received by the priest for certain ecclesias- 
tical functions, such as marriages and funerals, which 
had previously to be handed over to the Protestant 
pastor. The general statement, therefore, in the 
"Kirchenlexicon", that the law of 1S67 has rendered 
the condition of the Catholics in the Duchy of 
Brunswick "wholly satisfactory", needs recension; 
it must be restricted to the three above-named 
parishes; in the rest of the duchy the condition of 
Catholics is far from satisfactory. It is for this 
reason that the Centre Party in the Reichstag has 
brought in the Toleration Bill, which, if carried, 
would sweep away all Catholic disabilities through- 
out the empire, in Brunswick as well as in Meck- 
lenburg, and in the Kingdom of Saxony. 

Iumkl, lluiulburh drr GriH/ruphie (5th ed., Leipzig). IV, 
, r ,t,s SJ; Brl-ck, Gefichichlr drr kutli. Kirchf in Druhrfdaiul 

i?n 19. Jnhrh. (Mainz and Kirchheim), III; Woker in Kirrhm- 
lex., s. v.; Jansskn-I'astor, Grurh. des deutsch. Volkes (ISth 
ed., Freiburg), III. Bk. II, xvii; IV, Bk. II. viii. Bk. Ill, xi; 
StiHiislesikon (2nd ed.), I, s. v. KonversaHons-Lex. (3d ed., 
Freiburg), s. v. B GuLDNER 

Brus, Anton, Archbishop of Prague, b. at Mtig- 
litz in Moravia, 13 February, 1518; d. 28 August, 
1580. After receiving his education at Prague he 
joined the Knights of tlie Cross with the Red Star, 
an ecclesiastical order established in Bohemia in 
the thirteenth century. After his ordination to the 
priesthood Emperor Ferdinand appointed him chap- 
lain of the Austrian army, in which capacity 
he served during the Turkish war (1542-45). 
He was elected Grand Master General of his order 
in 1.552, when he was only 34 years of age. In 1558 
he became Bishop of Vienna; in 1561 the emperor 
made him Archbishop of Prague, a see which had 
remained vacant since 1421 when Archbishop Conrad 
abandoned his flock and entered the Hussite camp. 
liming the intervening years the archdiocese was 
governed by administrators elected by the cathedral 
chapter. Before Archbishop Brus took possession 
of his see, Emperor Ferdinand I, who was also King 
of Bohemia, sent him as Bohemian legate to the 
Council of Trent (1562). Besides other ecclesias- 
tical reforms, he urged tin' archbishop to advocate 
ill-' expediency of permitting the Utraquists, or 
Calixtines, of Bohemia and adjoining countries to 
receive the Holy Eucharist under both species; 
he hoped that alter this concession many of the 
Utraquists would return to the Catholic Church. 
The archbishop was ably assisted in his endeavours 

li.\ the imperial delegate from Hungary, Bishop 

George Draskovich of Funfkirchen (Pecs), and by 
Baumgartner, the delegate of Duke Albrecht V of Ba- 

varia. Brus could not be present at the twenty-first 
and the twenty-second sessions of the Council, during 
which this petition of the emperor was discussed. The 
majority of the fathers of Trent considered it be- 
yond their power to grant the privilege of lay com- 
munion under both kinds and referred the matter 
to Pope Pius IV, who, in a Brief dated 16 April, 
1564, granted the petition, with certain restrictions, 
to the subjects of the emperor and of Duke Albrecht 
of Bavaria. The Archbishop of Prague was to 
empower certain priests to administer the Holy 
Eucharist in both kinds to such of the laity as de- 
sired it. The faithful who wished to take advantage 
of this privilege were obliged to profess their belief 
in the Real Presence of the whole Christ in each 
species, while the priest at the administration of 
each species pronounced the formula: "Corpus 
et sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christ! custodiant 
animam tuam in vitam seternam. Amen. " in stead of 
the customary formula: "Corpus Domini nostri," etc. 

The emperor and the archbishop expected great 
results from this papal concession. Thinking that 
the Utraquist consistory at Prague would at once 
accept all Catholic doctrine, the emperor put it 
under the jurisdiction of the archbishop. Both, 
however, were soon undeceived. The Utraquist 
consistory was ready to present its sacerdotal can- 
didates to the archbishop for ordination, but there 
his authority was to end. They refused to permit 
their candidates for the priesthood to undergo an 
examination on Catholic theology or to give proof 
of their orthodoxy, and complained to the emperor 
that the archbishop was infringing upon their rights. 

Had Ferdinand not died at this critical moment, 
the papal concession would perhaps have produced 
some salutary effects, but under the weak rule of 
his son Maximilian, who became emperor in 1564, 
the gulf that separated the Catholics from the 
Utraquists was continually widening. In order 
to publish and put into execution the decrees of 
the Council of Trent, the archbishop intended to 
convene a provincial synod at Prague; but Maxi- 
milian, fearing to offend the Bohemian nobility, of 
whom the majority were Protestants, withheld 
his consent. Hampered on all sides, the archbishop 
and the small body of Catholic nobles, despite their 
almost superhuman efforts, could only postpone 
the impending crisis. The Utraquists no longer 
heeded the archbishop's commands, continued to 
administer the Holy Eucharist to infants, disre- 
garded many decrees of the Council of Trent, neg- 
lected sacramental confession — in a word, were 
steering straight towards Protestantism. After 
1572, the archbishop refused to ordain Utraquist 
candidates, despite the expostulations of Emperor 
Maximilian. The death of Maximilian (12 October, 
1576) brought no relief to the archbishop and his 
ever-decreasing flock of Catholics. His successor, 
Emperor Rudolph II. though a good Catholic at 
heart, was as weak as his predecessor. After the 
death of Brus the Catholics of Bohemia continued 
on their downward course until the victory of 
Ferdinand II over the Winterkonia Frederick V at 
the White Mountain near Prague (^ November, 1620). 

Frind, Gtschichle drr BischBf / Brzbuchdfe mm Prag 

(Prague, IS731. ISL' IS!>; ll.nn.wv m Kirrh.nhr.. ■. \ . 
raphy in Ornlrrrru hixche \ u rteljahrechrift fQr knth. '1 > 
(Vienna, 1S74). ,. -, 


Brusa, a titular see of Bithynia in Asia Minor. 
According to Strabo, XII, iv, the city was founded 
by King Prusias, who carried on war with Croesus; 
according to Stephanos Byzantius, by another Prusias. 
contemporary of Cyrus, so that it would have been 

founded in the sixth century It. C. It is more proba- 
ble thai it was founded by, and was named after, 
Prusias, King of Bithynia and Hannibal's friend, 

237-192 b.c. Situated in a beautiful, well watered, 




fertile plain at the foot of Mount Olympus, it became 
one of the chief cities of Roman Bithynia and re- 
ceived at an early date the Christian teaching. At 
least three of its bishops, Sts. Alexander, Patritius, 
and Timothy, suffered martyrdom during the persecu- 
tions (Lequien, I, 615-620, numbers only twenty- 
two bishops to 1721, but, this list might be increased 
easily l. The see was first subject to Nicomedia, 
metropolis of Bithynia Prima; later, as early at least 
as the thirteenth century, it became an exempt arch- 
bishopric. In the neighbouring country and at the 
foot of Mount Olympus stood many monasteries; 
from the eighth to the fourteenth century it shared 
with Mount Athos the honour of being a principal 
centre of Greek monachism. In 1327 it was taken 
by Sultan Orkhan after a siege of ten years ami 
remained the capital of the Ottoman Empire till 
1453. Brusa is to-day the chief town of the Vilayet 
of Khodavendighiar. It is celebrated for its numer- 
ous and beautiful mosques and tombs of the Sultans. 
Its mineral anil thermal waters are still renowned. 
The silk-worm is cultivated throughout the neigh- 
bouring territory; there are in the town more than 
fifty silk-mills. Brusa has about 80,000 inhabitants, 
of whom 6000 are Greeks, 9000 Gregorian Armenians, 
2500 Jews, 800 Catholic Armenians, 200 Latins, and 
a few Protestants. The Assumptionists conduct the 
Latin parish and a college. The Sisters of Charity 
have a hospital, an orphans' institute, and a school. 
Brusa is still a metropolis for the Greeks. It is also 
a bishopric for Gregorian and Catholic Armenians; 
the latter number about 4000. S. Vailhk. 

Brussels (from Bruk Si I, marsh-castle; Flem. 
Brussel, Ger. Brussel, IT. Bmxelles), capital of the 
Kingdom of Belgium. Its population at the end 
of 1905 (including the eight distinct communes that 
make up its faubourgs or suburbs) was 612,401. The 
city grew up on the banks of the little River Serine, 
one of the affluents of the Scheldt, whose course 
through the old town is now arched over and covered 
by the inner boulevards. The medieval city gained 
steadily in importance, owing to its position on the 
main inland commercial highway between the chief 
commercial centres of the Low Countries and Cologne. 
It is now connected with the Sambre by the Charle- 
roi Canal, and with the Scheldt by the Willebroek 
Canal which has been considerably enlarged since 
1901 and is destined to justify the title of "seaport" 
that Brussels has borne since L895. 

History. — The earliest settlement of Brussels is 
attributed by tradition to S. Gery (Gaugericus) , 
Bishop of Cambrai at the end of the sixth century; 
he is said to have built a village on an island in the 
S. nne (Place Saint-Gery), also a small chapel ("Ana- 
leeta Bollandiana" 1888, VII. 387 398; L. Van der 
Essen, "Les 'Vitse' des saints merovingiens", Lou- 
vain, 1907; 1!. Flahault, "Notes et documents relar 
tifs an eulte de S. Ge>y", Dunkerque, 1890). From 
the eighth century it was one of the villas or tem- 
porary residences of the Prankish kings, but is first 
mentioned in history towards the end of the ninth 
century as Broselia (dwelling mi the marsh). It was 
later a part of the dower (if Gerberga, sister of Em- 
peror Otto the (Ireat (936-973) on her marriage to 
i liselbert of Lorraine. Duke Charles of Lorraine, the 
last but one of the direct descendants of Charlemagne, 
I to have been born at Brussels. He certainly 
made it his chief place of abode, and brought thither 
from the Abbey of Mortzelle, which hail fallen into 

the hands of a robber chut", the bones of his kins- 
woman, St. Gudule (979), who has ever since been 
regarded as tin' patron -ami of the town. 

Upon tin' death of Charles' only son Otto (1004) 

without direct li<ir~. tin castles of Brussels, Vilvord, 

Louvain, and all the adjoining estates, the nucleus 
of the territory which later on formed the Duchy of 

Brabant, fell to his brother-in-law Lambert Balderic, 
who sometimes in his charters styles himself Count of 
Brussels and sometimes Count of Louvain, the man 
to whom the Dukes of Brabant traced their descent. 
There remain of the Brussels of this period the nave 
anil aisles of the old parish church of St. Nicholas, 
the chapel of the Holy Cross in the church of Notre- 
Dame de LaChapelle, some fragments of the forti- 
fications with which Lambert Balderic surrounded 
the city in 1040, and, most important of all, the sub- 
terranean church of St. Guy at Anderlecht which 
remains to-day as the builder planned it. 

From the twelfth century the Dukes of Lower Lor- 
raine and Brabant, and later the Counts of Louvain, 
made Brussels their residence and though it suffered, 
like most medieval cities, from pestilence, fire, and 
pillage, it grew to lie a populous centre of life and 
commerce and followed all the vicissitudes of medie- 
val Brabant, with which it fell to the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy, and on the death of Charles the Bold (1477) 
to his heirs, the Austrian Hapsburgs. In the fif- 
teenth century the Dukes of Burgundy, heirs of both 
Brabant and Flanders, held court at Brussels, and 
being French in speech and habits and surrounded 
by French knights, courtiers, and civil servants, 
gradually introduced at Brussels and elsewhere the 
French language until it became the speech of the 
local nobility and the upper classes, much to the 
detriment of the native Flemish. The latter, how- 
ever, held its own among the common people and 
the burghers, and remains yet the speech of the ma- 
jority of the citizens. Charles V made Brussels the 
capital of the Low Countries, but under Philip II, 
it was always a centre of patriotic opposition to 
Spanish rule. In 1577 was signed the peace known 
as the "Brussels Union" between the Spanish au- 
thority and the rebellious Belgians; in 1585 the city 
was besieged and captured by the Spanish general 
Alessaiiilni Farnese. 

In 1695 it was almost entirely consumed by fire on 
occasion of the siege by Marechal Villeroi. In the 
seventeenth ami eighteenth centuries it was under 
Austrian rule, witli brief exceptions. From 1794 to 
1814 it was incorporated with France by Napoleon, 
as head of the department of the Dyle. In the latter 
year it became with The Hague a capital of the new 
Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1830 it was the seat 
of the Belgian Revolution against Dutch misrule, and 
in the same year was made the capital of the new 
Kingdom of Belgium. (See BELGIUM.) 

Government. — The municipal organization of 
Brussels was at first of a very simple character. It 
consisted of an unpaiel magistracy, a College of Al- 
dermen appointed by the sovereign for life from 
among tin- chief freeholders of the city, of which they held to lie representatives. It was presided over 
by a paid officer who bore the title of Amman, was 
the direct delegate of the sovereign and in all things 
the representative of his authority. Alongside the 
College of Aldermen was the Merchants' Guild. 
Probably this corporation had legal existence before 
the institution of the magistracy; it is certain that 
by the end of the twelfth century it was firmly es- 
tablished. It exercised from the first much influence 
on public affairs, and contributed in great measure 
to the full expansion of municipal self-rule. With 
the increase of the population, the old machinery no 
longer sufficed for the maintenance of public peace 
and the regulation of trade, and the burghers, united 
as they were in the powerful organization of their 
guild, were strong enough to take the matter into 
their own hands. Hence was formed the Council of 
Jurors, a subsidiary body annually elected by the 
people for policing the city and managing municipal 
affairs. The members also participated with the 

College of Aldermen in the administration of justice. 
Though there is no record of the Council of Jurors be- 



fore 1229, it is almost certain that it dates from a 
much earlier period. Its existence, however, as a 
body distinct from the higher magistracy, was not 
of long duration. It disappeared at a very early 
period. From the first the relations between the two 
corporations had been strained, as they were the em- 
bodiment of hostile ideals, oligarchy, and popular 

For a long period after the municipal organization 
of Brussels had been definitely determined, all ad- 
ministration and legislative power was in the hands 
of a narrow oligarchy of capitalists, headed by the 
patrician families which from time immemorial had 
furnished the members of the magistracy. The source 
of their title to distinction was the ownership of land. 
Together they formed a class apart, distinct alike 
from the feudal nobility and from the general body 
of townsmen. They were divided into seven groups, 
or Lignages, but it is certain that many patricians 
were not the direct lineal descendants of the houses 
whose names and arms they bore. Admission to the 
aristocracy and to different lignages was to be ob- 
tained in various ways. Indeed, the lignages of Brus- 
sels were to a certain extent voluntary associations 
of aristocratic families banded together for the sake 
of mutual protection, and with a view to securing the 
election of their own nominees to the magistracy. 
What the trade companies were to the plebeians, the 
lignages were to the patricians. 

The patricians were not all rich men, but the wealth 
of the patrician body was being constantly aug- 
mented by the new members who gained admission 
into its ranks, and with the increasing prosperity of 
the town land was becoming daily more valuable for 
building purposes. Many were thus able to live in 
luxury on the rents produced by their property; 
others increased their revenues by farming the state 
taxes; others were engaged in banking operations; 
others again in commerce, in which case they became 
members of the Merchants' Guild, the members of 
which were constantly being enrolled in the lignages. 
Thus the Guild was growing daily more aristocratic, 
until at last nearly all its members were patricians by 
birth or by adoption. Embracing as it did at first 
traders of every kind, it now became an exceedingly 
close corporation and admitted to its membership 
only the sellers of cloth and the sellers of wool, the 
cream of the commercial world. Such were the men 
who owned the soil of Brussels, who had endowed 
the city, often at their own cost, with magnificent 
public buildings, who had won for themselves free 
institutions, and who for the best part of 200 years 
tyrannized over everyone else. They wrested from 
religious houses their right of appointment to city 
livings; they withdrew the management of schools 
from the clergy and placed them under municipal 
control. By a special privilege of the Holy See no 
new monastery could be founded in Brussels without 
the authorization of the municipality. The tyranny 
aroused discontent. 

The people first attempted to obtain a share in the 
government during the troublous times which fol- 
lowed the death of Duke Henry III (1260), and it 
seems to have been for the moment successful, for 
the Council of Jurors was re-established, only how- 
ever to be suppressed again a few years later, and 
that was doubtless the cause of the rising which took 
place in 1302. It was not a very serious affair, and 
the ruling class with the aid of the sovereign had little 
ditliculty ni suppressing it. fhe riot which occurred 
on the eve of Candlemas, 1306, during the absence of 
Duke John II, though it rose out of a small matter, 
became a revolution. The party which triumphed 
showed singular moderation: it was decided that the 
magistracy should consist as heretofore of seven mem- 
bers, but that henceforth the people should name 
them; that two financial assessors should be added to 

the city council, and that the Council of Jurors should 
be re-established; the new aldermen were all members 
of the old ruling class chosen from among the little 
band of patricians whose sympathies were sure to be 
with the popular cause. The new constitution did 
not, however, last six months. Duke John II on his 
return to Brussels refused to ratify it, and in spite of 
the energetic resistance of the craftsmen, the old order 
of things was re-established. The duke, however, 
gave discretionary powers to the College of Aldermen 
to admit individual craftsmen to the freedom of the 
city, no doubt to purchase the good will of leading 
plebeians. Fifty years later Duke Wenceslaus, to re- 
ward the plebeians for driving the Flemings out of 
Brussels, and to mark his displeasure at the conduct 
of the patricians who had welcomed them with open 
arms, granted to the trade companies by charter an 
equal share with the lignages in the government of 
the city. But the ink of the new charter was hardly 
dry when he revoked it. It is not known why, but 
as Duke Wenceslaus throughout his reign was always 
in financial straits and considering his shifty conduct 
in his dealings with the opposing factions at Louvain 
it is not unlikely that he had been purchased by the 
patricians. The riot which followed was suppressed 
without much difficulty. 

Though the College of Aldermen was annually re- 
newed for more than 100 years, there had been no 
election, the outgoing aldermen having obtained a 
prescriptive right to name their successors; the magis- 
tracy was notoriously corrupt and the city was honey- 
combed with debt , the outcome of so many years of ex- 
travagance and thieving. In addition to this, the 
plebeian triumph at Louvain had inflamed the people 
with an unquenchable thirst for liberty, and they were 
only awaiting a favourable moment to try their luck 
again. It was not, however, till 1368, when Brussels 
was on the verge of revolution, that the patricians 
made up their minds to set their house in order. They 
were not yet prepared to give the people any voice in 
the magistracy, but they were determined that when 
their work was done, no man should be able to say 
that Brussels was ill governed. By the advice of a 
committee composed of four patricians and four ple- 
beians stringent measures were taken to ensure the 
even administration of justice; a permanent board 
was appointed for the administration of finance, on 
which several seats were allotted to the representa- 
tives of the trade companies. This measure proved 
so successful that the following year revenue covered 
expenditure and the interest on the debt; the year 
after that payments were made on the principal, and 
by 1386, the whole debt was w-iped out. In 1368 the 
Guild was thoroughly reorganized on popular lines, 
and about the same time it became customary to be- 
stow a certain number of government appointments 
on burghers of the middle class; lastly, in 1375, the 
old system of electing the magistracy was revived. 
The franchise was restricted to patricians of twenty- 
seven years of age and upwards, and if any man failed 
to take part in the election, he thereby lost all his 
civil rights and privileges. The method of election 
was exceedingly long and complicated. Thanks to 
this important measure and to the other reforms 
which had preceded it, Brussels was now honestly and 
capably governed and for something like fifty years 
patricians and plebeians lived, if not on terms of 
affection, at all events without quarrelling. 

No doubt the greater material prosperity which the 
city at this time enjoyed, was conducive in no small 
measure to the maintenance of peace. Brussels was 
not dependent on cloth to anything like tin' same ex- 
tent as most of the other great towns of the Nether- 
lands, and the loss which she had sustained on this 
head from English competition was probably made 
good by the profit arising from trade which formerly 
went to Louvain, but which was now, owing to the 




disturbed state of that city, directed to the markets 
of Brussels. For the same reason Brussels had now 
become the seat of the court, and she devoted her 
attention to the manufacture of articles of luxury. 
Thanks to these new industries the diminution, if 
any. of her cloth trade was a matter of little concern 
to the people. 

Headed by Count Philip of St. Pol, brother of the 
duke, the best members of the three estates of Bra- 
bant had joined hands against Duke John IV. who 
had been led astray by evil counsellors. When all 
seemed lost, when Brussels was filled with foreign 
mercenaries, the craftsmen had saved the situation, 
and received as guerdon an equal share with the pa- 
tricians in the government and administration of 
their city. The articles of the new charter were 
agreed upon in a great assembly of barons and of 
deputies of the towns of Brussels, Antwerp, and 
Louvain, 6 February, 1421. The charter itself was 
signed and sealed by Count Philip who had been ap- 
pointed regent and its provisions were immediately 
put into execution. The constitution of 1421 con- 
tinued to be the legal constitution of the city of Brus- 
sels until the close of the eighteenth century. The 
great struggle between the patricians and the crafts- 
men was never again to be renewed. The former 
dissociated themselves more and more from trade anil 
from municipal affairs, and were gradually absorl led in 
the ranks of the old feudal aristocracy. The dissen- 
sions in the centuries which followed were not the 
outcome of class hatred, but of difference of opinion 
in religious matters, and of the impolitic measures 
taken to restore religious unity by alien rulers, who 
had no sympathy with the customs and traditions of 
the Netherlands. 

Chief BUILDINGS. — There is probably no city in 
Europe which contains grander medieval municipal 
buildings than those of Brussels, and the greatest of 
them were built after the craftsmen obtained emanci- 
pation. The foundation stone of the town hall was 
laid at the beginning of the fifteenth century, but very 
little progress was made till after 1421. and it was not 
completed till 1486; the beautiful Hall of the Bakers 
opposite, now called La Maison du Rot, dated from 
the following century; the grand old church of Not re- 
Dame du Sablon, where most of the trade companies 
had their chapels, was built in the course of the four- 
teenth century, the greater portion of it probably 
after 1421. The church of St. Gudule, dedicated to 
St. Michael, the grandest church in Brussels, is rather 
a monument of the Dukes of Brabant, than of the 
burghers. The foundation stone was probably laid 
towards the close of the twelfth century, but it was 
not completed till lfi53. Its stained glass (sixteenth 
to nineteenth century) is famous, especially that in 
the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, donated 
(1540-475 by Beveral Catholic kings ami queens in 
honour of tin Miraculous Hosts preserved in St. 
Gudule since 1370 when (on Good Friday) 
Jews stole from the tabernacle of the church of St. 
Catherine a number of consecrated Hosts and sacri- 
legiously transfixed them in their synagogue. The 
Hosts, it is Baid, bled miraculously; eventually some 
of them were deposited in the church of St. Gudule, 
while others were kept at Notre-Dame de La ( 'hapelle, 
whence they disappeared in 1.579. But the guilty 
parties were discovered, some were burned alive. 
and others were banished from Brabant for ever. An 
annual procession on the Sunday after 15 July, per- 
petuates the memory of this event, and on this oc- 
casion the identical Hosts are exposed in St. Gudule 
for the veneration of the faithful (Corblet, "Hist, de 

lT.Ueharistie". Paris, 1SX.-,. II, 485-486; P.alleydic. 

"Hist, de Ste-Gudule et du St-Sacrement de Miracle", 

. 1859; Matagne, "Precis historiques", 

Paris, 1870). Other noteworthy churches are: the 

Chapelle de l'Expiation built in 1436 on the site of 

the above-mentioned synagogue, in expiation of the 
sacrilege; Notre-Dame de La Chapelle (1216-1485), 
a Gothic and Romanesque building, after St. Gudule 
the finest of the medieval churches of Brussels; Notre- 
Dame-des-Victoires or du Sablon, Flemish Gothic, 
founded in 1304 by the Guild of Crossbowmen; the 
barocco church ot the Beguines (10.57-76). The 
other churches of the city proper are: St. Catherine, 
Sts. Jean ct Etiennc, Notre-Dame du l'inistere, St. 
Jacques sur Caudenberg, St. Nicholas, Riches-Claires, 
Notre-Dame de Bon Secours, St. Josse-ten-Noode 
(Bruyn, Tresor artistique des eglises de Bruxelles, 
Louvain, 1882). The famous guild houses in the 
market place, of which there are no less than seven- 
teen, were not erected until after the bombardment 
of 1695, when the old guild houses were all destroyed. 
which proves, that at the close of the seventeenth 
century the masons of Brussels were still cunning 

Brussels is noted for its magnificent system of 
boulevards. The Place Royale is one of the noblest 
squares in modern Europe, while the Grand Place in 
the heart of the old town is equally remarkable as a 
medieval square. Around it are gathered the Hotel 
de Ville, said to be the noblest piece of civil archi- 

Hotel i> 

tecture in Europe, the Maison du Roi, or former gov- 
ernment-house, and the seventeen famous guild 
houses or halls of the industrial corporations (butchers, 
brewers, tailors, carpenters, painters, etc.). These 
guild houses were erected after the bombardment of 
169.5, when the old buildings were destroyed. The 
modem Palais de Justice is the largest architectural 
work of the nineteenth century, it rises on a massive 
basis that measures 590 by 560 feet, and recalls by 
its imposing bulk some vast Egyptian or Assyrian 

RELIGIOUS Life.— There are three episcopal edu- 
cational institutes, among them the Institul Saint 

-Louis (about loo teachers), with departments ol 
philosophy, letters, natural sciences, and a com- 
mercial school. The city is divided into four dean- 
St. Gudule and three in the faubourgs. Then- 
are 37 parishes in the city and faubourgs, and in the 
city proper 72 priests, II parishes, and 16 churches. 
The religious orders are numerous, among them Do- 
minicans, Capuchins, Minor Conventual . Jesuits, 
Redemptorists, Carmelites, Servites, Barnabites, 
Alexians, etc. There are also si inities 

of teaching brother-, principally Christian Bro1 
The religious houses of women in looo numbered 
about 80, divided among many orders and congrega- 
tions, and devoted to various education J 

table works. The Hospital Saint-Jean (1000) has 

600 i" d , ..i Saint Pierre 635. I hi n ire M ho - 
pices and refuges for the aged, poor, and insane, 




and 27 other institutions for the care of the sick and 

University op Brussels, known as the Univer- 
silc libre (Free University), was founded in 1834 by 
the Belgian Liberals as a rival of the Catholic Uni- 
versity of Louvain. It occupies the former palace 
of Cardinal Granvelle. In 1904 it numbered 1054 
students. It has faculties of philosophy, the exact 
sciences, jurisprudence, and medicine. The last fac- 
ulty, located in the picturesque Pare Leopold, pos- 
sesses there a Physiological Institute founded in 1895, 
an Institute of Hygiene, Bacteriology, and Therapeu- 
tics, an Institute of Anatomy founded 1896-97, and a 
Commercial Institute (1904). Close by is the val- 
uable Musee d'Histoire Naturelle; connected with it 
is the Ecole Polytechnique (1873) or school of applied 
sciences, with six departments: mining, metallurgy, 
practical chemistry, civil and mechanical engineer- 
ing, and architecture. Similarly related to the uni- 
versity are the School of Political and Social Sciences 
and the School of Commerce founded by Ernest Sol- 
vay; also the Institute Solvay (Physiology, 1894; 
Sociology, 1901). Since 1901 several universities 
for the people have been founded in the faubourgs. 
There are in addition the important museums of 
Brussels, military, ethnographic, commercial, peda- 
gogic, natural history, decorative arts, communal, 
Wiertz (at Ixelles), etc. The Palais des Beaux Arts 
houses a unique and valuable gallery of Old Flemish 
Masters. The Bibliotheque Royale contains a col- 
lection of some 500,000 volumes, and has also in- 
herited the famous Bibliotheque de Bourgogne, 
(27,000 manuscripts) founded by Philippe le Bon, 
Duke of Bin-gundy (1419-67) and one of the largest 
and most important collections of its kind in Europe 
(De la Serna, Mem. hist, sur la bibliotheque dite de 
Bourgogne, Brussels, 1809; Namur, Hist, des biblio- 
theques publiques de Bruxelles, ibid., 1840). 

Among the learned bodies of Brussels are the Aca- 
demie Royale des Sciences (1772), Academie de Me- 
decine (1S41 ), Academie des Beaux Arts, with a school, 
the Soci^te Scientifique (1876), an important and 
unique International Institute of Bibliography (1S95). 
In 1905 the Conservatory of Music (1S99) numbered 
1229 pupils. The Jesuit College of Saint-Michel at 
Brussels is the actual seat of the famous publication 
known as the "Acta Sanctorum" (see Bollandists), 
and here are now kept the library and the archives 
of this enterprise, originally begun and long conducted 
at Antwerp. 

Henne and Wauters, Histoire de Bruxelles ( Brussels, 1S45); 
Wauters, Bruxelles et ses environs (ibid, 1852-56); Pirienne, 
Histoire de la Helgique (Brussels, 1907); < liu i \ t-Smith, The 
Story 0/ Brussels. ERNEST GiLLIAT-SMITH. 

Brute de Remur, Simon William Gabriel, first 
Bishop of Vincennes, Indiana, U. S. A. (now Indian- 
apolis), b. at Rennes, France, 20 March, I77!»; d. at 
Vincennes, 26 June, 1839. His father was Simon- 
Guillaume-Gabriel Brut£ de Remur, of an ancient and 
respectable family, and Superintendent of the Royal 
Domains in Brittany; and his mother, Jeanne-Renee 
Le Saulnier de Vauhelle Vatar, widow of Francis 
Vatar, printer to the King and Parliament at Rennes. 
Young Brut6 had attended the schools of his native 
city several years when the Revolution interrupted 
his studies. He then learned and practised the busi- 
ness of a compositor in the printing establishment of 
his mother, where she placed him to avoid his enrol- 
ment in a regiment of children who took pari in the 
fusilades of the Reign of Terror. This did not prevent 
his witnessing many horrible and exciting scenes, and 
in his diary he mentions having been present at the 
trial and precipitate execution of 'priests and nobles 
in the cause of their religion. He frequented the 
prisons and made friends of the guards, who ad- 
mitted him to the cells, where he received and de- 
livered letters for the clergy incarcerated there. 

Bishop Brute de Remur 

More than once he bore in his bosom to these suffer- 
ing heroes the Blessed Sacrament. 

In 1796 Brut6 began the study of medicine, and 
in spite of the avowed infidelity then prevalent in 
the schools, he remained proof against sophistry and 
ridicule. He was graduated in 1803, but did not 
practise medicine, 
as he immediately 
entered upon his 
ecclesiastical stud- 
ies, which he pur- 
sued for four years 
at the Seminary 
of Saint-Sulpice, 
Paris. Ordained 
priest on the 11th 
of June, 1S08, he 
joined the Society 
o f Saint-Sulpice 
and, after teaching 
theology for two 
years, he sailed 
for the United 
States with Bish- 
op-elect Flaget 
(1810). At. St. 
Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, he 
taught philosophy for two years and then was sent 
for a short time to the Eastern Shore of Maryland. 
He was transferred thence to Mt. St. Mary's, Era- 
mitsburg, where he taught and at the same time 
performed the duties of pastor for the Catholics of 
that vicinity with such devotion that he became 
known as the "Angel of the Mount". During this 
period he became the spiritual director of Mother 
Seton, foundress of the Sisters of Charity in the 
United States, with whom he maintained a lifelong 

In 1S15 he was appointed President of St. Mary's 
College, Baltimore, but after three years (1818) 
he returned to Emmitsburg. In 1826, Mt. St. 
Mary's College being no longer dependent upon the 
Fathers of Saint-Sulpice, its founders. Father Brut6 
ceased to belong to that society, but continued his 
duties at the "Mountain" until 1834, when he was 
appointed to the newly created See of Vincennes. 
He was consecrated in St. Louis, October the 28th, 
1834, by the Right Rev. Benedict .1. Flaget, Bishops 
Rosati and Purcell assisting. After travelling over 
his vast diocese, comprising the whole State of In- 
diana and eastern Illinois, Bishop Brute visited 
France, where he secured priests and funds for the 
erection of churches and schools in his needy diocese. 

Bishop Brute left no published work except some 
ephemeral contributions, which, over the pseudonym 
"Vincennes", appeared in various journals, notably 
the Cincinnati " Catholic Telegraph". It is to be re- 
gretted that he did not write an autobiography, for 
which his Memoranda, Notes, and Diary seem a prep- 
aration. They teem with interest, and show him to 
have been the friend of famous men in France. Con- 
spicuous among the number was de Lamennais, whom 
he tried to reconcile with the Church both by his 
letters from this country, as well as by conferring with 
him personally during one of his visits to France, but 
without success, 

Baylei Memoirs of Bishop Brute (New York. 1S65): 

U inn I I . W...</„ S.l,.„ Hull,,, hue. l.S7'.li. \ III ;i I. 

O'Gorman, Imerican Church History (New York, 1896) 
l\. wiv 394; Sin i. History of the fmholie ilrmh in (he 
United States \™ Vork, 1890), [II, lev, 640; Alerdinq, 
History <>} rV r,,th,-hr ihureh in the Diocest ' 

(Indianapolis, ISSN), 124; Brute hi Remur, Vis de M,/r. 
■ i mm a Etennes, 1NS7). 
Micb u:l F. Dinnekn. 

Bruyas, Jacques, b. at Lyons, France, 13 July, 
1635; d. at Sault St. Louis, Canada, 15 June, 1712. 




He entered the Society of Jesus, 11 November, 1651, 
joined the Mission of Canada in 1666, and laboured 
there for forty-six years among the Iroquois. From 
1693 to 1698 Bruyas was Superior General of the 
Canadian missions, and in 1700, 1701, actively 
helped to secure for the French a general peace -with 
the Iroquois tribes. Besides writing a catechism, 
prayers for the sick, and similar works, he is the 
author of the oldest known Iroquois grammar. It 
was published from the original MS. by the Regents 
of the I'niversity of the Stale of New York in their 
Sixteenth Annual Report of the State Cabinet of 
Natural History (Albany, 1863). Father Bruyas is 
considered to be the author of the "Iroquois Dic- 
tionary" preserved in the Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal 
of Paris. 

Souhkbvoqel, Bib], de In e. de J., II, 290; Jesuit Relations 
(Cleveland, L899), I., 323. 

Joseph M. Woods. 

Bruys, Pierre de. See Petrobrusians. 

Bryanites. See Methodism. 

Bryant, John - Delavau. physician, poet, author, 
and editor, b, in Philadelphia, U. S. A.. 1811; d. 1.S77. 
He was the son of an Episcopalian minister, the 
Rev. Win. Bryant. His mother, was a daughter 
of John Delavau, a shipbuilder of Philadelphia. 
His early education was under his father and in 
the Episcopalian Academy. He received the degree 
of A. B. in 1839, and A. M. in 1842, from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and entered the General Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Protestanl Episcopal Church 
in New York in 1839. After one year he left the 
seminary to travel in Europe. On his return he 
was received into the Catholic Church at St. John's 
Church, Philadelphia. 12 February, 1842. He grad- 
uated in medicine at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1848. In 18.55, during the yellow fever 
epidemic in Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia, lie 
volunteered for duty and returned only after the 
epidemic had subsided. In 1857, he married Miss 
Mary Harriet Piston, daughter <>t George Piston. 

For two years in the early sixties lie was editor of 
I ttholic Herald.'' His principal work, published 
in 1859 by subscription, is an epic poem entitled 
"The Redemption", apparently inspired by a visit 
to Jerusalem. It is founded on the Bible mid 
Catholic tradition, and, when it was first published, 
attracted some attention and received many fa- 
vourable reviews. He also published, about 1852, 
a controversial novel entitled "Pauline Seward'' 
which had considerable vogue at the time, especially 
among Catholics, and ran through ten editions. 
In 1855 he published "The Immaculate Conception 

of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Cod", an 
exposition of the dogma recently promulgated. 
All of his works are now out of print and can be 
found practically only in reference libraries. 
Records of the Amer. Cathtdic Hist. Sue.. September, 1904. 

Joseph Walsh. 

Bubastis, a titular see of Lower Egypt, on the 
right bank of the Pclusiac branch of the Nil. 
the modern Zagazig, where its ruins are shown under 
the Dame of Tell Bastah, I'- true name was Bast 

owing to the name ,,i the [oca! goddess Bastet; 

mie in Old-Egyptian Plr-bdstet (Coptic 
basti, Hebrew Pirbeseth, (Ireek Boifkurris or more 
commonly Boi//3a<rro!, i. e. House oi Bastet I. It wis 
a place of importance under the twenty-third dynasty 

about 950-750 B. C. When the eastern pari of Power 

Egypt was divided into Augustamnica Prima in the 
north and Augustamnica Secunda in the south. 

Bubastis wa.s included in the latter, whose capital 

wis Leontopolis (Hierocles, Synecdemos, 7_'.v i i, 
as the chief town of i he Bubastites norrws, and 
like every Egy] was the seat of a bishopric. 

Its bishop, Harpocration. was mentioned at Nicaea by 

Meletius among his well-wishers (Athan. Apol. c. 
Arianos, 71). About 340 the see was occupied by 
Hermon (Acta SS., May, III, 61). Julianus was 
present at the Latrocinium of Ephesus, 449. The 
see is mentioned in Georgius Cyprius (ed. Gelzer, 
705). In the Middle Ages its fate is blended with 
that of Khandek, a Jacobite see near Cairo, to which 
it had been united. Thus in 1078 Gabriel, ep. Basta, 
muE 'I Khandek, interfered in the election of the 
Patriarch Cyrillus (Renaudot, Hist, patriarch. Alex- 
ander. 450, 458, 465), and in 1102 John took a share 
in the consecration of the Patriarch Macarius II (ibid., 
182). Under the Patriarch Cyrillus III (1235-43), 
the see is often mentioned, but without the name of 
its titular. 

I equien, Or. Christ., II, 559-502; Gams, Series episcop.. 

L. Petit. 

Bucelin (Buzlin), Gabriel, Benedictine histori- 
cal writer, b. at Diessenhofen in Thurgau, 29 Decem- 
ber, 1599; d. at Weingarten, 9 June. 1681. A scion of 
the distinguished line of Bucellini counts, Gabriel, at 
the age of thirteen, entered the Benedictine mon- 
astery at Weingarten. After a course in philosophy 
and theology at Dillingen he was ordained priest 
23 April, 1624, and in the same year sent, as master 
of novices, to restore the primitive fervour and raise 
the standard of studies in the monastery of St. 
Trudpert in the Black Forest. Having filled the posi- 
tion of master of novices at Weingarten and professor 
of humanities at Feldkirch (1035), whence on the 
approach of the Swedish army he was forced to Hee 
to Admont (1646), he was appointed prior of St. 
John's monastery, Feldkirch (1651), where he re- 
mained until a few months before his death. Bucelin 
was a very prolific writer, being the author of some 
fifty-three works, a large number of which are still in 
manuscript in the royal library at Stuttgart. His 
chief claim to the gratitude of posterity lies in the 
fact that he was, if not the very first, at least among 
the first authors to deal with the ecclesiastical history 
of Germany. Of his published works the most im- 
portant are: "Gennania sacra'' (Augsburg, 1655), 
containing accounts of the principal ecclesiastics, 
archbishops, abbots, etc., as well as a list of the most 
important monasteries of Germany; "Germanise 
topo-chrono-stemmatographia sacra et prof ana" 
(1655-78), treating, as its name implies, of the 
genealogy of the most distinguished members of the 
clergy and the nobility; "Constantia sacra et pro- 
(Frankfort, 1667); "Rlurtia etrusca, romana, 
gallica, germanica" (Augsburg, Ki(il); "Nucleus his- 
torian universalis" (I'lm, 1650, 1654; carried from 
1650 to 1735 by Schmier, "Apparatum ad theologian) 
seholastico-polemieo-practicam "). of great impor- 
tance to scholars interested in ancient charts, bulls, 
diplomata, etc. Bucelin was also the author of many 
works on the Benedictine Order and its most illus- 
trious members, among them "Aquila imperii benc- 
dictina" (Venice, 1651); "Menologium benedicti- 
num" (Feldkirch, 16' 

ZlEGELBA! m. fftrt. n, lit. 0. S. B (Augsburg. 1754), IV; 

I im mil Stud. a. Milllnil. sua dim Benedtctiner-Orden, VII. 

si -u'1.; \Y"i iseiiriu h in Kiriliirilrs.; Hurter, Nomeiielatur; 

IANN, 1 >• ' Ot "i aloa film I in in SUzunoaberichU dir Wit m > 

XXXVIII. 17 s,,,|. 

F. M. Rodoe. 

Bucer, Martin (also called Butzer), one of the 
leaders in the South German Reformation move 
ineiit, b. 11 November, 1191, at Schlettstadt, Usace; 
d. 28 February, 1551, it Cambridge, England, He 

received his early education at the Latin School of 
his native place, where at the age of fifteen (1506) he 
also entiled the Order Of St. Dominic. Later he was 
-i nl to the University of Heidelberg to prosecute his 
studies, and matriculated, 31 January, 1517. He 
became an ardent admirer of Erasmus, and soon an 




enthusiastic disciple of Luther. He heard the Saxon 
monk at a public disputation, held at Heidelberg in 
1518, on the occasion of a meeting of the Augus- 
tinian unk-r, became personally acquainted with him, 
and was immediately won over to his ideas. Having 
openly adopted the new doctrine he withdrew from 
tin- Dominican order, in 1521, became court chaplain 
of Frederick, the Elector Palatine, and laboured as sec- 
ular priest at Landstuhl, in the Palatinate (1522), and 
as a member of the household of Count Sickengen and 
at Weissenburg, Lower Alsace (1522-23). _ During his 
incumbency at Landstuhl he married Elizabeth Sil- 
bereisen, a* former nun. When, in 1523, his position 
became untenable at Weissenburg, he proceeded to 
Strasburg. Here his activity was soon exercised over 
a large held; he became the chief reformer of the 
city and was connected with many important religio- 
political events of the period. His doctrinal views on 
points controverted between Luther and Zwingli at 
first harmonized completely with the ideas of the 
Swiss Reformer. Subsequently he sought to mediate 
between Lutherans and Zwinglians. The highly 
questionable methods to which he resorted in the 
interest of peace drew upon him the denunciation of 
both parties. In spite of the efforts of Bucer, the 
Conference of Marburg (1529), at which the divergent 
views of Luther and Zwingli, especially the doctrine 
regarding the Eucharist, were discussed, failed to 
bring about a reconciliation. At the Diet of Augs- 
burg, in the following year, he drew up with Capito 
the "Confessio Tetrapolitana", or Confession of the 
Four Cities (Strasburg, Constance, Memmingen, and 
Lindau). Later on, moved by political considerations, 
he abandoned this for the Augsburg Confession. In 
1536, he brought about the more nominal than real 
"Concordia of Wittenberg" among German Protes- 
tants. He gave his own, and obtained Luther's and 
Melanehthon's approbation for the bigamy of the 
Landgrave Philip of Hesse, attended in 1540 the re- 
ligious conference between Catholics and Protestants 
at Hagenau, Lower Alsace, and in 1541 the Diet of 
Ratisbon. The combined attempt of Bucer and 
Melanchthon to introduce the Reformation into the 
Archdiocese of Cologne ended in failure (1542). Po- 
litical troubles and the resistance of Bucer to the 
agreement arrived at by Catholics and Protestants in 

1548, and known as the "Augsburg Interim", made 
his stay in Strasburg impossible. At the invitation 
of Archbishop Cranmer, lie proceeded to England in 

1549. After a short stay in London, during which he 
was received by King Edward VI (1547-53), he was 
called to Cambridge as Regius Professor of Divinity. 
His opinion was frequently asked by Cranmer on 
church matters, notably on the controversy regarding 
ecclesiastical vestments. But his sojourn was to be 
of short duration, as he died in February, 1551. 
Under the reign of Queen Mary (1553-58) his re- 
mains were exhumed and burned, and his tomb was 
demolished (1556), but was reconstructed in 1560 by 
Queen Elizabeth (155S-1603). 

Bucer was, after Luther and Melanchthon, the 
most influential of German Reformers. For a clear 
statement of doctrine he was ever ready to substitute 
vague formulas in the interest of unity, which even 
his able efforts could not establish among the Re- 
formers He forms a connecting link between the 
German and the English Reformation. Of the thir- 
teen children he had by his first marriage, only one, 
a weak-minded son, survived, Wibrandis Rosen- 
blatt, the successive wife of several Reformers ((VI- 
larius, CEcolampadius, Capito. and Bucer), whom he 
married after his first wife died from (lie plague in 
1541, bore him three children, of whom a daughter 
survived. ( >nly one of the tin folio volumes in w liieh 
his works "ere to appear was published (Basle, 1577). 
It is know ii a- " I omus Anglieanus" because its con- 
tents were mostly written in England. 

Victor De Bcck 

Baum, Capito una* Butzer (Elberfeld, I860); Mf.ntz and 
F.richson, Zur 40(1 jtihritien Ceburtsjntr Martin Butzers i Stras- 
burg, 1891 ); Stern, Martin Butzer (Strasburg, 1891 ); Pwlvs, 
Die Strasburaer Reformatoren (Freiburg, 1895); Schaff, His- 
tory of the Christian Church i New York, 1904 1, VI, 571-57:j ami 
passim; Ward in Diet, of Nat. Bioij., VII, 172-177. 

N. A. Weber. 

Biichlein. See Hebrew Language and Literature. 

Buck, Victor De, Bollandist, b. at Oudenarde, 
Flanders, 21 April, 1817; d. 28 June, 1876. His 
family was one of the most distinguished in the city 
of Oudenarde. After a brilliant course in the 
humanities, at the municipal college of Soignies and 
the petit scminaire of Roulers and completed in 
1S35 at the col- 
lege of the Society 
of Jesus at Alost, 
he entered this 
Society on 11 Oc- 
tober of the same 
year. After two 
years in the no- 
vitiate, then at 
Nivelles, and a 
year at Tronch- 
iennes reviewing 
and finishing his 
literary studies, 
he went to Namur 
in September, 
1838, to study 
philosophy and 
the natural sci- 
ences, closing 
these courses with 
a public defence 
of theses bearing 
on these subjects. 

The work of the Bollandists (q. v.) had just been 
revived and, in spite of his youth, Victor De Buck 
was summoned to act as assistant to the hagiog- 
raphers. He remained at this work in Brussels 
from September, 1S40, to September, 1845. After 
devoting four years to theological studies at Louvain, 
where he was ordained priest in 1848, and making 
his third year of probation in the Society of Jesus, 
he was permanently assigned to the Bollandist work 
in 1850, and was engaged upon it until the time 
of his death. He had already published in part 
second of Vol. VII of the October "Acta Sanc- 
torum", which appeared in 1845, sixteen commen- 
taries or notices that are easily distinguishable be- 
cause they are without a signature, unlike those 
written by the Bollandists. Moreover, during the 
course of his theological studies which suffered thereby 
no interruption, and before becoming a priest, he 
composed, in collaboration with Antoine Tinnebroeck 
who, like himself was a scholastic, an able refuta- 
tion of a book published by the professor of canon 
law at the University of Louvain, in which the 
rights of the regular clergy were assailed and re- 
pudiated. This refutation, which fills an octavo vol- 
ume of 640 pages, abounding in learned disserta- 
tions, was ready for publication within four months. 
1 1 was to have been supplemented by a second vol- 
ume that was almost completed but could not be 
published because of the political disturbances of the 
year 1847 which were but the prelude to the revolu- 
tions of 1848, and the work was never resumed. 

Father De Buck's literary activity was extraor- 
dinary. Besides the numerous commentaries in 
Vols.' IX. X, XI. XII. and XIII of the October 
"Acta Sanctorum", which won the praise of those 
best qualified to judge, lie published in Latin, French, 
and Flemish, a large number of little works of piety 
and dissertations on devotion to the saints, church 
history, and Christian archaeology, the partial enu- 
meration of which fills two folio columns of his eulogy, 




in the fore part of Vol. II of the November "Acta". 
Because of his extensive learning and investigating 
turn of mind he was naturally bent upon probing 
abstruse and perplexing questions; naturally, also, his 
work was often the result of most urgent, requests. 
Hence it was that, in 1862, he was led to publish 
in the form of a letter to his brother Remi, then 
professor of church history at the theological college 
of Louvain and soon afterwards his colleague on the 
Bollandist work, a Latin dissertation " De solemni- 
tate pra-cipue paupertatis religiosa;", which was fol- 
lowed in 1863 and 1864 by two treatises in French, 
one under the title: "Solution aimable de la question 
des couvents" and the other " De l'6tat religieux", 
treating of the religious life in Belgium in the nine- 
teenth century. 

At the solicitation chiefly of prelates and dis- 
tinguished Catholic savants, he undertook the study 
of a particularly delicate question. In order to 
satisfy the many requests made to Rome by churches 
and religious communities for the relics of saints, 
it had become customary to take from the Roman 
catacombs the bodies of unknown personages be- 
lieved to have been honoured as martyrs in the early 
Church. The sign by which they were to be recog- 
nized was a glass via! sealed up in the plaster out- 
side the loculus that contained the body, and tear- 
ing traces of a red substance that had been enclosed 
and was supposed to have been blood. Doubts had 
arisen as to the correctness of this interpretation 
and, after careful study, Father De Buck felt con- 
vinced that it was false and that what had been 
taken for blood was probably the sediment of con- 
secrated wine which, owing to misguided piety, had 
been placed in tin- tomb near the bodies of the dead. 
This conclusion, together with its premises, was 
set fortli in a dissertation published in 1855 under 
the title "De phialis rubricatis quibus martyrum 
romanorum sepulera dignosci dicuntur". Naturally 
it raised lively protestations, particularly on the 
part of those who were responsible for distributing 
the bodies of the saints, the more so, as after the 
discussions on the vials of blood, the cardinal vicar 
in 1861 strictly forbade any further transportation 
of these relics. The author of the dissertation, 
" De phialis rubricatis", had but a few copies of 
his work struck off, these being intended for the 
cardinals and prelates particularly interested in the 
question, and as none were put on the market, it 
was rumoured that De Buck's superiors had sup- 
pressed the publication of the book and that all 
the copies printed, save five or six, had been de- 
stroyed. This, of course, was untrue; not one copy 
had been destroyed and his superiors had laid no 
blame upon the author. Then, in 1863, a decree 
was obtained from the Congregation of Rites, re- 
newing an older decree, whereby it was declared 
thai a vial of blood placed outside of a sepulchral 
niche in the catacombs was an unmistakable sign 
by which the tomb of a martyr might be known. 
and it was proclaimed thai Victor De Buck's opinion 
was formally disapprove. 1 and condemned by liome. 
This too was false, as Father De Buck had never 
intimated that the placing of the vial of blood did 
not indicate the resting-place of a martyr, when it, 
could be proved that the via] contained genuine 

blood, such as was supposed by the decree of the 

egation. finally, there appeared in Paris in 

1867 a large quarto volume written by the Roman 
prelate, Monsignor Sconamiglio, "Reliquiarum eus- 

tode". It was filled with caustic criticisms of tin' 
author of "De phialis rubricatis" and relegated him 
t-i tie- rank of notorious heretics who had combated 

devotion to the saints and the veneration of their 
relics. Father De Buck Kerned all but insensible 
to these attacks and contented himself with op- 
posing to Monsignor Sconamiglio's book a protest 

in which he rectified the more or less unconscious 
error of his enemies by proving thai neither the 
decree of 1863 nor any other decision emanating 
from ecclesiastical authority had affected lii^ thesis. 

However, another attack made about the same 
time touched him more deeply. The gravest and 
most direct accusations were made against him and 
reported to the Sovereign Pontiff himself; he was 
even credited with opinions which, if not formally 
heretical, at least openly defied the ideas that are 
universally accepted and held in veneration by 
Catholics devoted to the Holy See. In a Latin 
letter addressed to Cardinal l'atrizzi. and intended 
to come to the notice of the Supreme Pontiff, Father 
De Buck repudiated the calumnies in a maimer that 
betrayed how deeply he had been affected, his pro- 
test being supported by the testimony of four of 
his principal superiors, former provincials, and rec- 
tors who eagerly vouched for the sincerity of his 
declarations and the genuineness of his religious 
spirit. With the full consent of his superiors he 
published this letter in order to communicate with 
those of his friends who might have been disturbed 
by an echo of these accusations. 

What might have invested these accusations with 
some semblance of truth and what certainly gave 
rise to them, were the amicable relations established, 
principally through correspondence, between Father 
De Buck and such men as Alexander Forbes, the 
learned Anglican bishop, the celebrated Edward Pu- 
sey in England, Montalembert, and Bishop Dupan- 
loup in France and a number of others whose names 
were distasteful to many ardent Catholics. These 
relations were brought about by the reputation for 
deep learning, integrity, and scientific independence 
that De Buck's works had rapidly earned for him, 
by his readiness to oblige those who addressed 
themselves to him in their perplexities, and by his 
remarkable earnestness and skill in elucidating the 
most difficult questions. Moreover, lie was equipped 
with all the information that incessant study and a 
splendid memory could ensure. But it was not 
only great minds groping outside of the true Faith 
or weakened bv harassing doubts who thus appealed 
to his knowledge. Tin' different papal nuncios who 
succeeded one another in Belgium during the course 
of his career as Bollandist, bishops, political men, 
members of learned bodies, and journalists, ceased not 
to importune this gracious scholar whose answers 
often formed important memoranda which, although 
the result of several days and sometimes several 
nights of uninterrupted labour, were read only by 
those who called them fortli or else appeared anony- 
mously in some Belgian or foreign periodical. 

Although Father lie Luck had an unusually ro- 
bust constitution and enjoyed exceptionally good 
health, constant and excessive work at length told 
upon him and he was greatly fatigued when Father 

Becks, Father General of the Society, summoned 
him to Home to acl at official theologian at the 
Vatican Council. Father Victor a urn 9 the e ne i 
duties with his accustomed ardour and, upon his 
return, showed the fir-t symptoms of the malady 
arterio-sclerosis that finally carried him off. He strug- 
gled for some years longer against a series of painful 
attacks each of which left him decidedly weaker, 
until a final attack that lasted almost interruptedly 
for nearly four years, caused his death 

Elogium I'. Victoria />< Buck in Ada SS., November, II. 
Cm. Of, Smedt. 

Buckfast Abbey. --The date of the foundation 
of the monastery of Our Lady of Buckfast, two 
miles from Ashburton, England, in a beautiful 
Devonshire valley watered by the Dart, is unki 
but it was certainly long before the Norman Con- 
quest. The earliest authentic documen i I grant 
by King Canute (1015-1035), to the monks of 




Buckfast of the manor of Sele, now called Zeal 
Monachorum. The best authorities assign the 
foundation to the middle of the tenth century. 
Early in the twelfth century it was incorporated 
into the Benedictine Congregation of Savigny, 
founded in Normandy in 1112. In 1148, five years 
before the death of St. Bernard, the thirty Savigny 
houses, including Buckfast (of which Eustace was 
then abbot) were affiliated to Clairvaux, thus be- 
coming a part of the great Cistercian Order. Buck- 
fast now developed into one of the most important 
monasteries in the great Diocese of Exeter. It 
flourished both materially and spiritually, origi- 
nating the celebrated woollen trade of the district, 
encouraging other industries, and preserving unim- 
paired its discipline and the fervour of its observance. 
The latter, however, became relaxed (as in other 
Cistercian houses) in the fourteenth century, one 
result being the rapid diminution in the community. 
The reputation, however, of the monks for learning 
was sustained until the dissolution, and they seem 
to have been generally beloved in the district for 
their piety, kindliness, and benevolence. 

The last legitimately elected Abbot of Buckfast 
was John Rede, who died about 1535, the year 
of the Visitation ordered by Henry VIII, which 
resulted in the intrusion of Gabriel Donne into the 
vacant chair. Donne surrendered the house to the 
King in 1538, receiving for himself ample compensa- 
tion. The buildings were immediately sold, the 
lead stripped from the roof, and the monastery 
and church left to decay. In 1882, about three 
centuries and a half after the suppression of the 
Cistercian Abbey, the ruined buildings came again 
into the possession of Benedictine monks, belong- 
ing to the French Province of the Cassinese Congre- 
gation of the Primitive Observance. Mass was 
again said and the Divine Office chanted at Buck- 
fast, cm 29 October, 1882, and eight months later 
the abbey was legally conveyed to the monks. 

The plan of the buildings at Buckfast followed 
the conventional Cistercian arrangement, with the 
cloister south of the church, and grouped round it 
the chapter-house, calefactory, refectory, and other 
loca regularia. The church was 220 feet long, with 
short transepts, each with a small eastern chapel. 
The Benedictines now in possession have built a 
temporary church, and are proceeding with the 
work of rebuilding the former one, and the rest of 
the monastic buildings, on the ancient foundations. 
The tower which still remains has been carefully 
restored, and the southern wing of the monastery 
has been rebuilt in simple twelfth-century style, 
and was opened in April, 18S6. The third abbot 
since the return of the monks in 1882, Dom Anschar 
Vouier, formerly one of the professors at the Bene- 
dictine University of St. Anselm in Rome, was 
solemnly blessed by the Bishop of Plymouth in 
October, 1906. 

Oliver, Monast. Di,»;rs. Exon. (1846), 371, 379; Worthy, 

Devonshire Parishes (1889), II, 207; Dugdal-e, Monast. Atuili- 

i-'iri., V, :>S4; lvuui, l 'ist'-muri Houses -'/ Iiemn; Hamilton', 

Buckfast Abbey (1892); Mabillon, Chronologui Cisttrcicruris. 

D. O. Hunter-Blair. 

Buckley, Sir Fatriok Alphonsus, soldier, lawyer, 
statesman, judge, b. near Castletownsend, Co. Cork, 
Inland, in 1841; d. at Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 
18 May, 1890. He was educated at tin' Mansion 
House School, Cork; St. Column's College, Fermoy; 

the Irish College, Paris; and the Catholic University, 

Louvain, He was in Louvain when the Piedmontese 
invaded the States of the Church in I860, and at the 
request of Count Carlo Mac! )onnell, Private Chamber- 
lain to Pius IX, conducted the recruits of the Irish 
Papal Brigade from Ostend to Vienna, where they 
were placed in charge of representatives of the Holy 
See. He served under General Lamoriciere, received 

a medal in recognition of his services, and was taken 
prisoner at Ancona. After the war he returned to 
Ireland. Thence he emigrated to Queensland, where 
he completed his legal studies and was admitted to 
the Bar. After a short residence in Queensland he 
settled in New Zealand, and commenced the practice 
of his profession in Wellington. Soon after his ar- 
rival in New Zealand, he became a member of the 
Wellington Provincial Council, and was Provincial 
Solicitor in the Executive when the Provincial Par- 
liaments were abolished in 1875. He was called to 
the Legislative Council in 1878; was Colonial Secre- 
tary and leader of the Upper House in the Stout- 
Vogel Ministry (1884-S7); and Attorney-General, 
Colonial Secretary, and leader of an overwhelmingly 
Opposition Upper House under the Ballance Ad- 
ministration from 1891 till 1895, when he accepted 
the position of Judge of the Supreme Court. He was 
created Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. 
George in 1892. 

Mennell, Dictionary of Australasian Biopraphy (London, 
1802); The New Zealand Tablet, 22 Mav, 1890; The Otago 
Daily Times, 19 May, 1896. 

Henry W. Cleaby. 

Budaeus, Gulielmus. See Btjde. 

Buddas. See Manes. 

Buddhism, the religious, monastic, system, founded 
c. 500 B. c. on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism. 
The speculations of the Vedanta school of religious 
thought, in the eighth and following centuries, B. c, 
gave rise to several rival schemes of salvation. These 
movements started with the same morbid view that 
conscious life is a burden and not worth the living, 
and that true happiness is to be had only in a state 
like dreamless sleep, free from all desires, free from 
conscious action. They took for granted the Upan- 
ishad doctrine of the endless chain of births, but they 
differed from pantheistic Brahminism both in their 
attitude towards the Vedas and in their plan for 
securing freedom from rebirth and from conscious 
existence. In their absolute rejection of Vedic rites, 
they stamped themselves as heresies. Of these the 
one destined to win greatest renown was Buddhism. 

I. The Founder. — Of Buddha, the founder of 
this great movement, legendary tradition has much 
to say, but very little of historical worth is known. 
His father seems to have been a petty raja, ruling 
over a small community on the southern border of 
the district now known as Nepal. Buddha's family 
name was Gotama (Skt. Gautama), and it was prob- 
ably by this name that he was known in life. In 
all likelihood it was after his death that his disciples 
bestowed on him a number of laudatory names, the 
most common being Buddha, i. e. "the enlightened". 
Like the well-born youths of his day, he must have 
spent some time in the study of the sacred Vedas. 
After the immemorial custom of the East, he mar- 
ried at an early age, and. if tradition may be trusted, 
exercised a prince's privilege of maintaining a harem. 
His principal wife bore him a son. His heart was not 
at rest. The pleasures of the world soon palled upon 
him, and abandoning his home he retired to the forest , 
where as a hermit he spent several years in austere 
self-discipline, studying, doubtless, the way of salva- 
tion :is taught in the 1'panishads. Even this did not 
bring peace to his mind. Hi' gave up the rigorous 
fasts and mortifications, which nearly cost him his 
life, and devoted himself in his own way to long and 
earnest meditation, the fruit of which was his firm 
belief that he had discovered the only true method of 
escaping from the misery of rebirth and of attaining 
to Nirvana. He then set out to preach his go pel 
of deliverance, beginning at Benares. His magnetic 
personality and his earnest, impressive eloquence 

soon won over to his cause a number of the warrior 
caste. Brahmins, loo, felt the persuasiveness of 
his words, and it was not long before he was sur- 




rounded by a band of enthusiastic disciples, in whose 
company lie went from place to place, making con- 
\ erl 6 by his preaching. These soon became very 
numerous and were formed into a great brotherhood 
of monks. Such was the work to which Buddha gave 
himself with unsparing zeal for over forty years. 
At length, worn out by his long life of activity, he 
fell sick after a meal of dried boar's flesh, and died 
in the eightieth year of his age. The approximate 
date of his death is ISO b. C. It is noteworthy, that 
Buddha was a contemporary of two other famous 
religious philosophers, Pythagoras and Confucius. 

In the sacred books of later times Buddha is de- 
picted as a character without flaw, adorned with 
every grace of mind and heart. There may be some 
hesitation in taking the highly coloured portrait of 
Buddhist tradition as the exact representation of 
the original, but Buddha may be credited with the 
qualities of a great and good man. The records de- 
pict him moving about from place to place, regard- 
less of personal comfort, calm and fearless, mild and 
compassionate, considerate towards poor and rich 
alike, absorbed with the one idea of freeing all men 
from the bonds of misery, and irresistible in his man- 
ner of setting forth the way of deliverance. In his 
mildness, his readiness to overlook insults, his zeal, 
chastity, and simplicity of life, he reminds one not a 
little of St. Francis of Assisi. lii all pagan antiquity 
no character has been depicted as so noble and at- 
tract ive. 

II. Buddhist Texts. — The chief sources for early 
Buddhism are the sacred books comprised in the first 
two divisions of the Ti-pitaka ('triple-basket), the 
threefold Bible of the Southern School of Buddhists. 
In India, to-day. the Buddhists are found only in 
the North, in Nepal, and in the extreme South, in 
the island of Ceylon. They represent two different 
Schools of thought . the Northern worshipping Buddha 
as supreme personal deity, though at the same time 
adopting most of the degrading superstitions of 
Hinduism, the Southern adhering in great measure 
to the original teachings of Buddha. Each school 
has a canon of sacred looks. The Northern canon 
is in Sanskrit, the Southern in Pah, a softer tongue, 
into which Sanskrit was transformed by the people 
of the South. The Southern canon. Tv-piiaka, which 
reflects more faithfully the teachings of Buddha and 
his early disciples, embraces (It the Vvnayoi-pitaka, 
a collection of books on the disciplinary rules of the 
order; (2) the Sutta-pitaka, didactic tracts con- 
sisting in part of alleged discourses of Buddha; and 
(3) the Abhidhamma-pitaka, comprising more de- 
tailed treatises on doctrinal subjects. Mosl of the 
Yinayas and some of the Suttas have been made 
ible to English readers in the "Sacred Books 

of the East ". The Ti-pitaka seems to date back to 

the second and third centuries B.C., but a few ad- 
ditions were made even after it was committed to 
writing in the early part of the first century of the 
Christian Era. While there may be doctrinal and 
disciplinary parts from the time of Buddha, none of 
the twenty-nine books comprised in the Ti-pitaka 
can be proved to be older than 300 n. c. These liooks, 
Stripped of their tiresome repetitions, would be about 
equal in size to the Bible, though on the whole they 
are vastly inferior to the Sacred Scripture in spirit- 
uality, depth of thought, variety of subject, and 
xpression. There are also a few extra- 
canonical books, likewise in Pali, on which the 
Southern Buddhists set great value, the Dijvivansa 
and Mahavansa, winch give an uncritical history of 
Buddhism down to about \. i>. 300, the "Com- 
mentaries of Buddhagosa", and the Milinda Panha, 

flhly translated by Whys Davids under the title 
"The Questions of King Milinda". These works 
belong to the fourth and following centuries of 
our era. In the Tri-pitaka of the Northern School 

are included the well-known Saddhnrma-pundarika 
(Lotus of the True Law), and the legendary biogra- 
phies of Buddha, the Buddha Charita, and the Lalita 
Vistara (Book of Exploits), which are generally as- 
signed to the last quarter of the first century a. d. 
Besides the Tri-pitaka, the Northern Buddhists 
reckon as canonical several writings of more recent 
times adapted from the abominable Hindu Tantras, 

III. Primitive Buddhism. — Buddhism was by 
no means entirely original. It had much in common 
with the pantheistic Vedanta teaching, from which 
it sprang — belief in karma, whereby the character 
of the present life is the net product of the good and 
evil acts of a previous existence; belief in a constant 
series of rebirths for all who set their heart on pre- 
serving their individual existence; the pessimistic 
view that life at its best is misery and not worth 
living. And so the great end for which Buddha 
toiled was the very one which gave colour to the 
pantheistic scheme of salvation propounded by the 
Brahmin ascetics, namely, the liberation of men 
from misery by setting them free from attachment 
to conscious existence. It was in their conception 
of the final state of the saved, and of the method by 
which it was to be attained that they differed. The 
pantheistic Brahmin said: "Recognize your identity 
with the great impersonal god, Brahma, and you 
thereby cease to be a creature of desires; you are no 
longer held fast in the chain of rebirths; at death 
you lose your individuality, your conscious existence, 
to become absorbed in the all-god Brahma." In 
Buddha's system, the all-god Brahma was entirely 
ignored. Buddha put abstruse speculation in the 
background, and, while not ignoring the value of 
right knowledge, insisted on the saving act of the 
will as the one thing needful. To obtain deliverance 
from rebirth, all forms of desire must be absolutely 
quenched, not simply every wicked craving, but also 
the desire of such pleasures and comforts as are 
deemed innocent and lawful, the desire even to pre- 
serve one's conscious existence. It was through this 
extinction of every desire that cessation of misery 
was to be obtained. This state of absence of desire 
and pain was known as Xirrana (Xihbana). The 
word was not coined by Buddha, but in his teaching, 
it assumed a new shade of meaning. Nirvana means 
primarily a "blowing out ", and hence the extinction 
of the fire of desire, ill-will, delusion, of all, in short, 
that binds the individual to rebirth and misery. 
It was in the living Buddhist saint a state of calm 
repose, of indifference to life ami death, to pleasure 
and pain, a state of imperturbable tranquillity, where 
the sense of freedom from the bonds of rebirth caused 
the discomforts as well as the joys of life to sink into 
insignificance. But it was not till after death that 
Nirvana was realized in its completeness. In its 
full import, it meant eternal, unconscious repose. 
Was this repose identical with annihilation'.' Some 
scholars have so thought. And. indeed, if the psycho- 
logical speculations found in the sacred books are 
part of Buddha's personal teaching, it is hard to 
see how he could have held aught else as the final 
end of man. But logical consistency is not to be 
looked for in an Indian mystic. If we may trust 
the sacred books, he expressly refused on several 
occasions to pronounce cither on the existence or 
the non-existence of those who had entered into 
Nirvana, on the ground that it was irrelevant, not 
conducive to peace and enlightenment. His intimate 
disciples held the same view. A monk who inter- 
preted Nirvana to men, annihilation was taken to 
task by an older monk, and convinced that he had 
no right to hold such an opinion, since the subject 
was wrapped in impenetrable mystery. The learned 

nun Khcma gave a similar answer to the King of 
Kosala, who asked if the deceased Buddha was still 
in existence. Whether the Perfect One exists after 




death, whether he does not exist after death, whether 
he exists and at the same time does not exist after 
death, whether he neither exists nor does not exist 
after death, has not been revealed by Buddha. Since, 
l hen. the nature of Nirvana was too mysterious to 
be grasped by the Hindu mind, too subtle to be ex- 
pressed in terms either of existence or of non-exist- 
ence, it would be idle to attempt a positive solution 
of the question. It suffices to know that it meant a 
state of unconscious repose, an eternal sleep which 
knew no awakening. In this respect it was prac- 
tically one with the ideal of the pantheistic Brahmin. 
In the Buddhist conception of Nirvana no account 
was taken of the all-god Brahma. And as prayers 
and offerings to the traditional gods were held to be 
of no avail for the attainment of this negative state 
of bliss, Buddha, with greater consistency than was 
shown in pantheistic Brahminism, rejected both the 
Vedas ami the Vedic rites. It w-as this attitude 
which stamped Buddhism as a heresy. For this 
reason, too, Buddha has been set down by some as 
an atheist. Buddha, however, was not an al heist 
in the sense that he denied the existence of the gods. 
To him the gods were living realities. In his alleged 
sayings, as in the Buddhist scriptures generally, the 
gods are often mentioned, and always with respect. 
But like the pantheistic Brahmin, Buddha did not 
acknowledge his dependence on them. They were, 
like men. subject to decay and rebirth. The god of 
to-day might be reborn in the future in some inferior 
condition, while a man of great virtue might suceed 
in raising himself in his next birth to the rank of a 
god in heaven. The very gods, then, no less than 
men, had need of that perfect wisdom that leads to 
Nirvana, and hence it was idle to pray or sacrifice 
to them in the hope of obtaining the boon which 
they themselves did not possess. They were in- 
ferior to Buddha, since he had already attained to 
Nirvana. In like manner, they who followed Buddha's 
footsteps had no need of worshipping the gods by 
prayers and offerings. Worship of the gods was 
tolerated, however, in the Buddhist layman who still 
clung to the delusion of individual existence, and pre- 
ferred the household to the homeless state. More- 
over, Buddha's system conveniently provided for 
those who accepted in theory the teaching that 
Nirvana alone was the true end of man, but who 
still lacked the courage to quench all desires. The 
various heavens of Brahminic theology, with their 
positive, even sensual, delights were retained as the 
reward of virtuous souls not yet ripe for Nirvana. 
To aspire after such rewards was permitted to the 
lukewarm monk; it was commended to the layman. 
Hence the frequent reference, even in the earliest 
Buddhist writings, to heaven and its positive de- 
lights as an encouragement to right conduct. Suffi- 
cient prominence is not generally given to this more 
popular side of Buddha's teaching, without which 
iiis followers would have been limited to an insignifi- 
cant and short-lived hand of heroic souls. B was 
this clement, so prominent in the inscriptions of 
Asoka, that tempered the severity of Buddha's 
doctrine of Nirvana and made his .system acceptable 

to the masses. 

In order to secure that extinction of desire which 

alone could lead to Nirvana, Buddha prescribed for 

his followers :i life oi detachment from the comforts, 
pleasures, and occupations of the common run of 
men To secure this end, hi- adopted for himself and 

his disciples the quiet, secluded, contemplative life 
oi the Brahmin ascetics. 1 ' foreign to his plan 
that his followers should engage in any form of in- 

ilu ni.i! pursuits, lest i hey might thereby be en- 
tangled in worldly cares and desires. Their means 

of subsistence was alms; hence the name commonly 

applied to Buddhist monks was bhikkus, beggars, 
iiincnt. from family hie was absolutely nec- 

essary. Married life was to be avoided as a pit of 
hot coals, for it was incompatible with the quenching 
of desire and the extinction oi individual existence. 
In like manner, worldly possessions and worldly 
power had to be renounced — everything that might 
minister to pride, greed, or self-indulgence. Yet in 
exacting of his followers a life of severe simplicity, 
Buddha did not go to the extremes of fanaticism 
that characterized so many of the Brahmin ascetics. 
He chose the middle path of moderate asceticism, 
which he compared to a lute, which gives forth the 
proper tones only when the strings are neither too 
tight nor too slack. Each member was allowed but 
one set of garments, of yellowish colour and of cheap 
quality. These, together with his sleeping-mat, 
razor, needle, water-strainer, and alms-bowl, con- 
stituted the sum of his earthly possessions. His 
single meal, which had to be taken before noon, con- 
sisted chiefly of bread, rice, and curry, which he 
gathered daily in his alms-bowl by begging. Water 
or rice-milk was his customary drink, wine and other 
intoxicants being rigorously forbidden, even as medi- 
cine. Meat, fish, and delicacies were rarely eaten 
except in sickness or when the monk dined by invi- 
tation with some patron. The use of perfumes, 
flowers, ointments, and participation in worldly 
amusements fell also into the class of things pro- 
hibited. In theory, the moral code of Buddhism was 
little more than a copy of that of Brahminism. Like 
the latter, it extended to thoughts and desires, no 
less than to words and deeds. Unchastity in all its 
forms, drunkenness, lying, stealing, envy, pride, 
harshness are fittingly condemned. But what, per- 
haps, brings Buddhism most strikingly in contact 
with Christianity is its spirit of gentleness and for- 
giveness of injuries. To cultivate benevolence to- 
wards men of all classes, to avoid anger and physi- 
cal violence, to lie patient under insult, to return 
good for evil — all this was inculcated in Buddhism 
and helped to make it one of the gentlest of religions. 
To such an extent was this carried that the Buddhist 
monk, like the Brahmin ascetic, had to avoid with 
the greatest care the destruction of any form of 
animal life. 

In course of time, Buddha extended his monastic 
system to include women. Communities of nuns, 
while living near the monks, were entirely secluded 
from them. They had to conform to the same rule 
of life, to subsist on alms, and spend their days in 
retirement and contemplation. They were never 
as numerous as the monks, and later became a very 
insignificant factor in Buddhism. In thus opening 
up to his fellow men and women what he felt to be 
the true path of salvation, Buddha made no dis- 
crimination in social condition. Herein lay one of 
the most striking contrasts between the old religion 
and the new. Brahminism was inextricably inter- 
twined with caste-distinctions. It was a privilege 
of birth, from which the S\idras and members of 
si ill lower classes were absolutely excluded. Buddha, 
on the contrary, welcomed men of low as well as 
high birth and station. Virtue, not blood, was de- 
clared to be the test of superiority. In the brother- 
hood which he built around him, all caste-distinct inns 
were put aside. The despised Sudra stood on a 
footing of equality with the high-born Brahmin. 
In this religious democracy of Buddhism lay, doubt- 
less, one of its strongest influences for conversion 
among the masses. Hut in thus putting his followers 

on a plane of equal consideration, Buddha had no 

intention of acting the part of a social reformer. 
Not a few scholars have attributed to him the pur- 
pose of breaking down casle-ilist incl ions in society 

and of introducing more democratic conditions. 

Buddha had no more intention of abolishing caste 
than he had of abolishing marriage. Il was only 
within the limits of his own order that he insisted on 




social equality just as lie did on celibacy. Wherever 
Buddhism has prevailed, the caste-system has re- 
mained untouched. 

Strictly speaking, Buddha's order was composed 
only of those who renounced the world to live a 
iife of contemplation as monks and nuns. The very 
character of their life, however, made them depend- 
ent on the charity of turn and women who preferred 
to live in the world and to enjoy the comforts of the 
household state. Those who thus sympathized with 
the order and contributed to its support, formed 
the lay element in Buddhism. Through this friendly 
association with the order, they could look to a happy 
■ ■•ward after death, not Nirvana, but the temporary 
delights of heaven, with the additional prospect oi 
being able at some future birth to attain to Nirvana 
if they so desired. The majority, however, did not 
Bhare the enthusiasm of the Buddhist Arhai or saint 
hw Nirvana, being quite content to hope for a life 
of positive, though impermanent, bliss in heaven. 
IV. Later Developments and Spread of Bud- 
dhism. — The lack of all religious rites in Buddhism 
was not keenly felt during the lifetime of its founder. 
Personal devotion to him took the place of religious 
fervour. But he was not long dead when this very 
devotion to him began to assume the form of re- 
ligious worship. His reputed relics, consisting of his 
bones, teeth, alms-bowl, cremation-vessel, and ashes 
from his funeral pyre, were enclosed in dome-shaped 
mounds called Dagobas, or Topes, or Stupas, and wen- 
honoured with offerings of lights, (lowers, and incense. 
Pictures and statue-; of Buddha were multiplied on 
every side, and similarly honoured, being carried 
about on festal days in solemn procession. The 
places, too. associated with his birth, enlightenment, 
first preaching, and death were accounted especially 
sacred, and became the objects of pilgrimage and the 
occasion of recurring festivals. But as Buddha had 
entered into Nirvana and could not be sensible of 
these religious honours, the need was felt of a living 
personality to whom the people could pray. The 
later speculations of Buddhist monks brought such a 
personality to light in Metteyya (Maitreya), the 
loving one. now happily reigning in heaven as a 
bodhisattva, a divine being destined in the remote 
future to become a Buddha, and again to set in motion 
I he wheel of t lie law. To this Metteyya the Buddhists 
turned as the living object of worship of which they 
had so long felt the need, anil they [laid him religious 
homage as the future saviour of the world. 

Such was the character of the religious worship 
observed by those who departed the least from Bud- 
dha's teachings. It is what is found to-day in the so- 
called Southern Buddhism, held by the inhabitants 
of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam. Towards the end of 
the first century A. D., however, a far more radical 
change took place in the religious views of the great 
mass of Buddhists in Northern India. <>\\i>iL r , 
doubtless, to the ever growing popularity of the cults 
of Vishnu and Siva, Buddhism was so modified as 
to allow the worship of an eternal, supreme deity, 
Adi-Buddha, of whom the historic Buddha was de- 
clared to have been an incarnation, an avatar. Around 
this supreme Buddha dwelling in highest heaven, were 
grouped a countless number oi bodhisattvas, di 
tinea in future ages to become human Buddhas for 

the Bake Oi erring man. To raise oneself to the rank 
of bodhisattva by meritorious works was the ideal 
now held out to pious souls. In place of Nirvana, 
Sukhavati became the object of pious longing, the 
heaven of sensuous pleasures, where Amitabha, an 

emanation of the eternal Buddha, reigned. I or the 
attainment of Sukhavati. the necessity of virtuous 
conduct was not altogether forgotten, but an extrava- 
gant importance wa attached to the worship of 
relics and statues, pilgrimages, and. above all, to the 
reciting of sacred names and magic formulas. Many 

other gross forms of Hindu superstition were also 
adopted. This innovation, completely subversive 
of the teaching of Buddha, supplanted the older 
system in the North. It was known as t he Mahay ana, 
or Great Vehicle, in distinction to the other ami 
earlier form of Buddhism contemptuously styled the 
Hinayana or Little Vehicle, which held its own in 
the South. It is only by the few millions of Southern 
Buddhists that the teachings of Buddha have been 
substanf ially preserved. 

Buddha's order seems to have grown rapidly, 
and through the good will of rulers, whose inferior 
origin debarred them from Brahmin privileges, to 
have become in the next two centuries a formidable 
rival of the older religion. The interesting rock- 
edicts of Asoka, a royal convert to Buddhism, who 
in the second quarter of the third century B. C, held 
dominion over the greater part of India, give evidence 
that Buddhism was in a most flourishing condition, 
while a tolerant and kindly spirit was displayed 
towards cither forms of religion. Under his auspices, 
missionaries wore sent to evangelize Ceylon in the 
South, and in the North, Kashnier, Kandahar, and 
the so-called Yavana country, identified by most 
scholars with the Greek settlements in the Kabul 
valley and vicinity, and later known as Bactria. 
In all these places, Buddhism quickly took root and 
flourished, though in the Northern countries the re- 
ligion became later on corrupted and transformed 
into the Mahayana form of worship. 

In the first century of the Christian Era, the 
knowledge of Buddha made its way to China. At. 
the invitation of the Emperor Ming-ti, Buddhist 
monks came in A. n. 07 with sacred books, pictures, 
and iclics. Conversions multiplied, and during the 
next few- centuries the religious communications 
between the t wo countries were very close. Not 
only did Buddhist missionaries from India labour 
in China, but many Chinese monks showed their 
zeal for the newly adopted religion by making pil- 
grimages to the holy places in India. A few of them 
wrote interesting accounts, .still extant, of what they 
saw and heard in their travels. Of these pilgrim's 
the most noted are l-'ahien. who travelled in India 
and I eylon in the years \. o. '■'•'■>'.> 11 1, and Hiouen- 
Tsang, who made extensive travels in India two 
centuries later (a. d. 629-645). The supplanting 
of the earlier form of Buddhism in the northern 
countries of India in the second century led !.. a 
ponding change in tin- Buddhism of China. 
Tlie later missionaries, being mostly from the North 
of India, brought with them the new doctrine, and 
in a short time the Mahayana or Northern Buddhism 

prevailed. Two ,,f the bodhisattvas oi Mahayana 

theology becalm- the favourite objects of worship 

with the Chinese Amitabha, lord of the Sukhavati 
e, and Avalokilesvara, extravagantly prai ed 
in the "Lotus oi the True Law " at readj in extricate 
from every sort of danger those who think of him 
or cherish his name. The latter, known as Fousa 
Kwanyin, is wo- hipped, now as a male deity, again 

a the goddess of mercy, who comes to the relief of 

tin- faithful. Amitabha goes by the Chinese name 

A mil, i, or Miio. Offerings of flowers ami incense 
made before his statues ami the frequent repetition 
of his name are believed to en un a future hie of 
bliss iii his distant Western paradi \u excessive 
devotion to statues and relics, the employment of 
magic arts t.. I pirits, ami the observance 

of many of 1 In- B i -r in urn' ol I 'aoi iii, com- 
plete tlie picture oi sorry 

ulation of what Buddha mad.- km. 
men. Chinese Buddhism was introduced into I 

in the fourth century, ami from there taken to Japan 

two Centuries later. The Buddhism of these coun- 
tries is in the main like that of China, with (lie ad- 
dition of a nurnDer of local superstitions. Annam 




was also evangelized by Chinese Buddhists at an 
early period. 

Buddhism was first introduced into Tibet in the 
latter part of the seventh century, but it did not be- 
gin to thrive till the ninth century. In 1260, the 
Buddhist conqueror of Tibet, Kublai Khan, raised 
the head lama, a monk of the great Sakja monastery, 
to the position of spiritual and temporal ruler. His 
modern successors have the title of Dalai Lama. 
Lamaism is based on the Northern Buddhism of 
India, after it had become saturated with the dis- 
gusting elements of .<5iva worship. Its deities are 
innumerable, its idolatry unlimited. It is also much 
given to the use of magic formulas and to the end- 
less repetition of sacred names. Its favourite formula 
is, Om mani padme hum (O jewel in the lotus. Amen), 
which, written on streamers exposed to the wind, 
and multiplied on paper slips turned by hand or wind 
or water, in the so-called prayer-wheels, is thought 
to secure for the agent unspeakable merit. The 
Dalai Lama, residing in the great monastery at 
Lhasa, passes for the incarnation of Amitabha, the 
Buddha of the Sukhavati paradise. Nine months 
after his death, a newly born babe is selected by 
divination as the reincarnate Buddha. Catholic 
missionaries to Tibet in the early part of the last 
century were struck by the outward resemblances 
to ( 'atholic liturgy and discipline that were presented 
by Lamaism — its infallible head, grades of clergy 
corresponding to bishop and priest, the cross, mitre, 
dalmatic, cope, censer, holy water, etc. At once 
voices were raised proclaiming the Lamaistic origin 
of Catholic rites and practices. Unfortunately for 
this shallow theory, the Catholic Church was shown 
to have possessed these features in common with 
the Christian Oriental Churches long before Lamaism 
was in existence. The wide propagation of Nesto- 
rianism over Central and Eastern Asia as early as 
A. d. 635 offers a natural explanation for such re- 
semblances as are accretions on Indian Buddhism. 
The missionary zeal of Tibetan lamas led to the ex- 
tension of their religion to Tatary in the twelfth ami 
following centuries. While Northern Buddhism was 
thus exerting a widespread influence over Central 
and Eastern Asia, the earlier form of Buddhism was 
making peaceful conquests of the countries and 
islands in the South. In the fifth century, mis- 
sionaries from Ceylon evangelized Burma. Within 
the next two centuries, it spread to Siam, Cambodia, 
Java, and adjacent islands. 

The number of Buddhists throughout the world 
is commonly estimated at about four hundred and 
fifty millions, that is, about one-third of the human 
race. But in this estimate the error is made of 
classing all the Chinese and Japanese as Buddhists. 
Professor Legge, whose years of experience in China 
give special weight to his judgment, declares that the 
Buddhists in the whole world are not more than 
one hundred millions, being far outnumbered not 
only by Christians, but also by the adherents of 
Confucianism and Hinduism. Professor Monier 
Williams holds the same view. Even if Buddhism, 
however, outranked Christianity in the number of 
adherents, it would be a mistake to attribute to the 
religion of Buddha, as some do, a more successful 
propagandist!! than to the religion of Christ. The 
latter has made its immense conquests, not by com- 
promising with error and superstition, but by winning 
souls to the exclusive acceptance of its saving truths. 
Wherever it has spread, it lias maintained its indi- 
viduality. <tn the other hand, the vast majority 
of t lie adherents of Buddhism cling to forms of creed 
and worship that Buddha, if alive, would reprobate. 
Northern Buddhism became the very opposite of 
what Buddha taught to men, and in spreading to 

foreign lands accommodated itself to the degrading 
superstitions of the peoples it sought to win. It is 

only the Southern Buddhists of Ceylon, Burma, and 
Siam who deserve to be identified with the order 
founded by Buddha. They number at most but 
thirty millions of souls. 

V. Buddhism and Christianity. — Between Bud- 
dhism and Christianity there are a number of re- 
semblances, at first sight striking. The Buddhist 
order of monks and nuns offers points of similarity 
with Christian monastic systems, particularly the 
mendicant orders. There are moral aphorisms as- 
cribed to Buddha that are not unlike some of the 
sayings of Christ. Most of all, in the legendary life 
of Buddha, which in its complete form is the outcome 
of many centuries of accretion, there are many 
parallelisms, some more, some less striking, to the 
Gospel stories of Christ. A few third-rate scholars, 
taking for granted that all these resemblances are 
pre-Christian, and led by the fallacious principle 
that resemblance always implies dependence, have 
vainly tried to show that Christian monasticism is 
of Buddhist origin, and that Buddhist thought and 
legend have been freely incorporated into the Gospels. 
To give greater speciousness to their theory, they 
have not scrupled to press into service, besides the 
few bona fide resemblances, many others that were 
either grossly exaggerated, or fictitious, or drawn 
from Buddhist sources less ancient than the Gospels. 
If, from this vast array of alleged Buddhist infil- 
trations, all these exaggerations, fictions, and ana- 
chronisms are eliminated, the points of resemblance 
that remain are, with perhaps one exception, such 
as may be explained on the ground of independent 
origin. The exception is the story of Buddha's con- 
version from the worldly life of a prince to the life 
of an ascetic, which was transformed by some ( (rien- 
tal Christian of the seventh century into the popular 
medieval tale of " Barlaam and Josaphat ". (q. v.) 
Here is historic evidence of the turning of a Buddhist 
into a Christian legend just as, on the other hand, the 
fifth-century sculptures of Gospel scenes on the 
ruined Buddhist monasteries of Jamalgiri, in Northern 
Panjab, described in the scholarly work of Fergusson 
and Burgess, "The Cave Temples of India", offer 
reliable evidence that the Buddhists of that time did 
not scruple to embellish the Buddha legend with 
adaptations from Christian sources. But is there 
any historical basis for the assertion that Buddhist 
influence was a factor in the formation of Christianity 
and of the Christian Gospels? The advocates of 
this theory pretend that the rock-inscriptions of 
Asoka bear witness to the spread of Buddhism over 
the Greek-speaking world as early as the third cen- 
tury n. c, since they mention the flourishing ex- 
istence of Buddhism among the Yavanas, i. e. Greeks 
within the dominion of Antiochus. But in the unani- 
mous judgment of first-rate scholars, the Yavanas 
here mentioned mean simply and solely the Greek- 
speaking peoples on the extreme frontier next to 
India, namely, Bactria and the Kabul valley. Again 
the statement in the late Buddhist chronicle, Maha- 
vansa, that among the Buddhists who came to the 
dedication of a great Slu/m in Ceylon in the second 
century B.C., "were oxer thirty thousand monks 
from the vicinity of Alassada, the capital of the Yona 
country", is taken to prove that long before the time 
of Christ, Alexandria in Egypt was the centre of 
flourishing Buddhist communities. Ii is true that 
Alassada is the Pali for Alexandria; but the best 

scholars are agr 1 thai the city here meant is not 

the ancient capital of Egypt , but as the text indicates, 

the chief city of the Yona country, the Yavana coun- 
try of the rock-inscriptions, namely. Bactria and 
vicinity. Ami so, the city referred to is most likely 
Alexandria ad Caucasum. 

In short , there is nothing in Buddhist records i hat 
may be taken as reliable evidence for the spread of 
Buddhism westward to the Greek world as early as 




the foundation of (he Christian religion. That 
Buddhist institutions were at that time unknown in 
the West may be safely inferred from the fact that 
Buddhism is absolutely ignored in the literary and 
archaeological remains of Palestine, Egypt, and 

<.[ There is not a single ruin of a Buddhist 

monastery or stupa in any or these countries; not a 
single Greek translation of a Buddhist book; not a 
reference in all t ireek literature to the existence 
Buddhist community in the Greek world. The 
very name of Buddha is mentioned for the first time 
only in the writings of I 'lenient of Alexandria (second 
century). To explain the resemblances in Chris- 
tianity to a number of pre-Christian features of 
Buddhism, then- is no need of resorting to the hy- 
pothesis that they were borrowed. Nothing is more 
common in the study of comparative ethnology and 
religion than to find similar social and religious cus- 
toms practised by peoples too remote to have had 
any communication with one another. How easily 
the principle of ascetie detachment from the world 
may lead to a community life in which celibacy is 
observed, may be seen in the monastic systems that 
have prevailed not only among Buddhists, Essenes, 
and Christians, but also among the early Aztecs and 
Incas in the New World. Nor is this so strange when 
it is recalled that men everywhere have, to a large ex- 
tent, the same daily experiences.- the same feelings, 
the same desires. As the laws of human thought are 
everywhere the same, it lies in the very nature of 
things that men, in so far as they have the same ex- 
periences, or face the same religious needs, will think 
the same thoughts, and give expression to them in 
sayings and customs that strike the unreflecting ob- 
server by their similarity. It is only by losing sight 
of this fundamental truth that one can unwittingly 
fall into the error of assuming that resemblance 
always implies dependence. 

It is chiefly the legendary features of Buddha's 
life, many of which are found for the first time only 
in works of later date than the Gospels, that furnish 
the most striking resemblances to certain incidents 
related of Christ in the Gospels, resemblances which 
might with greater show of reason be traced to a 
common historic origin. If there has been any borrow- 
ing here, it is plainly on the side of Buddhism. That 
Christianity made its way to Northern India in the 
first two centuries is not only a matter of respectable 
tradition, but is supported by weighty archiEological 
evidence. Scholars of recognized ability, beyond the 
suspicion of undue bias in favour of Christianity 
Weber, Goblet d'Alviella, and others — think it very 
likely that the Gospel stories of Christ circulated by 
these early Christian communities in India were 
utilized by the Buddhists to enrich the Buddha legend, 
just as the Vishnuites built up the legend of Krishna 
on many striking incidents in the life of Christ. 

The fundamental tenets of Buddhism are marked 
by grave defects that not only betray its inadequacy 
to become a religion of enlightened humanity, but also 
bring into bold relief its inferiority to the religion of 
Jesus Christ. In the first place, the very foundation 
on which Buddhism re>ts the doctrine of karma 
with its implied transmigrations — is gratuitous and 
false. This pretended law of nature, by which the 
myriads of gods, demons, men. and animals tire but 
the transient forms of rational beings essentially the 
same, but forced to this diversity in consequence of 
varying degrees of merit and demerit in former lives, 
is a huge superstition in flat contradiction to the 
recognized laws of nature, .and hence ignored by men 
of science. Another basic defect in primitive Bud- 
dhism is its failure to recognize man's dependence on 
a supreme God. By ignoring God and by making 
salvation rest solely on personal effort, Buddha sub- 
stituted for thi' Brahmin religion a cold and colour- 
less system of philosophy; It is entirely lacking in 
III.— 3 

those powerful motives to right conduct, particularly 
the motive of love, that spring from the sense of 
dependence on a personal all-loving Cod. Hence it is 
that Buddhist morality is in the last analysis a selfish 
utilitarianism. There is no sense of duty, as in the 
religion of Christ, prompted by reverence for a su- 
preme Lawgiver, by love for a merciful Father, by 
personal allegiance to a Redeemer. Karma, the basis 
of Buddhist morality, is like any other law of nature, 
the observance of which is prompted by prudential 
considerations. Not infrequently one meets the 
assertion that Buddha surpassed Jesus in holding out 
to struggling humanity an end utterly unselfish. This 
is a mistake. Not to speak of the popular Swarga. 
or heaven, with its positive, even sensual delights, 
the fact that Nirvana is a negative ideal of bliss 
does not make it the less tin object of interested de- 
sire. Far from being an unselfish end, Nirvana is 
based wholly on the motive of self-love. It thus 
stands on a much lower level than the Christian ideal, 
which, being primarily and essentially a union of 
friendship with God in heaven, appeals to motives 
of disinterested as well as interested love. 

Another fatal defect of Buddhism is its false 
pessimism. A strong and healthy mind revolts 
against the morbid view that life is not worth living, 
that every form of conscious existence is an evil. 
Buddhism stands condemned by the voice of nature, 
the dominant tone of which is hope and joy. It is a 
protest against nature for possessing the perfection of 
rational life. The highest ambition of Buddhism is to 
destroy that perfection by bringing all living beings to 
the of Nirvana. Buddhism is thus 
guilty of a capital crime against nature, and in con- 
sequence does injustice to the individual. All legiti- 
mate desires must be repressed. Innocent recreations 
are condemned. The cult i vat ion of music is forbidden. 
Researches in natural science are discountenanced. 
The development of the mind is limited to the memo- 
rizing of Buddhist texts and the study of Buddhist 
metaphysics, only a minimum of which is of any 
value. The Buddhist ideal on earth is a state of 
passive indifference to everything. How different 
is the teaching of Him who came that men might 
have life and have it more abundantly. Again 
Buddhist pessimism is unjust to the family. .Mar- 
riage is held in contempt and even abhorrence as 
lea, lim; to the procreation of life. In thus branding 
marriage as a state unworthy of man, Buddhism be- 
trays its inferiority to Christianity, which recom- 
mends virginity, but at the same time teaches that 
marriage is a saercd union and a source of sanctifica- 
tion. Buddhist pessimism likewise does injustice 
to society, it has set the seal of approval on the 
Brahmin prejudice against manual labor. Since life 
is not worth living, to labour for the comforts and 
refinements of civilized life is a delusion. The per- 
fect man is to subsist not by the labour of his hands, 
but on the .alius of inferior men. In the religion of 
Christ, "the carpenter's sun", a healthier view pro- 
vails. The dignity of labour is upheld, and every 
form of industry is encouraged that tends to promote 
man's welfare. 

Buddhism has accomplished but little for the up- 
lifting of humanity in comparison with Christianity. 
One of its most attractive features, which, unfortu- 
nately, has become wellnigh obsolete, was its practice 
of benevolence towards the sick and needy. Be- 
tween Buddhists and Brahmins there was a com- 
mendable rivalry in maintaining dispensaries of food 
and medicine. But this charity did not, like the 
Christian form, extend to the prolonged nursing of 
unfortunates stricken with contagious and incurable 
diseases, to the protection of foundlings, to the bring- 
ing up of orphans, to the rescue of fallen women, 
to the care of the aired and insane. Asylums and 
hospitals in this sense are unknown to Buddhism. 




The consecration of religious men and women to the 
lifelong service of afflicted humanity is foreign to 
dreamy Buddhist monasticism. Again, the wonder- 
ful efficacy displayed by the religion of Christ in 
purifying the morals of pagan Europe has no parallel 
in Buddhist annals. Wherever the religion of Buddha 
has prevailed, it has proved singularly inefficient to 
lift society to a high standard of morality. It has 
not weaned the people of Tibet and Mongolia from 
the custom of abandoning the aged, nor the Chinese 
from the practice of infanticide. Outside the es- 
tablishment of the order of nuns, it has done next 
to nothing to raise woman from her state of degrada- 
tion in Oriental lands. It has shown itself utterly 
helpless to cope with the moral plagues of humanity. 
The consentient testimony of witnesses above the 
suspicion of prejudice establishes the fact that at 
the present day Buddhist monks are everywhere 
strikingly deficient in that moral earnestness and 
exemplary conduct which distinguished the early 
followers of Buddha. In short, Buddhism is all 
but dead. In its huge organism the faint pulsa- 
tions of life are still discernible, but its power of 
activity is gone. The spread of European civiliza- 
tion over the East will inevitably bring about its ex- 

I. Texts. — Davids and Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts in 
Sacred Books of the East (Oxford), XIII. XVII. XX; Rhys 
Davids. Buddhist Suttas, op. rit.. XI; Idem, The Mahaparinib- 
bana Sutta, op. cit., XI; Idem. The Questions of King Milinda, 
op. cit., XXXV. XXXVI; Fausboll, The Sutta-N ipata, op. 
cit.. X. Pt. 1; Mt'l-i.ER, The Dhammapada, op. cit., X, Pt. II; 
Kern. The Saddharma-Pundarika, op. cit., XXI; Mt'LLER, 
The Sukhavativyuha, op. cit., XLIX, Pt. II; Takahusu, The 
Amitai/ur-Dhyana-Sutra, op. cit., XLIX, Pt. II; WaRREN, 
Biuidhism in Translations (Cambridge. 1891)); Chalmers AND 
Others The Jatakas (3 vols., Cambridge, 1895-97); Bigandet, 
The Life or Legend ofGaudama (2 vols.. London, 1880); Cowell, 
The Buddha-Charita, in Sacred Books of the East, XLII; Foo- 
caux, Lalita Yistara, in Annates du Musee Guimet (Paris), VI, 

II. Works on Buddhism. — Barth. The Religions of India 
(London, 1891); Hopkins. The Religions of India (Boston, 
1895); Williams, Buddhism in Connection with Brahmanism 
and Hinduism (London, 1889); Coppleston, Buddhism, 
Primitive and Present (London, 1892); Davids. Buddhism, its 
History and Literature (New York. 1S96); Aiken, The Dhamma 
of Gotama the Buddha and the Gospel of Jesus the Christ (Boston, 
1900); Edmunds, Buddhist and Christian Gospels now first 
Compared from the Originals (London, 1904); Kellogg, The 
Light of Asia ami the Light of the World (London, 1888); Dahl- 
mann, Buddha, ein Culturbiht des Oslcns (Berlin, 1898); DE LA 
Saussaye, Lehrbuch dcr Religionsgeschichte (2 vols.. 3d ed., 
Freiburg, 1905), II; Poussin, Bouddhisme. Etudes et Materiaux 
(Paris, 1898); Hardy, Der Buddhismus nach altercn Paliwerken 
(Minister, 1890); Oldenberg, Buddha (Berlin. 1904; tr., 
London, 1882). CHARLES F. AlKEN. 

Bude (Bud^us), Guillaume, French Hellenist, b. 
at Paris, 1467; d. there, 22 August, 1540. He studied 
at Paris and Orleans, but with little success or appli- 
cation. Subsequently, however, he seemed to ac- 
quire a sudden passion for learning. After taking 
lessons in Creek from Hermonymus, and profiting 
by the advice of Joannes Lascaris, he attained great 
proficiency in that language. He studied at the 
same time, philosophy, theology, law, and medicine, 
in all of which he made rapid progress. Bude"s 
abilities were recognized by Louis XII, whose secre- 
tary hi- became after his return from a successful 
embassy on occasion of the coronation of Pope Julius 
II. He was sent to Rome again on a mission to 
Pope Leo X (1515), but was recalled at his own re- 
quest ^nil accompanied Francis I in his travels. It 
was then that In' suggested to the king the creation 
of a college lor the study of the three languages 
(Creek, 1 lebrcw, ami Latin), afterwards tile "( 'ullege 
de France". Empowered to ask Erasmus to take 
charge of it (1517 18), be failed in his mission, and 
the college was not founded until 1530. At his sug- 
gestion, also, Francis declined to prohibit printing, 
as the Sorbonne had advised (1533). Literary 
France owes to Bude's efforts the foundation of the 
"Bibliotheque ile Kontainebleau ", which was the 
origin of the "Bibliotheque Nationale". His letters 

to Erasmus, Thomas More, Sadolet, Rabelais, and 
others, WTitten in Greek, Latin, or French, were the 
delight of scholars of the time. Bud£ was suspected 
of leanings towards Calvinism, and certain parts of 
his correspondence with Erasmus seemed to coun- 
tenance this suspicion. However, it was disproved 
after his death. Having already translated into 
Latin many of Plutarch's Lives (1502-05), he pub- 
lished his "Annotationes in XXIV libros Pan- 
dectarum" (Paris, 150S), in which, by applying 
philology and history to the Roman law, he revolu- 
tionized the study of jurisprudence. Bude's treatise 
on Roman coins and weights, " De asse et partibus 
ejus" (Venice, 1522), was the best book on the sub- 
ject written up to that time. In 1520 he published 
a philosophical and moral dissertation, " De con- 
temptu rerum fortuitarum"; in 1527, "De studio 
litterarum", in which he urges youth not to neglect 
their literary studies. Greek, however, was his 
favourite study, and we have from him, "Commen- 
tarii lingua' gra?ca?" (Paris, 1529), which greatly 
advanced the study of Greek literature in France, 
"De transitu helenismi ad Chris tianismum" (Paris, 
1534), and various other works of similar scope 
though of minor importance. His complete works 
were published at Basle in 1557. 

Le Roy. Vita G. Budai (Pans. 1540); Niceron. Histoire de 
lavieetdesourraoesde Bud,} in Mem., VIII, 371-89(1727-45); 
E. deBode, Vie de Guillaume Bude (Paris, 1884). 


Budweis (Czech, Budejovice; Lat. Budovicitjm), 
Diocese of (Bohemo-Budvicensis), situated in 
Southern Bohemia, suffragan to the Archdiocese 
of Prague. Although projected since 1630, the dio- 
cese was not erected until the reign of Emperor 
Joseph II, by a papal Bull of 20 September, 1785. 
By the provisions of this Bull, the civil districts of 
Budweis, Tabor, Prachatitz, and Klattau were sepa- 
rated from the Archdiocese of Prague and erected 
into the new Diocese of Budweis, thus giving it an 
area of 5600 sq. miles with a population of 660,000. 
The church of St. Nicholas at Budweis was made 
cathedral, and the Archbishop of Prague contributed 
3300 Rhenish marks (present value 10,080 kronen or 
$2,016) towards its endowment. 

The following bishops have occupied the See of 
Budweis: (1) Johann Prokop, Count von Schaffgotsche 
(1785-1813), formerly rector of the Generalseminar 
at Briinn, and canon at Olmiitz; (2) Ernst Konstan- 
t in RuSicka (1815-45); (3) Joseph Andreas Lindauer 
(1845-50); (4) Johann Valerian Jirsik (1851-83), es- 
pecially noteworthy for the part he took in the de- 
velopment of the diocese; (5) Franz, Count Schonborn 
(1NN3 85), later Cardinal and Vrchbi hop ol Prague, 
d. 1899; (6) Martin Joseph Rfha (7 July, 1885-6 
February, 1907), the first diocesan ecclesiastic to be 
appointed Bishop of Budweis. The present adminis- 
trator (1907) is the Vicar Capitular, J. Hulka. In 
conformity with the decree of the provincial council 
of Prague (1860) three diocesan synods have been 
held (1S70, 1872, 1875). 

Statistics. — According to the organization of 
1857 the Diocese of Budweis is divided into the 
Vicariate-! leneral of Budweis on which depend the 
archdeaconry of Krummau, the provostship of 
Neuhaus, and 8 archipresbyterates: Budweis, Klat- 
tau, Krummau, Neuhaus, Cans, and Winterberg, 
with 4 vicariates each, and Strakonitz and Tabor 
with 5 vicariates each, making a total of 3 1 vicariates. 
Among the 432 ecclesiastical divisions fur the cure 
of souls, there are two archdeaconries, 57 deaneries, 
360 parishes, 5 expositures, and 1 administrature, 
with a total population (1907) of 1,123.113. This 
number is divided as follows: 1,11)6.729 Roman 
Catholics (an average of 98.1 per cent, in many 
vicariates 99.92 per cent of the whole population); 
1589 members of the Augsburg Evangelical Church; 




2302 members of the Helvetic Evangelical Church; 
12,117 Jews; and 46 of no religious persuasion. The 
population of 282 of the ecclesiastical divisions 
(68.9 per cent), 761,568 is almost entirely Czech; 
that of 110 (15.34 per cent), 181,790, purely Ger- 
man; that of 25 (10.66 per cent), 119,830, predomi- 
nantly Czech; and of 15 (5.1 per cent), 59,925, pre- 
vailingly German. The average population of a 
Carish is 2000, the population of the largest, Budweis, 
eing 45,528, and of file smallest, Korkushutten, 414. 
The clergy actively engaged in the ministry num- 
ber 849 secular and 136 regular priests. The latter 
are thus divided: 59 Cistercians from Hohenfurth, 
with 4 professed clerics; 18 Brothers of the Most 
Holy Sacrament of the Altar, a congregation founded 
at Budweis in 18.SS. with 5 clerics, 18 lay brothers, 
and 11 novices; 14 Premonstratensians; 11 Knights of 
Malta; 3 Minorites; 4 Reformed Franciscans, with 
5 lay brothers; 3 Calced anil 4 Discalccd Augus- 
tinians. with 1 lay brothers; 6 Redemptorists, with 
4 lay brothers; (J Servitea with 4 lay brothers; 4 
Capuchins, with 4 lay brothers; 3 Piarists. Twenty- 
nine parishes arc attended by members of religious 
orders; 2 are granted by free collation, i. c. bestowed 
by the metropolitan; and the rest are subject to pat- 
ronage, 88 to ecclesiastii a] patronage. The cathedral 
chapter ((insists of a provost, a dean, who is also 
the urban dean of Budweis, a cantor, and 3 capitu- 
lar canons to which are added 4 honorary canons; 
the consistory has 9 members. Young men are 
trained for the priesthood in the theological semi- 
nary at Budweis, which provides for those speak- 
ing the different languages found in the diocese; 
it has 6 professors and 103 students, 3 in the Bo- 
hemian College in Rome. There is also in Budweis 
an episcopal school lor boys (/utit s<~titiwnrr) without 

attached (founded 1853). 
Female Religious Orders, Shrines, Chi rches, 

etc. — In the diocese there are 7 orders of women, 
with 362 sisters, 'III novices and lay sisters, and 40 
houses; 216 1'oor School Sisters of Notre Dame 
(since 1849); 129 Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo 
(1.S42); 93 Sisters of the .Most Blessed Sacrament 
of the Altar (founded at Budweis in 1887); 2 Sisters 
of St. Vincent de Paul; 3 Sisters of the Holy Cross; 
3 Servites; and 2 Franciscans. The great mass of 
the people arc engaged in agricultural pursuits and 
are in general religiously inclined. Popular missions 
(Volksmissionen) are frequent, 450 of them being 
held between L850 and 1897 in 228 parishes. 334 by 
Redemptorists and 112 by Jesuits. The chief con- 
fraternities arc: the Confraternity of the Rosary, in 
230 parishes, with 30,000 members; the Confra- 
ternity for the Adoration of the Most Blessed Sacra- 
ment and 'he Adornment of Poor Churches, founded 
in 1859. in 23N parishes, which has 15,000 members 
and disburses yearly 5.000 kronen (SI, 000); the 
Confraternity of St. Michael in 265 parishes, with 
5.00(1 i bo contribute annually 4.000 

kronen [$800 towards Peter's-pence. 

The principal places of pilgrimage are: Brtinn, 
founded in 1715, visited yearly by Slid processions; 
Rimau, built at the end of the seventeenth century, 
with 100 annual processions; Gojau mentioned as 
early as 1469; and Kfemeschnik. built in 1632. Here, 
as in the rest of Bohemia, ecclesiastical edifices of 
earlier centuries were greatly damaged during the 
religious wars of the fifteenth to the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The prevailing architectural style is baroque. 
Mention should be made of 'lie Romanesque church 
of Mulilhattscn, built between llsl and 1250, for- 
merly a Premonstratensian church; the Cistercian 
abbey-churches ,,f Goldenkron (12(13 13(10), and 
Hohenfurth (1269 1350), built in Gothic style; the 
two-naved church of St. JJgidius in Muhlhausen, 
originally Romanesque (in the twelfth century), in 
1407 rebuilt in the Gothic style; the cathedral at 

Budweis (1642-49) and the parish church at Prestitz 
(1748-73) are examples of the baroque style, the 
latter designed by Kilian Dienzenhofer. Popular 
Catholic associations are not at present very nu- 
merous. There are but two Catholic weekly papers 
in the diocese. It is only within recent years that 
any serious attempts have been made to organize 
the Catholics of the diocese, both on political and 
non-partisan lines. These efforts have so far met with 
scant success; in the past, therefore, the territory 
of the diocese has been represented in the Austrian 
Parliament by Liberal deputies. 

Thajkr, Hittoritch-atatistisrlir B,srhrrilning dcr Duizete 
Budweit (Budweis, lSiiL'i; is, hi.ager-Trajer, Ge- 
srhichtr dm Bistums Buduns (iliiil., 1SS.5); Ladenbacer, Das 
torinle Wirkcn dcr kathol. Kircltr in Orstcrrcich; Dt.zrse Bud- 
ueu (Vienna. 1S99); Catalogue Cleri dime. Budricen, 1907 
(Budweis, 1907). 

Karl Hilgenreiner. 
Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine 
Republic, and the second city of the Latin races in the 
world (having a population of 1,100,000), as well as 
the first in commercial importance among the cities 
of South America, is situated in latitude 34° 35' 30" S., 
and longitude 58° 22' 20" W., on the right bank of the 

of Buenos Aires 

Rfo de la Plata, at an elevation of about 65 feet. 
The Rio de la Plata (Plate, or Silver, River), the estu- 
ary of which has a maximum width of more than 108 
miles, is about 43 miles wide at Buenos Aires. 

With a mean annual death-rate of 14 per thousand, 
the city takes rank in respect of sanitation with the 
most advanced cities of the world. The mean tem- 
perature is 62° 6' F.,snow never falls, and hail only 
rarely, and the thermometer ranges from 59 F. to 82° 
4' 1'., at times, however, reaching 95°. The north 
wind, humid and warm, and in summer even suffoca- 
ting, charges tic atmosphere with electricity, causing 
general debility and nervous troubles; but this wind 
never lasts for more than three days, and generally 
changes to a south-east wind, bringing rain or storm. 
upon which there follows the cold, dry south-west 
wind called the Pampero, which clears the sky. The 
vicissitudes of weather are extremely abrupt, with 
changes of ure amounting sometimes to as 
much as 36°, with violent winds. The Pampero, 
highly charged with ozone, exercises a disinfecting 
influence and serves to purify the vitiated atmosphere 
of the thickly populated sections of the city. The 
healthiness of Buenos Aires (in English, literally, 
Good Airs) .-irises from two other most important 

causes: the supply ,,f running Water and the drainage 
system as to both of which something will be said 
later on. The mean annual rainfall recorded in the 
five years from 1899 to 1903 was a little more than 




43 164 inches. The barometer ordinarily ranges from 
29.825 inches to 30.03 inches. 

At the time of its founding in 1.580 this settle- 
ment had 300 inhabitants; in 1744 the population 
was 11,118; 40,000 in 1801 (estimated); 62,228 in 
1822; 177,787 in 1869; 404,000 in 1887; 663,854 in 
1895; 950,891 in 1904; 1,084,280 in December, 1906; 
1,109,202 (estimated) in July, 1907. All of these 
amounts, except the third and the last, are taken from 
the official census. Of the total annual increase in 
population (46.3 per thousand), 19 to 20 per thousand 
is due to excess of birth-rate over death-rate; the 
rest being the effect of immigration. In the 950,981 
inhabitants reported in the census of 18 September, 
1904, the Argentines numbered 523,041; the foreign- 
ers. 427,850 (22S,556 of the latter number being 
Italians, and 105,206 Spaniards). Classified by re- 
ligious beliefs the figures were: 823,926 Catholics; 
24,996 Protestants; 6,065 Jews; 8,054 of various other 
creeds; 13,335 professing no religious belief, and 74,515 

The municipality of Buenos Aires is a federal dis- 
trict of 733 square miles (19,006 hectares). The 
governing authority of this district, vested in the 
president of the republic, is exercised through a min- 
ister of the interior and a chief of police, for the main- 
tenance of public order, and in a superintendent 
(intendiente de la capital) and a municipal council, for 
the construction and management of public works. 
The police force carry modern firearms. Both the 
municipal council and the superintendent have been 
since 1901 appointed by the president with the assent 
of the senate, though the question of reverting to the 
former system of popular election was, in 1907, under 
discussion by the Legislature. The municipal revenue 
in 1904, was $5,571,840 (5,804,000 pesos oro). In the 
older portions of Buenos Aires the streets are from 
30 to 40 feet wide; the few avenues as yet in existence 
have a width, generally, of about 57 feet, though the 
Avenida de Mayo, nearly a mile in length, is 99 feet 
wide. The paving of the city, formerly defective, 
has gone on improving from year to year until the 
present time, when 70 per cent of the public thorough- 
fares is paved with granite over a bed of cement or 
sand, 15 per cent with macadam, asphalt, or carob 
block, and the remainder with cobblestone. There 
are upwards of 300 miles of street railway, mostly 
electric, the traffic on which for the year 1903 was 
registered at 133,719,218 passengers. 

Since the cholera epidemic of 1867-68, and the 
yellow fever of 1872, two public engineering achieve- 
ments have most powerfully co-operated towards the 
healthfulness of the city: the waterworks and the 
drainage system. The supply of drinking water is 
derived from the Rio de la Plata by means of a great 
pumping tower whence the water passes, through a 
tunnel three and two-thirds miles in length, to the 
reservoirs, to be filtered, clarified, and then raised 
by powerful pumps to the monumental structure 
known as the Deposito de las aguas corrientes. In 
this building twelve iron tanks, each 134J feet square 
and 13 feet deep, are arranged in three tiers of four 
each, at different levels. These twelve tanks have 
an aggregate capacity of 72,000 tons of water. The 
drainage system includes an installation in every 
house, connected scientifically with the cloaca mdx- 
ima, or main sewer of the city, which runs a distance 
of 19 miles and 7 furlongs (32 km.) and discharges 
into the Rio de la Plata opposite Berasategui. The 
rain-drainage pipes are connected with the main 
system in such a manner that in case of a heavy down- 
pour, the excess of water is turned aside to a special 

rain-drainage conduit, having a capacity of 1419 

cubic feet per Mennil, which, after running a distance 
of nearly two and three-quarter miles, discharges its 
contents at a point north of Darsena Norte. The 
establishment of these two great systems of sanitary 

works has lowered the death-rate from 30 per thou- 
sand, in 1887, to 14 per thousand, in 1904. 

Other municipal institutions worthy of mention are 
the great abattoirs of Liniers, which cover an area 
of more than 61 acres, and from which 700,000 car- 
cases of beef and 900,000 of mutton, ready for the 
market, are annually turned out, and the produce- 
market, an immense depository where the wheat, 
wool, leather, etc., produced in the country are col- 
lected for exportation. The state university of the 
republic, with faculties of law, medicine, engineering, 
philosophy, and literature, established in separate 
buildings, is situated at Buenos Aires; also many in- 
stitutions of secondary and primary education, both 
public and private. 

From very early times Buenos Aires has been gen- 
erally known throughout South America by the 
colloquial name of El Puerto, and to this day the 
natives of the city are called Portehos, rather than 
Bonaerenses , or Buenos-Aireans. Nevertheless, until 
1885, and even later, El Puerto, being only a river 
port, and as the bottom of the river had gone on 
rising with the deposits of mud brought down by 
the stream, the river front could not offer a sufficient 
depth of water for vessels of even moderate draught; 
which were, therefore, obliged to anchor many miles 
away from the bank. The improvements of Puerto 
Madero, however, effected between 1890 and 1899, 
have now attracted ocean steamers of the highest 
tonnage. Vessels of lower tonnage anchor at the 
little port of Boca del Riachuelo, the mouth of a 
comparatively small stream which empties into the 
Plata south of the city. Both these ports are sub- 
ject to the necessity of constant dredging to counter- 
act the silting-up of the bottom by the action of the 
stream. The number of entries and clearings at these 
two ports amounts to 6000 in the year, aggregating 
more than 28,000,000 tons. The commerce of Buenos 
Aires is 849 per thousand of the imports, and 515 per 
thousand of exports of the whole republic. 

The first foundation of Buenos Aires took place in 
the beginning of the year 1536, under Don Pedro de 
Mendoza, Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the Em- 
peror Charles V and Adelantado of the Rio de la 
Plata. In 1541 it was deliberately depopulated by 
Don Domingo Martinez de Irala, the governor, its 
inhabitants being transferred to Asuncion, in Para- 
guay. The second founding took place 11 June, 
1580, under Juan de Garay, Lieutenant-Governor 
and Captain-General for the Adelantado Juan Ortiz 
de Zarate. Since its first foundation the place had 
been called the Port of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires, 
and the city was called Santisima Trinidad, taking its 
name from the day (Trinity Sunday, 29 May, 1580) 
on which Garay arrived there with his followers, and 
erected the Royal Standard in anticipation of the 
formalities of the founding proper. Hence the name 
usual in ancient documents: Ciudad de la Santisima 
Trinidad, Puerto de Buenos Aires. Santisima Trini- 
dad is still an alternative title of the archdiocese. 
Buenos Aires in 1617 was made the capital of the prov- 
ince of Rio de la Plata, which was created a vice- 
royalty in 1776. In 1593 the city was threatened by 
the expedition under Hawkins sent against the Spanish 
possessions in South America by Queen Elizabeth of 
England; in 1627 by the Dutch who had taken pi 
sion of Brazil; in 1657 by the French expedition of 
Timoleon Osmat, a soldier of fortune; in 1098 by 
another French squadron; in 1700 by a Danish. But 
on none of these occasions was (he city actually at- 
tacked. A British expedition under Popham ob- 
tained a footing in Buenos Aires (27 June, 1806), bu( 
the place was recovered by conquest on the l'-'lh Oi 
the following August, ami defended against anew 
and formidable expedition commdaned by White- 
lock (2-5 July, 1S07) by the country people organized 
as a militia force, who, on the former occasion, made 




prisoners of the invading force and, on the latter, 
forced a definitive evacuation of the territory. From 
1810 to 1S24 the city was a principal centre of the 
uprising which led to the separation of the Spanish- 
American colonies from the mother country. 

Archdiocese of Buenos Aires (Bonaerensis), 
or SantIsima Trinidad. — The Diocese of Buenos 
Aires was formed upon the dismemberment of the 
original Diocese of Asuncion, in Paraguay, by a Bull 
of Paul III in 1620. Its first bishop was Pedro Car- 
ranza, a Carmelite, who was succeeded by a scries 
of nineteen bishops, ending in 1S55, when a Bull of 
Pius IX created Buenos Aires an archdiocese. This 
archdiocese comprises, besides the federal district 
with its 1,100,000 inhabitants, the territories of Rio 
Negro, Chubut, and Santa Cruz, commonly known 
as Patagonia, or Tierra del Fuego, and containing 
altogether a population of 41,964. The city itself is 
divided into 22 parishes and 2 mission (succursal) 
parishes, each with its church. Besides these parish 
churches there are 50 churches and public chapels, 
also SO other chapels, many of them semi-public, 
connected with religious and charitable institutions. 
( J 'or- seme account of particular churches see ARGEN- 
TINE REPUBLIC..) The archbishop is assisted by an 
auxiliary bishop and two vicars-general. The metro- 
politan chapter consists of a dean, five other digni- 
taries, and five canons (a theologian, a penitentiary, 
•i canon of the first class, a canon of the second class, 
and a secretary). There are in the archdiocese -'"'I 
secular priests. The seminary, situated at Villa 
Devoto, IS a tine edifice with a public chapel dedi- 
cated to the Immaculate Conception. It is expected 
that this establishment will be converted into the 
central seminary of the republic and a Pontifical uni- 
versity of sacred science's. There are 54 religious 
communities. Pious associations for seculars, women 
as well as men, arc numerous, particularly those de- 
voted to works of charity, upon which the people of 
Buenos Aires spend immense sums. Catholic col- 
leges for primary and secondary instruction arc 
numerous. Among those conducted by religious are 
San .lose, under the Bayonne Fathers; Salvador, un- 
der the Fathers of the Society of Jesus; the Dominican 
college of Lacordaire; that of the Escolapios, ami that 
ol the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine. Active 
efforts are being made to establish a Catholic uni- 
versity. Among the various periodicals the " Revista 
Eclesifistica del Arzobispado" and the daily "El 
Pueblo" deserve special mention. The workingmen 
have organized themselves into Catholic clubs, the 
membership of which now exceeds 40,000. 

It is to be remarked that the Catholics of this city, 
like those of the whole republic, whether failing to 
realize exactly the existing social conditions, or be- 
they have been too much occupied with polit- 
ical contentions, have restricted their efforts to the 
formation of charitable associations, doing nothing, 
until very recently, in the direction of socio-political 
organization. A sectarian persecution which arose 

during the yean 1 ss I 88 aroused the dormant zeal 
of the faithful, and a Catholic congress was held 
which produced copious results. A congress of Fran- 
ciscan Tertiaries was held in 1006. and a second con- 
gress of Catholics in general has been convoked for 
tin' year 1907. through the initiative of the Congre- 
gation of the Immaculate Conception and Saint 
Aloysius Gonzaga in the College of San Salvador. 

Argentine Confederation and Panguav 
Nen > ..rk. 1859 : Parish, Buenot Ayre* and the Provi 

a 1839); Salvadobbs, Quia ,■ 
del Anobitpado dt Buenot Aire* (Buenc Ure 1907 

publieacion ofirial (Buenos Aires, lwnv- 
07 . Mm mm/ / Irgentbteau XX'ttteh (Paris, 1906); Mar- 
m\w xo £ kisloriadonwgr&fleade Buenot Aires 

U o. i i\f:z. Anuano ettadUtico de H>i> ""« 
Aire* B 899-1903); MAB-rfNBZ, Cen*o general de 

vnhlariim, rdiflcnci'm, cennertio. c industrial de la ciwln/l 'If 
Buenos I en Ins dla* 11 i; is ./. Septiembre dt 1804 

(Buenos Aires. 1906); QsBIfAEZ, CoJeccidn de iiulaa. Breve*, y 

otros doeumentos relatives d In Igltsia d* America (Brussels, 
1879); Larrouv. Origenex de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, 
1905); Raz,m y Fe (Madrid, 1903), VI, 364; Gahb6n, Manual 
de instruction civica (Buenos Aires, 1906). 

Pablo Hernandez. 

Buffalo, Diocese of, established 23 April, 1847, 
now comprises the counties of Erie, Niagara, Gene- 
see, Orleans, Chautauqua, Wyoming, Cattaraugus, 
and Allegany, in the State of New York, U. S. A., 
an area of 6,357 square miles. It was set apart from 
the great Diocese of New York and the see located 
at Buffalo on Lake Erie, the territory comprising 
nearly one-third of the State of New York. In 1868 
the Diocese of Rochester was formed from the eastern 
counties of this territory; and in 1896, after Bishop 
Ryan's death, four more counties, Steuben, Schuyler, 
Chemung, and Tioga, were taken from the Diocese of 
Buffalo and added to the Rochester jurisdiction. 

Indian Missions. — Two of the nations of the 
Iroquois League, the Seneeas and the Cayugas, dwelt 
in this region before the advent of the white men. 
The Seneeas had villages in the valley of the Genesee 
about twenty miles from Lake Ontario, and the 
Cayugas erected their cabins near the lake which 
still bears their name. The Seneca was the most 
populous and warlike nation of the League. In their 
frequent raids into the country of the Hurons of 
Northern Canada, they carried off many captives who 
had been instructed in Christianity by the French 
missionaries from Quebec. So numerous were these 
Huron Christian captives that they formed an entire 
village, which was called St. Michael's, in memory of 
their old Huron home. Jesuit missionaries visited 
these towns in 1656, and cheered the Christian cap- 
tives who had lost all hope of ever again beholding 
a "Black Robe". In 1669 this village was located 
in the north-east part of the present town of East 
Bloomfield. The Rev. Father Fremin, a Jesuit, es- 
tablished his residence in this town in the fall of 166S, 
built a chapel, ami said the first Mass there, 3 Novem- 
ber, 1668. Three years later the Rev. James Pierron 
became the resident missionary at Gannagaro, or 
St. James, a Seneca town situated on Boughton Hill, 
south of the present village of Victor. The principal 
village of the Cayugas was situated about three and 
one-half miles south of Union Springs, near Great 
Gully Brook. This was called St. Joseph's by the 
Jesuits. Father Carheil built a chapel there in 
November. 1668, and immediately began his work 
of instructing. There was another town of the 
Cayugas at the northern extremity of Seneca Fake. 
Another chapel was built in the large Seneca town 
of Gandaehioragon, or Totiakton, which was called 
the Immaculate Conception by the Jesuits. This 
was situated near Lima, about ten miles west of 
St . .lames. 

The Jesuits had four or five prosperous missions 
within the territory of the original Diocese of Buffalo, 
in winch they laboured successfully for ten years 
until English intrigue and subsequent wars with the 
French forced them from the field. During those 
years they baptized nearly all the dying; they im- 
parted a general knowledge of Christianity to the 
two western nations of the League; they strength- 
ened the old Huron Christians in their faith, and 
added several hundred Iroquois converts to the 
Church. Many of the Iroquois chiefs sided with the 
English, in the war of the latter against the French, 
and the French missionaries were forced from the 
field of their labours. Many of the Christian Indians 
had already abandoned their homes in the [roquois 

country for the new settlements on the St. Lawrence, 

under the protection of the French; and many more 
accompanied the Fathers in their Bight, and settled 
on the St. Regis, oral Caugbnawaga, where they still 

Eractise the Faith they acquired in their Iroquois 
omes. In the summer of 1669 the explorer, La 




Salle, with two Sulpicians and a party of twenty-five 
men, started to explore the region of the Great Lakes 
in search of a north-west passage to India. They 
skirted along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, 
crossing the mouth of Niagara River, until they 
reached Burlington Bay, where the party disbanded. 
La Salle went again in 1678, with Father Hennepin, 
in a large vessel which entered the Niagara River on 
6th December, to the strains of the Te Deum. The 
next day a party with Father Hennepin ascended the 
river in a canoe, and landed on the northern shore, 
near the present suspension bridge on the Canada 
side. On 11 December, 1678. they landed on the 
other side of the river where Father Hennepin said 
Mass. This was probably the first Mass celebrated 
within the present limits of the Diocese of Buffalo. 
A little fort was built there as a protection against 
Indian assault. Then they proceeded up the river, 
about five miles above the Falls, where the " Griffon " 
was built. Father Hennepin remained there all 
winter, holding service for the men in a little chapel 
until the vessel was towed up the river to the present 
harbour of Black Rock, where it anchored until it 
was in readiness to sail as the first vessel on the 

Catholic Settlers. — After Denonville had de- 
stroyed the Seneca towns in 1687, he sent a detach- 
ment of his army to establish a fort at the mouth 
of the Niagara River. A garrison of one hundred 
men was left there with a chaplain. Many died the 
following winter, and the fort was abandoned. It 
was reoccupied in 1726, and from that date regular 
services were held in the chapel Until 1759, when 
the fort capitulated to the English. Soon after the 
Revolutionary War the Government began building 
military roads, and the State legislature made ap- 
propriations for building highways, and these offered 
intending settlers better facilities for proceeding 
farther inland. There was a highway through the 
State before 1820, reaching to Lake Erie. Buffalo 
and Erie County offered advantages to intending 
settlers, and about 1820 many Alsatians located in 
the vicinity. Many of these were Catholics, but they 
had no priest, and they could only keep alive the 
religious spirit by family devotions. The Rev. 
Patrick Kelly, ordained by Bishop Connolly of New 
York in 1821, was sent to minister to the Catholics 
of the western part of the State. He visited Buffalo 
the same year, and held one public service in a little 
frame building on Pearl Street. The Rev. Stephen 
Badin was the first priest to remain any length of 
time in Buffalo. His field of labour was Kentucky, 
but sickness compelled him to seek rest. He visited 
Buffalo for six weeks as the guest of Louis Le Cou- 
teulx, who then lived at the corner of Main and 
Exchange Streets. Here he said Mass for the Catho- 
lics of the town; and he urged them to organize and 
form a congregation. Mr. Le Couteulx started the 
good work by donating a site for church, cemetery, 
and priest's residence, at the corner of Main and 
Edward Streets. The deed was sent to Bishop Du- 
bois as a New Year's gift in January, 1829. Bishop 
Dubois visited Buffalo the same year and concluded 
that the number of Catholics in the vicinity required 
the attention of a resident priest , so the Rev. John 
Nicholas Mertz was sent as the first pastor of Buffalo. 
On this occasion Bishop Dubois sang a solemn high 
Mass in the court-house; and in the afternoon a 

procession corn| .1 of different nationalities marched 

from the court-house to the site for the new church 
where the ground was blessed by the bishop. Father 
Mertz rented a little frame building on Pearl Street, 
back of the old Eagle Tavern; and here he held 
services until the "Lamb of God", a rough timber 
church, was erected on the property at Main and 
Edward Streets. The corner stone of this first 
church of the diocese was laid 8 July, 1831, but the 

church was not opened for services until the follow- 
ing year. In the next five years congregations were 
formed at Lancaster, Williamsville, North Bush, 
East Eden, and Lockport. Father Mertz, with his 
assistant, the Rev. Alexander Pax, looked after the 
spiritual interests of the Catholics of the first four 
places, and the Rev. Bernard O'Reilly of Rochester 
attended the Catholics of Lockport. 

Buffalo grew quickly after becoming a city. The 
church on Main Street was too small for the rapidly 
increasing numbers. The English-speaking mem- 
bers withdrew from the church in 1837 and formed a 
separate congregation, renting the second floor of a 
building at the corner of Main Street and the Terrace; 
where the Rev. Charles Smith said Mass for them 
once a month. Father Smith was employed on the 
other Sundays at Java, or in looking after the spirit- 
ual well-being of the Catholics employed in the con- 
struction of the Genesee Valley Canal. Soon after- 
wards property was bought at the corner of Ellicott 
and Batavia Streets, for a church for the English- 
speaking Catholics of the city. The Rev. John N. 
Neumann, who was afterwards Bishop of Philadel- 
phia, and who has been proposed for canonization, 
went to Buffalo in July, 1S36, and laboured zealously 
for four years in the missions of Erie County and 
vicinity. The missionary then had few of the com- 
forts and conveniences of the present day and Father 
Neumann was often compelled to tramp many miles 
over rough roads, or through the forest, carrying his 
vestments on his back, to say Mass or to administer 
to the sick. The Rev. Bernard O'Reilly of Roches- 
ter, who was afterwards Bishop of Hartford, also did 
effective work among those engaged in building the 
Erie Canal and in constructing the locks at Lock- 
port. The Rev. Thomas McEvoy of Java attended 
to the spiritual wants of the Catholics of three or 
four counties. He resided at Java, and from this 
place he frequently visited clusters of Catholics in 
Allegany, Wyoming, Steuben, and Chautauqua 
counties. Among the lay people Louis Le Couteulx 
was the greatest benefactor of the incipient church 
in Buffalo. He located at Buffalo in 1803, and it was 
at his house, corner of Main and Exchange Streets, 
that the Catholics were first assembled and were 
urged to form a congregation. Besides donating 
the site for the first church, he also gave the land for 
the Deaf Mute Institute, the Infant Asylum, the 
Immaculate Conception church, and the Buffalo Or- 
phan Asylum. Other lay people of that period and 
later prominent in church work were: Patrick Mil- 
ton, Maurice Vaughn, Patrick Cannon, John Con- 
nolly, Mrs. O'Rourke. Mrs. Row™, Mrs. Kimniit, 
and Messrs. Ambrose, Feldman, Fisher, Steffan, Din- 
gens, Lautz, Paul, Diebold, Gittere, Pfohl, Wechter, 
Doll, Smith, Miller, Hager. Guinther, Yogt, Davis, 
John Straus, Gerhard Lang, anil their families. 

The Very Rev. John Timon, a Visitor General of 
the Congregation of the Mission (Vincent ians) was 
consecrated first Bishop "f Buffalo in the cathedral 
in New York, 17 October, 1847, by Bishop Hughes. 
The new bishop appointed the Rev. Bernard O'Reilrj . 
pastor of St. Patrick's church, Rochester, his vicar- 
general, and began a retreat for his priests; then he 
gave missions for his people in the sixteen churches 
of the diocese. Many of these were plain frame 
structures, without architectural ornament, and 
many of them had no altar except a table or some 
rough timber fitted up for the purpose. In many 
cases services were held in rented buildings, es- 
pecially where public works attracted large numbers 
ot men bul gave no promise of permanent settle- 
ment. Such was the case along the Erie Canal and 

tin' Genesee Valley Canal, where services were held 
in the largest workmen's shanty, or in the nearest 
town hall. Men engaged in these public works were 
attracted by the fertility of the soil or the advantages 


ST. B0NAV1 \ i i l I S, M : ■ 






of localities, and sent for their families and friends, 
and established homes in the western part of the 
State along the lines of public traffic. Thus little 
Catholic settlements were formed, and incipient con- 
gregations were organized. The first Catholic con- 
ions were made up of settlers from the Hast 
or immigrants from Europe. 

ScAHCm OF Priests. — The growth of the Church, 
before the advent of the bishop to the western part 
of the State, was entirely from immigration. Many 
were lost to the Church during this period because 
they had settled in remote localities, and priests 
were .scarce. Nearly all the priests who laboured 
in Western New York during this period were from 

Europe, and some were not permanently attached 

to the diocese. The small number of priests could 
not visit regularly t he many small settlements in that 
extensive territory, and many Catholics would not 
see a priest for months, or even years. Under such 
conditions it was but natural that some should fall 
away. Before there was a resident priest at Buffalo 
people journeyed all the way to Albany to have their 
children baptized, others took their children to .Mon- 
roe. Michigan, where there was a resident priest. 
When young people decided to get married, two or 
three of the respectable old people of the community 
were called in as witnesses; troth was plighted, and 
the couple became man and wife, with the under- 
standing that as soon as a priest came the blessing 
of the Church would be invoked upon the marriage. 
A journey to Albany in those days was a difficult 
undertaking. It meant many days travel through 
the forest, on horseback, by stage-coach, or rough 
wagons, When the Erie Canal was built, part of 

tii journey could be made by packet boat; but as a 
rule people postponed the reception of the sacra- 
ments until some priest went through this region 
on his way to the Catholic settlements of the West, 
or in transit between the East and Montreal or 
Quebec. Priests were scarce for some years after 
Buffalo was made a diocese; and one of Bishop 
Timon's first labours was directed to the establish- 
ment of colleges .nid seminaries for the education 
of youth. He induced the Oblates, the Franciscans, 
and the Jesuits to send communities to found col- 
leges, and to assist in the formation of parishes. 
The Oblate Fathers in August, 1851, stalled a semi- 
nary and college in a brick building, which was 
located on the site of the present cathedral rectory. 
This institution was later transferred to Prospect 
Hill, on the site of the present Holy Angels church 
property. The Franciscans in 1S55 located at 
Kllicott \ ille, but shortly after moved to Allegany. 
'I h ■ .1. -suits started the present St. .Michael's Church 
and Canisius College (1851). After the advent of 
Bishop Timon fallen-away Catholics began to return 
to the Church, and many non-Catholics embraced 
the Faith. His missions and his lectures in all the 
towns of the diocese awakened an interest in Catholic 
teaching and practice; and from three to live hundred 

new members were added to the Church each year 

through tic conversion of non-Catholics. Much of 
the prejudice also, which existed in some localities, 
was dispelled bv the diffusion of knowledge of tin- 

Bishops of the See. (1) Bishop Timon died 
L6 April, 1867. He was born 12 February, 1707, at 

Conewago, Pennsylvania, and ordained at St. Louis, 
Missouri, in June, L825. For a long time In ■ ■, \ 
missionary in Texas and in April, 1840, WBt named 
I'o net Apostolic there but refused the office. — 

(2) The Very Rev, Stephen Vincent Ryan who, like 
his predecessor, was a Visitor General of the Congre- 
gation of the Mission, was appointed to succeed him 
as Bishop of Buffalo and was consecrated 8 Novem- 
ber, 1868. Bishop Ryan was born 1 January, 182.5, 
at Almonte, Ontario. Upper Canada. Distinguished 

for his piety, zeal, and learning, he continued the 
great work of Bishop Timon. He died 10 April, 
1896.— (3) The Rev. James E. Quigley, U.D., his suc- 
cessor, was consecrated 24 February, 1897. Bishop 

Quigley's condemnation of the attempt of the Social- 
ists to identify their doctrines with the principles 
of labour unionism, and thus wean men from their 
allegiance to the Church, 
gained for him a nation- 
al reputation. Hi- was 
promoted to the vacant 
archbishopric of Ch i- 
cago, 19 February, 1903. 
—(4) The Rev. Charles 
II. Colton of New York. 
was next appointed to 
the see and consecrated 
in St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, New Y'ork, 24 
August, 1903. 

Statistics. — There are 
264 priests in the dio- 
cese; 168 secular, 96 of 
religious orders; 1 1 2 

churches with resident John Timon 

priests, 32 m ission 

churches, and Hi chapels; 54 Brothers and 1 ,085 Sisters 
of religious orders, teaching 94 parochial schools, with 
27,787 pupils. There is one university, Niagara. 
under the Lazarist Fathers; five colleges for boys with 
952 -Indents; and two seminaries for secular clergy . 
and one for religious, with lcSl students. The semi- 
nary at Niagara is conducted by the Lazarists; that 
at Allegany, by the Franciscans. The preparatory 
seminaries are the college departments at Niagara 
and at Allegany, and the colleges of Canisius, Holy 
Angels, and the Christian Brothers. The Oblates 
have a seminary in Buffalo for candidates for their 
order, and the Passionists have one in Dunkirk for 
their students. There are 159 students in the large 
seminaries. SI in the preparatory, and 200 students 
in the university. There are eight academies for 
young ladies, with 1.200 students. St, John's Pro- 
tectory for homeless, or wayward boys, founded in 
1861, accommodates about 600 boys, who are taught 
some trade, along with the elementary branches of 
education. A Deaf Mute Institute, started in 
Buffalo in 1856, is now an important institution, 
under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, with 
166 pupils. In 1861 Bishop Timon secured the 
Sisters of St. Francis to care for the aged; these sis- 
ters now have three houses: one in Buffalo, one in 
Gardenville and one in Williamsville, with 600 
inmates. The Sisters of the Good Shepherd in 1855 
started a refuge for wayward girls anil fallen women. 
They care for 1.50 inmates and 7.5 children. In 1888 
the Rev. Daniel Walsh established the Working Boys 
Home, in which SO boys and young men now find 
a comfortable home. In 1900 Bishop Colton es- 
tablished the St. Charles's Home for Working Girls, 
under the Sisters of Mercy. Bishop Quigley founded 
two mission houses for poor children, the Angel 
Guardian Mission and the St. James's Mission. In 
June. 1848, Bishop Timon secured a community of 
Sisters of Charity and placed them in the orphan 
asylum, which mm has 250 orphans, and a large 
number of young girls employed in a technical 

scl 1. There is a German orphan asylum in 

Buffalo, incorporated in 1874, in which there are 
:i7n orphans, under the Sisters of lb,- Third I >rder of 

St. Francis. The Polish orphan asylum at Doyle, 
under the care of tin- Felician Sisters of St. Francis, 
has ISO inmates. The Sisters of St. Joseph have 
the Orphan Asylum at Dunkirk with 88 orphans; 
and the Sisters of Charity direct an infant asylum 
in Buffalo, where 185 infant children can be aCCOEQ 
modated, with 00 patients in the maternity hospital. 




The Sisters of Charity hospital accommodates 250 
patients. Their emergency hospital treats 1,200 
patients a year. The Sisters of Mercy at the Mercy 
Hospital accommodate about 40 patients. Esti- 
mated Catholic population 200,000. 

Bayley, History of the Church in New York (New York, 
1870); Timon, Missions in Western New York (Buffalo. 18021; 
Donohue, History of the Catholic Church in Western New 
York (Buffalo, 190*4); Id.. The Iroquois anil the Jesuits (Buffalo. 
1895); Relations ,l,s Jesuites (Quebec, 1858,1; Margry, Deeou- 
vertes (Paris, 1S93); Hennepin. Nourelle Decourerte (Utrecht, 
1078); Chonin, Life and Times of Bishop Ryan (Buffalo, 1893); 
The Historical W ritinys nj the late Orsnmus II . Marshall (Albany, 
1887); The Sentinel, files (Buffalo); Maps by General James 
Clarke (Auburn); Bishop Timon's diary and unpublished 

Thomas Donohue. 

Buffier, Claude, philosopher and author, b. in 
Poland, of French parents, 25 May, 1661; d. in 
Paris, 17 May, 1737. He received his early educa- 
tion at the Jesuit College in Rouen and entered 
the Society of Jesus in 1679. After teaching litera- 
ture in Paris, he returned to Rouen to take a chair of 
theology. Mgr. Colbert, archbishop of that city, 
issued a pastoral recommending to his clergy certain 
books of Gallican and Jansenistic tendencies. Buf- 
fier attacked the pastoral in a pamphlet and having 
refused to make a retractation journeyed, with tin- 
leave of his superiors, to Rome to lay his case before 
the Congregations. There he easily justified him- 
self and returning to Paris was connected, from 1701 
to 1731, with the "Journal de Trevoux". He pub- 
lished works on history, asceticism, biography, edu- 
cation, literature, and especially on philosophy. He 
was not, as is often asserted, a disciple of Descartes, 
for he rejects altogether methodic doubt and follows 
in general the scholastics. The Encyclopedists, ac- 
cording to Tabaraud, inserted in their publications, 
without due credit, entire pages from his books, and 
Reid, the Scotch metaphysician, acknowledges his 
great indebtedness to Burner. His chief works are: 
a Life of Count Louis de Sales, brother of the 
saint (Paris, 1708); "Pratique de la memoire arti- 
ficielle" (Paris, 1701) often reprinted; " Grammaire 
francaise sur un plan nouveau (Paris, 1732), in many 
editions and translations; "Exposition des preuves 
les plus sensibles de la Vraie Religion" (Paris, 1732); 
and "Cours des sciences" (Paris, 1722). 

Bernard in Diet, de thiol, cath.. s. v.; Hurter, Nomenclator, 
II, 1050; Sommervogel, Bibl. de la. c. de J„ II, 340-359. 
Walter Dwight. 

Buglio, Louis, a celebrated missionary in China, 
mathematician, and theologian, b. at Mineo, Sicily, 
26 January, 1606; d. at Peking, 7 October, 1682. He 
entered the Society of Jesus, 29 January, 1622, and, 
after a brilliant career as professor of the humanities 
and rhetoric in the Roman College, asked to be sent 
on the Chinese mission. With great zeal and success 
Father Buglio preached the Gospel in the provinces 
of Su-Tchuen, Fu-kien, and Kiang-si. He suffered 
severely for the Faith in the persecution which was 
carried on during the minority of the Emperor 
Kang-hi. Taken prisoner by one of the victorious 
Tatar chiefs, he was brought to Peking in 1648. Here, 
after a short captivity, be was left free to exercise 
his ministry. Father Buglio collaborated with 
Fat Iters Adam Schall, Verbiest, and Magalhaens in 
reforming the Chinese calendar, and shared with 
them the confidence and esteem of the emperor. At 
bis death he was given a state funeral. 

Thoroughly acquainted with the Chinese language, 
Father Buglio both spoke and wrote it fluently. A 
list of his works in Chinese, more than eighty vol- 
umes, written for the most part to explain and de- 
fend the Christian religion, is given in Sommervogel. 
Besides Parts I and III of the "Summa" of St. 
rhomas, he translated into Chinese the Roman Mis- 
sal (Peking, 1670) the Breviary and the Ritual (ibid., 
L674 and 1675). These translations require a special 

notice, as they were part of a project which, from the 
beginning of their apostolate in China, the Jesuit 
missionaries were anxious to carry out. Their pur- 
pose was not merely to form a native clergy, but, in 
order to accomplish this more easily, to introduce a 
special liturgy in the Chinese tongue for the use at 
least of native priests. This plan was approved by 
Pope Paul V, who, 26 March, 1615, granted to reg- 
ularly ordained Chinese priests the faculty of using 
their own language in the liturgy and administration 
of the sacraments. This faculty was never used. 
Father Philip Couplet, in 16S1, tried to obtain a re- 
newal of it from Rome, but was not successful. 

Acta ,S'.s\. XIII, 1-3. Diss, xlviii; Sommervogel, Biblio- 
tloque de la c. de J.. II, 303; Cordier, BiUiotlucu Sumo ^Paris, 
1881), I, 514; Menologe S. J.: Assistance d'ltalie. 

Joseph M. Woods. 

Buil (also Boil or Boyl), Bernardo, Friar Minor. 
The fact that there were two religious of the name of 
Bernardo Boil living in Spain at the same time has 
given rise to much confusion and even to the opinion 
that they were not two distinct persons, but that the 
same individual was at one time a member of the 
Franciscan order, and later became a Benedictine. 
It seems, however, more probable to assert that Ber- 
nardo Boil, the Franciscan, was a different person from 
Bernardo Boyl, the Benedictine. It was to the former 
that Alexander VI addressed his Bull dated 25 June, 
14!I3. appointing him first vicar Apostolic of the New 
World. This appears to be certain, first of all from 
the opening words, "Dilecto filio Bernardo Boil, 
fratri Ordinis Minorum", etc. of the Bull itself, a 
part of which is reproduced in the first volume of 
The Catholic Encyclopedia. In the second place, 
the concluding words of the Bull, where reference is 
made to the prohibition of Boniface VIII concerning 
members of mendicant orders taking new domiciles 
without permission from the Holy See, seem clearly 
to indicate that the papal rescript was intended for 
Boil, the Franciscan, and not for his namesake the 
Benedictine. It is a matter of fact, however, that 
Bernardo Boyl, O.S.B., became first vicar Apostolic 
of the New World. This was due to the intrigues of 
King Ferdinand of Spain who employed Boyl. the 
Benedictine, to great advantage in several important 
diplomatic negotiations and had sought his appoint- 
ment as vicar Apostolic in America. When the papal 
Bull arrived in Spain, ignoring the king's choice, and 
nominating a Franciscan of the same name with the 
trifling difference of the i and y, which letters were 
pronounced alike, the only exception being in the 
order to which the respective priests belonged, it 
became convenient to conclude that a mistake had 
been made in Rome — which interpretation Ferdinand 
found expedient to favour his own ends and views. 
A false copy of the Bull was therefore made with the 
necessary changes and delivered to Boyl. the Benedic- 
tine, while the king retained the original document 
appointing Boil, the Franciscan. In time this latter 
document disappeared so completely that no 
of it could lie found in the Spanish archives. A copy. 
however, was carefully preserved in the Vatican 
library and was brought to light by the researches 
of the historian Roselly. Perhaps Bernardo Boil. 
O.F.M., never knew of the high dignity which Alex- 
ander VI had conferred upon him. It is certain he 

did not leave Spain; yet he was d( jun the true, 
legitimate, and first vicar Apostolic of the \< u \\ 01 Id. 

V regards Bernardo Boyl, O.S.B., it is a matter of 
history thai his labours were without fruit, and the 

only record of his official action in An. erica is the 
fulmination of censures. 

Eto i ' t/s di I on,, i E8, Chrisiophi Colomb; Kiatirin dt sa vie 

• t.l /oat Pin- 1S.,0i; I. .-,1)8 513, tr.. RaRHT(B 

1870); Iardocci, Vila • '-■•< ■ Milan. I8S5), 1. 

\wi. 613-615; il »ms, Kirch, n. s,»™»» , III. 90 LOO; Hedser 
i in. neon i 'athol Philadel- 

phia, 1896), VII, 141-154; Bee also Wadding, Annaltt Mino- 




rum, XV, 28-31, where reference is made to a curious work 
of fiction describing the imaginary labours of the Benedictine 
Boyl in the West Indies. 

Stephen M. Donovan. 

Buildings, Ecclesiastical. — This term compre- 
hends all constructions erected for the celebration 
of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to 
them: — church, chapel, oratory, basilica, etc. The 
subject will be treated under the following heads: 
I. History; II. Division; III. Erection; IV. Repair 
and Maintenance; V. Consecration and Blessing; 
VI. Immunity; VII. Church Fabric. 

I. History. — In the earliest days of the Christian 
religion, there were no buildings specially conse- 
crated to Eucharistic worship; the assemblies for 
liturgical service were held in private houses (Acts, ii, 
46; Rom., xvi, 5; I Cor., xvi, 15; Col., iv, 15; Phile- 
mon, 2). The assemblies which the first Christians 
held in the Temple of Jerusalem, in the synagogues 
or even in hired halls, were assemblies for instruction 
or for prayer (Acts, v, 12-13; xvii, 1-2; xix, 9). At 
the end of the second century and even later, during 
the periods of persecution, assemblies for Christian 
worship were still held in private houses. During 
this epoch, however, we begin to hear of the domus 
r (the house of the Church), an edifice used for 
all the services of the Christian community, in which 
one apartment was specially set apart for Divine 
worship. At an early date this apartment took on 
a special importance. During the third century 
the other parts of the building were detached from 
it and the domus . line the Domus Dei 

(the house of God) known also as the Dominicum 
or the KvpiaKbv otnov (Duchesne, Origines du culte 
chr^tien, 399-400, Paris, 1902; Wieland, Mensa und 
Confessio: Studien tiber den Altar der altchristlichen 
Liturgie, Munich, 1906, I. 27-35, 68-73). All such 
churcnes were situated in towns, and the inhabi- 
tants of the rural districts came thither on the Lord's 
Day, in order to assist at the Eucharistic Sacrifice; 
in large cities, like Rome. Alexandria, and Carthage, 
there were several churches. bu1 they did not con- 
stitute separate parishes (Duchesne, 400; Wieland, 
73 76). They depended upon the cathedral church, 
in which was established the see (sedes), or the chair 
(cathedra) of the bishop. There were, however, since 
the second century, outside the cities, mortuary 
churches attached to the Christian cemeteries. Here 
were celebrated the funeral rites, also the anniversary 
commemorations of the departed, but not the ordi- 
nary offices of Divine worship. Sanctuaries were 
also erected over the sepulchres of the martyrs, 
and popular devotion brought thither a large con- 
course of people, not only for the celebration of the 
anniversary, but at other times as well. The neces- 
sity of providing accommodation for these gatherings, 
as well as the desire to honour the saint, led to the 
construction of buildings, sometimes large and richly 
adorned. These churches multiplied when the people 
began to accord to any relic whatever, to a piece of 
cloth stained with his blood, to a phial of oil drawn 
from the lamp that burned constantly before his 
Bepulchre, etc., the veneration at first given only to 
his burial place. These were the churches of "relics". 
They prevailed finally to such an extent that to-day 
every church must have relics in each of its altars 
(Duchesne. 102 103 . 1' ie almost universally recog- 
nized at the present day, thai only on exceptional DC- 
serve for ordinary worship, 
even during the nines of persecution. They were 
used solely for funeral services and for the celebra- 
tion of the festivals of martyrs (Wieland, 81-100). 

That churches existed in rural districts as early as 
the fourth century is undeniable. Priests went 
thither periodically to administer the sacraments. 
In the fifth century, however, on account of the 
increase in the number of the faithful, it became 

necessary to station resident, priests in such districts. 
This was the origin of parish churches, which were 
established by the bishops in the most populous 
districts, the vici, and were known as ecclisio? rus- 
tieana;, paroehitance , dioccsanec, diocesis, parochia, 
ecclesia' baptismales, because in these churches only 
could the Sacrament of Baptism be administered; 
they were also termed tituli majores to distinguish 
them from the private churches, or tituli minores 
(Imbart de la Tour, Les paroisses rurales du IV e 
au XII e siecle, Paris. 1900). In addition to these 
churches of the vici, the owners of the villw or great 
estates founded churches for their own use and for 
that of the persons connected with their establish- 
ments. Such churches could not be used for Divine 
worship without the consent of the local bishop, who 
was wont to exact from the proprietor a renunciation 
of all rights of possession. The ecclesiastical authority, 
however, was not long able to resist the proprietors, 
who from the seventh and eighth centuries retained 
the proprietary right over the churches they had 
built. These were called oratorio, basilicce, martyria, 
or tituli minores, and were in no respect parish 
churches, because in them baptism could not be 
administered; moreover, on certain solemn days, 
the faithful were obliged to assist at Mass in the 
parish church. Neither did these churches receive 
any tithes. From the Carlovingian period, however, 
such private churches gradually became parish- 
churches. Some authors contend that from that 
epoch all churches became the private property of 
t he laity, or of convents, or bishops. The ecclesiasti- 
cal reforms of the eleventh and twelfth centuries 
brought this condition of things to an end. The 
Second Lateran Council (1139) commanded all lay- 
men, under pain of excommunication, to resign to 
the bishops the churches in their possession. (Mansi, 
'•Coll. Cone", XXI, 529-532; Stutz, "Geschichte 
des kirchl. Benefizialwesens", Berlin, 1895, I; 
Hinschius, "System des kath. Kirchenrechts", Berlin, 
1878, 11. 262-269, 277-281; Imbart de la Tour, op. 
eit.) Even within the parishes, for the benefit of the 
faithful, there were established at various times, chap- 
els which did not enjoy the prerogatives of parish 
churches, and were more or less dependent upon the 
latter (Von Scherer. Handbuch des Kirchenrechtes, 
Graz, 1898, II, 627). In addition to churches 
specially intended for the use of the faithful, others 
known as oratories were erected in the monasteries; 
they acquired a greater importance when the ma- 
jority of the monks were ordained priests, still more 
when the exclusive privileges of the parish churches 
suffered diminution. Such oratories were also com- 
mon in beneficent and charitable institutions. The 
medieval corporations (guilds) which were also re- 
ligious confraternities, had sometimes their own 
special chapels (Viollet, Histoire des institutions 
politiques de la France, Paris, 1903, III, 143-176). 
II. Division. — Ecclesiastical buildings are usually 
divided into four classes: churches properly so called, 
public oratories, private oratories, and semi-public 
oratories. This division was confirmed by the Con- 
gregation of Rites, 23 January, 1899 (Decreta au- 
thent. Congreg. sacr. Rit. no. 4007, Rome, 1900). 
Churches are edifices set apart in perpetuity for 
the public exercise of Divine worship; such are 
basilicas, primatial. metropolitan, cathedral, colle- 
giate and parish churches, and lastly the conventual 
churches of regulars, properly SO called. Public 
oratories are buildings of less importance, definitely 
given over to Divine worship, and accessible to the 

public, whether the entrance itself be upon the public 
road or upon a passage-way leading to the latter. 
A private oratory is one established in favour of a 
particular family or even of a single individual. 
finally, a semi-public oratory is established for the 
benefit of a number of people; such is the chapel of 




a seminary, a college, a congregation of simple vows, 
a hospital, a prison, etc. With these may be classed 
the chapels of cardinals and of bishops. 

III. Erection. — Basilicas, cathedrals, collegiate 
churches, and private oratories, may be erected only 
with the consent of the Holy See; other churches 
or oratories with the consent of the bishop. Never- 
theless the authorization given by a bishop to a 
religious order of solemn vows to establish a monas- 
tery in his diocese involves, unless there is a stipula- 
tion to the contrary, the right to construct a monas- 
tic church. On the other hand, all provincial 
superiors of religious orders have the power to open 
semi-public oratories for the use of their religious, 
and that without the authorization of the bishop 
(Bull of Gregory XIII, "Decet Romanum", 3 May, 
1575, granted to the Society of Jesus and applicable 
likewise to all religious orders in virtue of the com- 
munication of privileges. Cf. Vermeerseh, De religiosis 
institute et personis, Bruges, 1902, I, 316). For the 
erection of a private oratory, even by religious, the 
authorization of the pope is necessary (C. S. R., 
10 November, 1906; "Canoniste Contemporain", 
1907, XXX. 109, 110). Congregations of simple vows 
may have but one semi-public or public oratory, 
with the authorization of the bishop. If they wish 
to erect several for the convenience of priests or of 
the infirm, it is necessary to obtain the consent of 
the Holy See (C. S. R., 8 March, 1879, Decreta, 
no. 3484). 

The erection of every church on the other hand 
must be justified by its necessity, or by its use; it 
must not in any way prejudice the rights of churches 
already established (c. iii, ''De ecclesiis a>dificandis 
vel reparandis", X, III, xlviii, c. i, ii, iv, "De novi 
operis nuntiatione", X, V, xxxii; Friedberg, "Cor- 
pus juris canonici", Leipzig, 1881, II, 652, 843). 
The church should also be sufficiently endowed 
(c. viii, "De consecratione eeelesia? vel altaris", X, 
III, ad; Friedberg, II, 634). Practically it is suffi- 
cient that the church have at its disposal, e. g. 
through the gifts of the faithful, the revenues nec- 
essary for the maintenance of the building, the 
celebration of Divine service, and the support of its 
ministers (Bargilliat, Pradect. jur. can., Paris, 1900, 
II, 331). In certain countries the consent of the civil 
power is also needed. The building of a church 
cannot be begun before the bishop or his delegate 
has approved of the site, placed a cross there, and 
blessed the first stone (Pontificale Romanum, Pars II, 
De benedict, et imposit. prim, lapid. pro cccl. sedif.). 
The bishop can also reserve to himself the approval 
of the plans and conditions according to which the 
church is to be constructed (Wernz, Jus Decretal., 
Pome, 1901, III, 432, 433). To avoid useless ex- 
penditure and to prevent the parish priest from 
improvidently contracting debts, the Third Plenary 
Council of Baltimore enacted as a preliminary con- 
dition for the construction of a church, the consent 
of the bishop in writing (Acta et decreta Concilii 
Plenarii Baltimorensis, III, no. 279). The bishop has 
power to apply to the construction of his cathedral 
a part of the revenues, which in certain countries 
are annually assigned to him from the revenues of the 
differen! churches; the cathedral church being the 
ecclesia matrix, or mother-church of all those of 
the diocese, its construction is a work which interests 
the whole diocese (the Kighth Provincial, the Second 
Plenary, Councils of Baltimore, 1855 and 1866, and 
the Second Provincial Council of Australia, 1869; 
"Collectio Lacen is", Freiburg, 1875, III, 162, 429, 
1078; also 200 202, 242, 1085). The bishop can 
even levy a subsidium charitativum for this pur- 

i" i i lerate tax upon the revenues of the 

churches and on those priests who enjoy ecclesias- 
tical benefices. In default of other resources the 
usual means is to collect money for this object, or 

to ask the priests of the diocese for voluntary con- 

IV. Repair and Maintenance. — Originally the 
repairs of churches were incumbent upon the bishops, 
as administrators of all ecclesiastical goods. When, 
according to the ancient system, these goods were 
divided into four parts, one part was assigned to the 
Fabrica (see below) i. e. to the church building and 
its maintenance. Later, each church had its own 
patrimony, and one part of its goods was assigned 
to its maintenance. This charge was also incumbent 
upon the holders of the goods and revenues of the 
church. The Decretals sanctioned this obligation; 
at the same time they urged the people to help de- 
frav the expenses (c. i, iv, "De ecclesiis a?difican- 
dis", X, III, xlviii; Friedberg, II, 652, 653). Finally 
the Council of Trent (Sess. XXI. De ref., c. viii 
located more exactly the obligation to repair the 
parish churches (Permaneder, Die kirchliche Baulast, 
Munich, 1890, 1-18). By present ecclesiastical leg- 
islation the repairs of the church belong especially 
to the fabric, which must use the funds appropriated 
for that special purpose and if need be, its superfluous 
revenues (c. vi, "De ecclesiis sedificandis"j Friedberg, 
II, 654; Council of Trent, Sess. XXI, De ref., c. vii). 
These resources failing, the persons who possess the 
right of Patronage over the church must intervene, 
if they wish to preserve their privileges (Canones et 
decreta cone. Trid. ed. Schulte and Richter, Leipzig, 
1853, 121, no. 4). This obligation rests also on all 
persons who enjoy part of the revenues of the church 
the tithe-owners, whether laymen or ecclesiastics, 
seculars or regulars, the parish priest, and all those 
who enjoy a benefice from the church. The parish- 
ioners themselves are bound to provide for the main- 
tenance of the church, each according to his means. 
In practice collections should be made for this ob- 
ject. These same principles apply to cathedral 
churches; in case the revenues of the church are in- 
sufficient, the bishop, the chapter, the clergy of the 
cathedral, and the inhabitants of the diocese ought 
to contribute for its support, (Sagmiiller, Lehrhuch 
des kathol. Kirchenrechts, Freiburg, 1900-04, 798, 
799). For the support of his cathedral, as for its 
erection, the bishop can ask from his clergy a special 
aid or subsidium charitativum. Wherever these rules 
have been abrogated by other customs, the latter 
should be followed. In case of fire, the insurance 
might cover the damage. Hence special laws may 
make obligatory the insurance of churches (Acta et 
Decreta Concilii Baltimorensis III, no. 283). Chapels 
or churches belonging to congregations of regulars 
or to particular establishments, ought to be main- 
tained at the expense of these establishments. It 
sometimes happens that the civil power contributes 
to the support of churches, as well as to their con- 
struction. In reality such co-operation is often only 
a restitution of ecclesiastical property or revenues 
misappropriated by the civil government. 

V. Consecration and Blessing. — Churches and 
oratories cannot be used for liturgical functions, 
without having first been consecrated or at least 
blessed. Cathedral and parish churches ought to be 
consecrated. However, in case of necessity they may 
be provisionally blessed (Kit. Rom., tit. viii, c. xxviii. 
Public oratories and other churches mav be conse- 
crated, though this is not necessary. They ought, 
however, to receive a solemn benediction. Private 
oratories, on the other hand, cannot receive such 
benediction; it is fitting, however, that the benedictio 
loci be given to them (op. cit. c. vi.) Some hold 

that semi-public oratories which in exterior appear- 
ance resemble churches or chapels, and which arc 
definitely destined for Divine worship, may be 
solemnly consecrated (C. S. Et., 7 August, 1875; 5 
June. 1899; Decreta. nos. 3364, W25). 
The custom of dedicating churches to the worship 




of God by a solemn ceremony is yen,- ancient. In 
his Ecclesiastical History (X, iii. iv) Eusebius de- 
scribes the dedication, in 314, of the church erected 
by Constantino at Tyre, at which time, however, there 
was no special rite for thai purpose. At Rome in 
the sixth century, the dedication consisted in the 
public celebration of a solemn Mass, ami if it was 
a church which was to contain relics, these latter 
were brought to the church in solemn procession. 
It seems that at the same period, there existed a 
special rite of consecration in Gaul. In their brief 
outlines, the present ceremonies are derived from a 
combination of the rites used in France and in Home, 
a combination which had already been made before 
the beginning of the eighth century (Duchesne, 
op. cit., 403^418). The consecration or dedication 
is performed according to the rite prescribed in the 
"Pontificate Roman um" (De ecclesise dedicatione 
seu consecratione) by the bishop, or by a priest dele- 
gated for that office by the Holy See. The essential 
rite of this dedication consists in the anointing of 
the twelve crosses upon the walls with holy chrism, 
and the recitation of the words Sanctificetur, etc. 
(Wernz, III. 437). It is nut permitted to consecrate 
a church without at the same time consecrating the 
high altar, or, if this has already been consecrated, 
another fixed altar. If all the altars have been con- 
secrated, it will be necessary toask the authorization 
of the Holy See. Without the consecration, however, 
of an altar, the consecration of the church will not 
be invalid (C. S. R., 12 August. 1854; 3 March, 
1866; 19 May. 1896: Decreta, nos. 3025, 3142. 3907). 
When the public authorities forbid the performance 
of the prescribed ceremonies outside the church, a 
pontifical indult must be obtained, except in case of 
necessity; such ceremonies must then be performed 
in i In- sacristy or some other dependency of the 
church (('. S.'K.. 22 February, 1888; Decreta, no. 
3687). A church built of wood cannot be consecrated 
(C. S. R.. 11 April. 1902; "Canonist* contemporain", 
1902. XXV, 495). 

The vigil of the day of consecration is a fast-day 
of obligation for the bishop and for those who have 
asked for the consecration of the church (C. S. Et., 
29 July, 1780; 12 September, 1840; Decreta, nos. 2519, 
2821; Reply of the Holy Office. 14 December, 1898; 
"Acta Sanctse Sedis", 1898-99, XXXI, 533). The 
feast of the dedication must be celebrated every year 
on the anniversary day of the consecration, the 
Bishop may, if he chooses, fix another day; but this 
he should do on the very day on which he consecrates 
the church (C. S. R. 19 September, 1665, 23 May, 
1834; Decreta, nos. 1321. 2719). While this feast 
should be celebrated by all the clergy connected with 
the consecrated church, the anniversary of the dedica- 
tion of the cathedral ought to be celebrated by all the 
secular clergy of the diocese, and by all the regulars 
ot the episcopal city (C. S. R.. 12 September, 1884, 
9 July. 1895; Decreta. nos. 3(122, 3863). If the exact 
date of the anniversary is unknown, the most prob- 
able date should be chosen until such time as the date 
i in be determined with certainty (C. S. R„ 14 June, 
1608, 13 March, 1649; Decreta, nos. 261, 920). The 
bishop may fix a day if the right one be completely 
unknown <('. S. R., 18 August, L629; :: March. 1674; 
27 November. 1706; 12 March. 1735; Decreta. nos. 
511. 1 198, 2171. 2313). The Holy See sometimes 
permits the celebration of the anniversary of the 
dedication of the cathedral church and of all the 
churches of the diocese on the same day. All the 
clergy of the diocese are then bound to celebrate 
this festival (C. S. R., 29 November, 1878; Decreta, 
no. 3409). 

The solemn benediction is a rite inferior to conse- 
cration. It is performed by a priest delegated by 
the bishop for that purpose (Kit. Rom. tit. viii, 
c. xxvii). It consists in the sprinkling of the upper 

and lower parts of the walls of the church with holy 
water, and in the prayers which accompany this 
action (Wernz, III, 437). A new consecration or 
benediction of a church or oratory ought to be made 
in the case of execration or desecration, that is to 
say. when the building has lost its consecration or 
benediction. This is the case when ecclesiastical 
buildings have been definitely put to profane uses 
(Council of Trent, Sess. XXI, De ref. e. vii.); similarly, 
in accordance with modern discipline, if almost the 
entire church or a large portion of the walls have 
been destroyed or renewed (C. S. R., 14 September, 
1875; Decreta, no. 3372). Successive alterations and 
repairs, however, even though considerable, as also 
the renewal of the roof, are not to be regarded as 
execration (C. S. R., 31 August, 1872; Decreta. no. 
3269). The consecration affects the entire building, 
but especially the walls; the removal, therefore, of 
the anointed crosses or even of the interior plastering 
(Monaco) of the walls, does not necessitate a new 
consecration (C. S. R., 13 July, 1883; 19 May, 1896; 
Decreta. nos. 35S4. 3907). The same principles are 
applicable to churches that have been solemnly 
blessed; this benediction affects the walls rather 
than the pavement of the church. If, however, 
the belief was that the benediction attached itself 
to the pavement, the mere destruction of the walls 
would not have the effect of producing the execration 
of the church (Wernz, III, 441. 442). 

Widely different from desecration is the pollutio 
of a church. This is a defilement of the church, 
which prevents the celebration of the Divine offices, 
until the church has been reconciled or purified. 
The priest is bound to interrupt the celebration of 
Mass, if the church in which he is celebrating is 
polluted before he has commenced the Canon (Missale 
Romanum, De defectibus in celebratione missarum oc- 
currentibus, X). A church is polluted by every kind 
of homicide, even by a case of capital punishment, or 
by voluntary suicide committed in the church, but 
the wound must have been inflicted within the church 
and. according to some authors, death must have 
taken place there. A church is likewise polluted when 
a considerable quantity of blood has been wilfully 
and culpably spilled within it, or when the effusio 
seminis humani has taken place, wilfully and in a 
seriously culpable manner (c. iv, x. De consecratione 
ecclesise. X. III. xl; Friedberg. II, 034, 635). In 
like manner also a church is polluted by the 
burial within it of an infidel, or of a person who 
has been excommunicated (excommunicatus vitandus) 
(c. vii. loc. cit.; Bargilliat, II, 343-344), not. how- 
ever, by the burial of catechumens, and perhaps 
not by that of unbaptized infants born of baptized 
parents (C. S. R.. 23 April. 1875; Decreta. no. 3344). 

It is important to remark that the reconciliation 
must be performed only when the pollution has been 
public. A church that has been solemnly blessed 
can be reconciled by a priest, according to the cere- 
monies prescribed in the "Rituale Romanum" 
(tit. viii, c. xxviii). Many authors, however, affirm 
that the priest should be delegated by the bishop, 
and the Congregation of Rites has given a dei 
to the same effect (8 July, 1904; Canoniste Con- 
temporain. 19114. XXIV, 683). A church that has 
been consecrated can be reconciled only by the 
bishop, or by a priest delegated by the Holy See, 
and with water blessed by the bishop. This privilege 
has been granted to exempt religious (Hull of l.eo V 

"Religionis". :', February, 1514). The Propaganda 
grants to bishops in missionary countries the power to 
delegate to priests the right to reconcile a conse- 
crated church, but the water employed must be 
blessed by the bishop or. in case of necessity, by a 
priest (Bargilliat, II. 345; Putzer-Konings, "Com- 
mentarium in facultates apostolicas", New York, 
1898, 215-217). Sometimes the reconciliation is 




performed ad cautelam as for instance when a church 
has been occupied by soldiers for two days (C. S. R., 
27 February, 1847; Decreta, no. 2938). This legis- 
lation does not refer to oratories which have re- 
ceived only the benedictio loci. 

VI. Immunity. — Churches enjoy by ecclesiastical 
law the same immunity from secular burdens and 
duties as all ecclesiastical property. The State may 
not burden them with taxes (Council of Trent, 
Sess. XXV, De ref. c. xx; Syllabus nos. 30, 32). 
In many States the laws recognize this privilege for 
parish and cathedral churches. Such immunity 
is very ancient, and dates from the Christian em- 
perors of the fourth century (O. Grashof, in Archiv 
f. kath. Kirchenrecht (1876), XXXVI, 3 sqq., 
193 sqq. On the other hand, every irreverence 
within a church or public oratory is a sacrilege, 
such as the theft of an article even though it does 
not belong to the church; a fortiori, if it is the 
property of the church or an article that has been 
consecrated (Decretum Gratiani, P. II, c. xvii, q. 4, 
c. xxi; Friedberg, I, 820). Such also are the sins 
committed in a church, and especially external sins 
of the flesh (Lehmkuhl, Theologia moralis, Freiburg, 
1898, I, 238. 239). The reverence due to the holy 
place forbids all profane actions. Therefore, the 
following actions are forbidden in a church: trials 
not falling within ecclesiastical jurisdiction, trading, 
games, plays and secular songs, banquets, the making 
of a dwelling either above or below the church, etc. 
In this category may be included the introduction 
of draperies and banners which have not been blessed 
by the Church (Wernz, III, 446). It belongs to the 
office of the bishop to specify what actions are for- 
bidden in the churches, and to settle the contro- 
versies which may arise. The bishop is also em- 
powered to provide for the maintenance of order 
and may also commit this care to a delegate, for 
instance, to the parish priest. In connexion with 
this see Right of Asylum. 

VII. The Church Fabric. — By the term Fabrica 
ecclesise are to be understood not only the goods be- 
longing to the Church but also the administrators 
of these goods. Ever since the thirteenth century 
the laity have been allowed to participate in this 
administration, and the Council of Trent did not 
reprove their intervention (Sess. XXII, De ref. 
eh. ix). The civil power also intervenes in order to 
regulate the administration of the property of 
cathedral and parish churches. The following are 
examples of how the fabrics are organized in cer- 
tain countries. In France Napoleon recognized the 
fabrics of the churches, and entrusted the adminis- 
tration of the property of parish churches to five or 
nine elected members, to the parish priest, and the 
mayor. These formed the conseil de jabrique. The 
elective members holding office for six years and 
eligible for re-election, were chosen by the council 
itself. These vestrymen had in hand the adminis- 
tration of the temporal property of the church and 
elected from amongst their number a bureau des 
Marguilliers composed of three members and the 
parish priest, charged with the ordinary adminis- 
t ml inn and execution of the decisions of the council. 
The bishop had the right of control over the manage- 
ment oi the vestrymen. His approbation as well 
as thai of the State was required for their most impor- 
tant undertakings. The communal authority could 
Control the budgets and the accounts when the 
fabric asked the former for the necessary funds to 
defray the expenses of Divine worship, and for the 
maintenance of ecclesiastical buildings. 

The French Municipal Law of 5 May, 1884, or- 
dered that the budgets and accounts should always 
be submitted to the communal council, and freed 
the commune from the obligation of making up a 
deficit in the resources of the fabric for the ordi- 

nary expenses of divine worship. The bishop had 
the power to organize the fabric of the cathedral 
church himself, but the administration of its goods 
was still under the control of the Government 
(De Champeaux. "Reeueil general de droit civii 
ecclesiastique francais", Paris, I860; Bargilliat, II, 
110-159). This organization, modified, however, 
by the Constitution of 1831 and by the law of 4 March, 
1874, still continues in force in Belgium (De 
Corswarem, Des fabriques deglises, Hasselt, 1904). 
The Law of 11 December, 190.5, suppressed the 
fabrics in France and replaced them by associations 
cidtiie/les which Pius X forbade by his Encyclical, 
"Gravissimo officii" (10 August, 1906; Canoniste 
contemporain, 1906, XXIX, 572). This law by 
handing over to seven, fifteen, or twenty-five persons 
the administration of church property, without 
making any mention whatever of ecclesiastical con- 
trol, increases the State's power of interference in 
the administration of these associations and gives 
it full power to suppress them (Jenouvrier, Expose 
de la situation legale de PEglise de France, d'apres 
la loi du 11 deVembre, 1905, Paris, 1906). 

In Prussia the fabrics of the churches were or- 
ganized by the law of 20 June, 1875, enacted during 
the Kulturkampf. In each parish (Kirchengemt indr) 
ecclesiastical goods are administered by a body of 
churchwardens termed Kirchenvorstand under the 
control of a parish board or Gemeindevertretung. 
This assembly is not , however, everywhere obligatory. 
The members of these assemblies are elected by all 
the male parishioners, who are of age and have re- 
sided for at least one year in the parish, pay the 
ecclesiastical tax, and have their own homes, 
conduct a business concern, or fill a public office. 
All electors over thirty years of age are eligible for 
office with the exception of ecclesiastics and the 
servants or employees of the church. No man can 
hold office in both these assemblies. The Kirchenr 
vorstand is composed of members varying in number 
from four to ten, according to the total number of 
the population. Since the law of 21 May, 1886, 
the parish priest (Pjarrcr) is the president ex officio 
of this assembly, except in those places in which, 
before the law of 1875, the presidency was given to 
a layman. This assembly administers the temporal 
concerns of the church. The Gemeindevertretung 
includes three times as many members as the Kir- 
chenvorstand. It is necessary that they should give 
their consent to the most important acts of the ad- 
ministration of the Kirchenvorstand: the alienations, 
the acquisitions, the loans, the most important 
works, taxes (Rirchensteuer), etc., and approve the 
budgets and accounts. The president of the Kir- 
chenrorstand. or his delegate, assists as a consultor 
at their meetings. All mandates remain in force 
for six years. The State and the ecclesiastical au- 
thority exercise supreme control over the most 
important actions of these fabrics (Archiv ftir 
katholisches Kirchenrecht, 1875, XXXIV, 167, 
1876, XXXV, 161, 1886, LVI, 196, 1887, LVII, 

In the French-speaking portion of the Dominion 
of Canada (Province of Quebec) fabrics also exist. 
Their organization still corresponds, in its main 
outlines, to the ancient organization of the parishes 
in France before the Revolution of 1789, as de- 
scribed by Jousse in his "Traite du gouvernement 
spirituel et temporel des paroisses" (Paris, 1769). 
There is. first of all, the Parochial Assembly (Vestn I 
comprising all the Francs-tenanciers of the parish; 
no alienation, no loan, can be concluded without their 
intervention. In ease a subscription is necessary 

they raise it by assessment. The churchwardens 
actually in office, called marguilliers du Banc, and 
the former churchwardens, must pay the ordinary 
expenses. This is the bureau ordinaire of the ancient 




French law. Finally, ordinary matters of adminis- 
tration are attended to by a commission composed 
of three members, chosen for three years by the old 
and the newly elected churchwardens. Each one 
of the three churchwardens is in charge for a year, 
i. c., he performs the functions of treasurer and must 
render an account to the assembly. The parish priest 
is president of the fabric and represents the bishop. 
All the important accounts must lie approved of by 
the latter (Beaudry, "Code des cures, marguilliers, 
et paroissiens", Montreal, 1S70; Gignac, "Compen- 
dium juris canonici ail usuni cleri Canadensis," 
Quebec, 1901; Migneault, " Droit paroissial", Mon- 
treal (1891). 

For other countries, see Sagmuller, "Lehrbuch 
des katholischen Kirchenrechts" (782, 795). In 
English speaking countries fabrics properly so called 
do not exist. In England ecclesiastical property 
is given in trust to reliable men. The bishops them- 
selves regulate the administration of these goods. 
In Ireland the trustees are the bishop, the vicar- 
general, the parish priest and sometimes other re- 
liable persons (First and Second Synod of West- 
minster, XIV, 4, and VIII, 1-21; Provincial Synod 
of Maynooth, is;."., tit. xxix, nos. 270-277; Collectio 
Lacensis, III, 926, 980). In the United Stairs 
property is often given in trust to the bishop, and 
in cases where the parishes are civilly incorporated, 
sometimes the bishop forms the corporation sole; 
sometimes the administration of the property be- 
longs to a board of trustees composed of the bishop, 
his vicar-general, the pastor of the church, and two 
lay trustees (Taunton, The Law of the Church, 
London, 1900, 310-317). In accordance with the 
Third Council of Baltimore (nos. 284-287) the bishop 
of each diocese judges whether or not it is wise to 
establish councilmen or a board of trustees; he 
fixes their number and the mode of their election. 
Tiny are subject to the authority of the parish priest 
and the bishop. The relations of the State to church 
property, especially in English-speaking countries, 
will be treated in the articles Property, Eccle- 
siastical: Incorporation; Trustee System. 

Van de Bergt, De ecclesns i Utrecht. 1874); Van Gameren, 
De oratoriia domeaticia I I.ouvain, 1861); Many, Parlectwnee 
de loci* sacris (Paris. 1904 I; GalaNTE, La condizione giuridica 
delle cose nacre (Koine, 1903); la Tour, De ecclesiis rus- 
ticemis atate Carolingiea (Bordeaux, 1890); Thomas,^ droit 
de propriiU dea laiquea aur lea igliaea (Pans, 1906^; Kcnsti.e, 
Die deutsche Pfnrrei und ihr Ri CM zu A uaaang den M. A . (Stutt- 

fart, 190.11; Thomassims. Yd. el nor. erct. discip. (Paris, 1691), 
'ars. Ill, lib. II. eh. xxxvi; Ci.kmf.nt. Recherches but la et les fabriques du commencement, du A*///'' . 
Melanges d'orch. el d'hist. de VEcole jrnncaise de Rome (1895), 
XVI, 387-418; Von Scherer, Handbuch des Kirchenrechles 
(Graz, 1898), II, 624-648 (bibliography); Lksetre, La paroisse 
(Paris. 19011 1; Yering. Lehrbuch des kathol. oriental, und prot. 
Kirchenrechts 1 3d ed.. Freiburg. 1893). 778 sqq.; 803 sqq.; Per- 
maneder, Die kirchl. Baulast (1838); new ed. by Kiedle, 
(1890 . 

A. Van Hove. 
Bukarest (Bucarestiensis; Rumanian, Bucaresci 
"City of Enjoyment"), Archdiocese of, comprises 
the Kingdom of Rumania, of which Bukarest is the 
capital, excluding Moldavia, and contains, according 
to the archdiocesan year-book for 1907, about 50,000 
Catholics of the Latin Rite, 4,000 to 5,000 Uniat 
Rumanians, chiefly immigrants from Transylvania, 
Banat, and Bukowina, and a few hundred I'niat Ar- 
menians. In the citv of Bukarest which in 1905 had 
285,445 inhabitants there are about 202,000 Orthodox 
Greeks and 13,000 Jews. The city is situated in a 
swampy plain on both sides of the Dimbobitza which 
is here crossed by about a dozen bridges. It is noted 
for many stately edifices, and the semi-Oriental ap- 
pearance of its older quarters is heightened by the 
numerous gardens and the bright domes of its Greek 
churches. The Catholic cathedral chapter consists at 
present of 1 canons, 1 honorary canon, and 4 honorary 
canons outside the diocese. There are in the archdio- 
cese 40 priests (in addition to the archbishop), includ- 

ing 2 Passionists, 1 Benedictine, and 1 Dominican; 
24 parishes, one of the Greek-Rumanian Rite; 45 
churches including 23 parish churches. The training 
of the clergy is provided for in the archiepiscopal semi- 
nary at Bukarest, which has four professors and nine- 
teen seminarists; six seminarists are being trained 
outside the diocese. The opposition of the Rumanian 
Government has hitherto rendered the establishment 
of a Catholic college impossible. Catholic primary 
schools exist in all parishes. In the city of Bukarest 
are twenty-six Brothers of the Christian Schools who 
conduct three schools, with an attendance of 1,028. 
The English Ladies, numbering about 252, have two 
houses in Bukarest, one each in Braila, Craiova, and 
Turnu Severin, and conduct five boarding schools with 
705 pupils, eight primary schools for girls with an 
attendance of 1,493, and one orphanage with 20 chil- 
dren. The Dames de Sion have one foundation in 
Bukarest, with thirty-seven sisters and conduct a 
boarding school with an attendance of 133; the 
Sisters of Mercy one foundation with four sisters. 
The Hungarians have established nine Catholic 
schools (two in Bukarest), attended by about 945 
children. In addition to the above-mentioned orders, 
the Passionists have one house with four members. 
The most important churches are: the cathedral, 
dedicated to St. Joseph, a three-naved Gothic edifice, 
the largest Catholic church in the country, which was 
completed in 18S4; and the Baratsia, an early church 
of the Franciscans, destroyed by fire in 1848 and since 

History. — For the history of the Catholic Church in 
the territory now comprised within the Archdiocese 
of Bukarest see Rumania. The present archdiocese 
was erected by Pope Leo XIII, 27 April, 1883. 
Bukarest, however, had previously been the residence 
of Catholic bishops, viz., the Bishops of Nicopolis, 
Bulgaria, who were also Administrators Apostolic of 
Waliachia, and had resided at Rustchuk. Bishop 
Paulus Davanlia (1777-1804) left Rustchuk and lived 
at the Franciscan monastery at Bukarest (1792-93), 
where he also died. His successor, Franciscus Ferreri 
transferred his residence to Cioplea, a village near 
Bukarest founded in 1812 by Bulgarian refugees, 
but he was prevented from entering Bukarest by the 
opposition of the Greek orthodox bishop. Only in 
1847 was Bishop Josephus Molajoni able to establish 
his residence in Bukarest. His successor, Angelus 
Parsi, restored the episcopal palace, which had been 
destroyed by fire in 1847, and in 18.52 brought to Bu- 
karest the English Ladies, and in 1861 the Brothers 
of the Christian Schools. In 1863 Bishop Parsi was 
succeeded by Josephus Pluym, since 1869 Patriarchal 
Vicar of Constantinople, who in turn was followed 
by Ignatius Paoli. After the establishment of Ru- 
mania as a kingdom, a movement was set on foot by 
the Government to release the Catholic subjects from 
dependence on a foreign bishop, and negotiations were 
begun with Rome. In 1883 Pope Leo XIII erected 
two dioceses in Rumania immediately subject to the 
Holy See, the Archdiocese of Bukarest and the 
Diocese of Jassy. The first archbishop was Ignatius 
Paoli, succeeded in turn by Paulus Josephus Palma 
(1885-92); Otto Zardetti "(1894-95), who was the 
second Bishop of St. Cloud, Minnesota, U. S. A. 
(1889-94), when he was transferred to Bukarest. He 
resigned this last office in 1895 and died in Rome, on 
9 May, 1902; Xaverius Hornstcin (1896-1905), who 
built a new episcopal residence and for the second 
time called the Brothers of the Christian Schools to 
Bukarest; Raymundus Netzhammer, O. S. B., born 
at Erzingen, Baden, 19 January, 1862, professed in the 
Benedictine monastery at Einsiedeln, ISM, and con- 
secrated Archbishop of Bukarest 16 September, 1905. 

Schematismus Arehidieecesi* Latin,! Bueareatienaia (Bucha- 
rest, 1907 ); it contains also a history of the archdiocese with a 
bibliography and other items of interest. Joseph LlNS. 




Bulgari. See Cathari. 

Bulgaria, a European kingdom in the north- 
eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, bounded by 
the Black Sea, the Khodope Mountains, Servia, 
and the Danube; it embraces an area of 37,200 sq. m. 
The population according to the census of 1900 num- 
bers 3,744,283, divided according to religion into 
3,019,296 Greek Orthodox, 28,579 Catholics of the 
Latin Rite and Uniat Greeks, 4524 Protestants, 
13,809 Gregorian Armenians, 33,663 Jews, 643,300 
Mohammedans, and 1112 of other creeds; according 
to nationality into 2,887,860 Bulgarians, 539,656 
Turks, 89,549 Gypsies, 75,235 Rumanians, 70,887 
Greeks, 32,753 Jews, 18,856 Tatars, 13,926 Armenians, 
and 15,741 of other nationalities. The number of 
inhabitants in 1905 was 4,028,239. 

History. — At the beginning of the Christian Era, 
what is now Bulgaria constituted the Roman prov- 
inces of Moesia and Thrace, a territory in which 
Christianity was preached at a very early period, 
as proved by the Council of Sardica in 343. During 
the migratory period Slavic races pushed forward 
into this region. Some time after the middle of the 
seventh century, the Bulgars, a people of Hunnic 
and Finnic stock, who had been driven from their 
habitations on the Volga as far as the Lower Danube, 
began to make incursions into Moesia and Thrace. 
Completing their conquest of the country in a war 
with the Byzantine Empire, they founded an inde- 
pendent kingdom about 680. The Bulgars gradually 
became amalgamated with the former inhabitants, 
adopting the nationality and language of the latter, 
but giving their own name to the ethnographic mix- 
ture. The new State often came into conflict with 
the neighbouring Byzantine Empire, to which, how- 
ever, in 718, it lent its support against the Arabs. 
Prince Boris, or Bogoris (844-845 or 852-8S8, d. 907), 
accepted Christianity for political reasons and was 
baptized in 864 or the beginning of 865; he first ne- 
gotiated with Pope Nicholas I for the creation of a 
Bulgarian hierarchy, but in the end joined the 
Byzantine Church. During the reign of his younger 
son Symeon (S93-927) the ancient Bulgarian State 
reached the zenith of its prosperity; its territories 
extended from the Danube to the Rhodope Mountains, 
and from the Black Sea to the Ionian Sea. In 917 
Symeon assumed the title of Tsar, and in 924 com- 
pelled Byzantium to recognize the Bulgarian Church 
as an autocephalous patriarchate, with its seat at 
Ochrida or Achrida. Under his son Peter (927- 
969) the kingdom began to decline; during the reign 
of Shishman I the western part proclaimed its in- 
dependence; two years after Peter's deatli the eastern 
section was pledged to the Eastern Empire. The 
western part, not able to preserve its autonomy, 
went to pieces in 1018 under the repeated attacks 
of the Emperor Basil II, surnamed Bulgaroktonos 
(the slayer of Bulgarians). Though Basil left the 
Bulgarian Church its autonomy, the Metropolitans 
of Achrida were no longer styled Patriarchs, but 
Archbishops, and after 1025 were chosen from the 
Greek clergy, instead of the Bulgarian. 

After several futile uprisings against the oppressive 
Byzantine rule, a fresh Bulgarian insurrection took 
place about 1185. Two brothers, Peter and Ivan 
Asen, assumed the leadership, threw off the By- 
zantine yoke and re-established Symeon's empire. 
On their death (1 197) their youngest brother Kaloyan, 
or Ivanitza, ruled alone until 1207; he entered into 
negotiations with the Holy See, promised to recog- 
nize the spiritual supremacy of the pope, and in 
November, 1201, was crowned with the royal diadem 
by Cardinal Leo, legate of Pope Innocent III. At 
the same time Archbishop Basil of Tirnovo was 
consecrated Primate of Bulgaria. This new Bul- 
garian Church embraced eight dioceses, Tirnovo 
being the primatial see, but the union with Rome 

was not of long duration. The new empire soon 
came into conflict with the recently founded Latin 
Empire (1204) of Constantinople; the Greeks fanned 
the dissensions in order to gain the Bulgarians over 
to their side. King Ivan Asen II (1218-41) formed 
an alliance with Emperor Vatatzes against the Latin 
Empire (1234), and again joined the Greek Church, 
which thereupon solemnly recognized the autonomy 
of the Church of Tirnovo (1235). Since that time, 
with the exception of brief intervals, the Bulgarian 
Church has persisted in schism. In 1236 Pope 
Gregory IX pronounced sentence of excommunica- 
tion on Asen II, and in 123S had a Crusade preached 
against Bulgaria. The history of the following 
period shows a succession of struggles with the 
Greeks, the Servians, and the Hungarians, of in- 
ternal wars for the possession of the throne, and of 
religious disturbances, as, for instance, those conse- 
quent on the spread of the Bogomili and the Hesy- 
chasts, all of which weakened the State. 

During the fourteenth century, the Turks, flushed 
with victory, invaded the Balkan Peninsula, and 
under Amurath I overthrew the Servian kingdom in 
the battle of Kossovo (Field of the Blackbirds, 1389), 
captured Tirnovo, and imprisoned Ivan III Shishman, 
the last Bulgarian Tsar, thus destroying the Bul- 
garian hegemony. The Church shared the fate of 
the State, and the last Bulgarian patriarch, Eu- 
thymius (1375-93), was driven into exile. Only the 
Patriarchate of Achrida continued as a Graeo- 
Bulgarian metropolitan see, with Greek or hellenized 
occupants, until it was suppressed by the Porte in 
1767 in consequence of the intrigues of the oecumen- 
ical patriarchs. The Greek language prevailed every- 
where in schools and churches, and the remains of 
ancient Bulgarian literature were destroyed to a 
large extent by the Greeks. For almost five centuries 
the Bulgarian people groaned under the political 
yoke of the Turks and the ecclesiastical domination 
of the Greeks, yet continuous persecution did not 
avail to obliterate the memory of the nation's former 
greatness. The nineteenth century was destined 
to bring liberty to the Bulgarians, as well as to other 
Christian peoples of the Balkan Peninsula. The 
self-sacrificing generosity of wealthy Bulgarians 
made it possible to establish Bulgarian schools (the 
first at Gabrovo, 1835) and printing presses (at 
Saloniki, 1839, Smyrna, 1840, Constantinople, 1843), 
by which the national culture and patriotic sentiment 
were elevated. The reawakened national feeling 
first manifested itself in the ecclesiastical order. 

In 1860 a representative body of the Bulgarian 
nation requested the Greek patriarch at Constan- 
tinople to recognize their national church, to accord 
them freedom in the selection of their bishops, and 
to appoint Bulgarian, rather than Greek prelates 
to Bulgarian sees. The Patriarch of Constantinople 
refused these concessions. This act inflamed the na- 
tional feeling and was followed by the expulsion of the 
Greek bishops and finally insurrections against Turk- 
ish authority. To ensure its supremacy, the Porte 
sought to mediate between the parties, but fresh 
negotiations were productive of no further result, 
ana the Sultan by a firman of 11 March, 1870. granted 
the Bulgarians an exarchate of their own, inde- 
pendent of the Greek patriarchate. In 1S72 the first 
Bulgarian exarch was chosen by an assembly of 
Bulgarian bishops and laymen. In a council at which 
only twenty-nine orthodox bishops assisted the 
oecumenical patriarch solemnly excommunicated the 
Bulgarian Church, and declared it schismatics!. 

National autonomy followed close upon eccle- 
siastical independence. In May. 1*70, the Turkish 
Government perpetrated unspeakable atrocities in 
the suppression of a Bulgarian insurrection. These 
horrors might never have touched the conscience of 
the civilized world had it not been for the courage 




and enterprise of Januarius Aloysiua MacGahan, an 
American Catholic (b. in Peny County, Ohio, 12 June, 
1844; d. at Constantinople, 9 June, 1878). As corre- 
spondent of the London "Daily News", and accom- 
panied by Eugene Schuyler, Commissioner of the 
United States Government, MacGahan was the only 
journalist to visit the devastated districts; he ob- 
tained the evidence of eyewitnesses and, supple- 
menting this with his own observation, published a 
mass of facts which enabled Mr. Gladstone to arouse 
among the English-speaking peoples a lively, sym- 
pathy for the Bulgarian Christians. A conference of 
the European powers demanded of Turkey the erec- 
tion of an autonomous Bulgarian province. The 
Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, however, and the 
Peace of San Stefano created an autonomous Bul- 
garian principality, tributary to the Porte. The 
Berlin Congress of 1878 abrogated some of the pro- 
visions of the Peace of San Stefano and divided 
Greater Bulgaria into an autonomous Bulgarian 
principality and a province of Eastern Rumelia 
under a Christian governor-general, to be appointed 
by the Porte every five years, but subject to the 
approval of the Powers. On 22 February, 1879, 
the first Bulgarian assembly of notables convened 
in the principality; on 28 April the new constitution 
was signed; and on 29 April Prince Alexander of 
Battenberg was chosen as sovereign by the first 
national assembly. In Eastern Rumelia, from the 
very first the trend of events pointed to union with 
the Bulgarian principality. In September, 1885, 
an insurrection broke out. and a provisional regency 
proclaimed the union with Bulgaria. In September, 
Alexander announced from Philippopolis the union 
of the two countries and, after repelling a Servian 
invasion, received recognition as Governor-General 
of Eastern Rumelia (5 April, 1S86). The unexpected 
independence which Alexander had shown in the 
face of Russia, brought him into disfavour with that 

Cower, and a military conspiracy, .secretly supported 
y Russia, was successful in having him transported 
across the frontier (20 August, 1886). He was re- 
called, it is true, by the popular voice, after ten days, 
but, not wishing to rule without Russia's favour, 
which Bulgaria found indispensable, and yet not 
being able to gain the Tsar's friendship, he abdicated, 
7 September, 1S86. A regency, under Stambuloff, 
administered the national affairs until a new sovereign 
was elected by tin' National Assembly. The choice 
fell on the Catholic prince, Ferdinand of Saxe- 
Coburg-Kohary, 7 July. 1SS7. As Ferdinand at first 
left the national policy in the hands of Russia's 
enemy, Stambuloff, Russia, as well as the Porte, 
refused to recognize the new king. Only after the 
assassination of Stambuloff (189.5) was a reconcilia- 
tion with Russia effected. The Sultan then recog- 
nized Ferdinaml as prince ami governor-general, 
in view of the fact that Ferdinand had his son Boris, 
heir to the throne, baptized in the Greek ortho- 
dox faith (1896). The economic and intellectual 
progress of the country is retarded by financial com- 
plications, by partisanship in politics, and by the 
unrot incident to the so-called Macedonian ques- 

Statistics. — (a) Catholics, Lntin Rite. — The Catho- 
lics of Bulgaria are for the most part descend- 
ants of the Bogomili or Paulicians converted by 
the Franciscans during the sixteenth century, and 
are directly subject to the I lioeese of NicopollS with 
it- seal at Rustchuk. and the Vicariate Apostolic 
of Sofia and Philippopolis, with the seat at Philip- 
popolis. The Diocese ol Nicopolia (Dicecesis Si<-<>- 
a • contains, according to the Misaiones Cattoli- 
C33 (Rome, 1907 . about 13.000 Latin Catholics, 1 1 
parishes, 3 station-. I 18 regular priests, 

a great seminary in Rustchuk, 3 parish schools for 
boys and 3 for girls, 3 houses of male religious orders 

(Passionists, Marists, and Assumptionists); there 
are also houses of the Sisters of the Assumption, with 
a boarding school at Varna; Dames de Sion, with a 
day school at Rustchuk, and Dominican Sisters from 
Cette, France. The Vicariate Apostolic of Sofia and 
Philippopolis (Sofia; et Philippolis), established in 
1759, contains 14,S80 Latin Catholics, 1000 Greek 
Catholics, 13 parishes, 23 secular and 27 regular priests, 
31 Capuchin Fathers, almost all engaged in parochial 
work; 20 Assumptionists, Fathers and lay brothers, 
with 4 foundations, one a college at Philippopolis, 
the only Catholic college in Bulgaria; 2 Resurrec- 
tionists, 10 Brothers of the Christian Schools, with 
a boarding and a day school at Sofia; 40 French Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph de TApparition, with 6 houses, a 
boarding school, orphan asylum and hospital at 
Sofia, a boarding school and day school at Philip- 
popolis, and a boarding school and day school at 
Burgas; 13 Austrian Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, 
with a hospital at Philippopolis; 22 Bulgarian Sisters 
of the Third Order of St. Francis; and 7 Sisters of 
the Assumption. There are also 2 colleges for boys, 
3 for girls, a seminary in Philippopolis, 12 parish 
schools for boys and 12 for girls, 2 hospitals, 3 orphan- 
ages and 3 asylums for girls. 

(b) Uniat Bulgarians. — While the Bulgarians 
were contending with the Greek patriarchate for 
ecclesiastical autonomy, and the patriarch refused 
to make any concession, a movement was set on 
foot among the Bulgarians which pointed towards 
union with Rome. On 30 December, 1860, 120 
deputies of the people petitioned the Apostolic Dele- 
gate to receive them into the Roman Church on con- 
dition of the recognition of their language and lit- 
urgy, and the appointment of a bishop of their own 
nationality; almost 60,000 of their fellow-countrymen 
joined in the request. Pius IX himself, 21 January, 
1861, consecrated a priest named Sokolski as first 
Vicar Apostolic of Uniat Bulgaria. This move- 
ment, however, did not win the support of Catholic 
Europe, while the greatest obstacles were placed in 
its way by Russia and the patriarchate of Constan- 
tinople. Sokolski lapsed back into schism in June, 
1861, and embarked for Odessa on a Russian vessel; 
the majority of the Bulgarian priests and laymen 
attached themselves to the recently founded na- 
tional exarchate. Only about 13,000 Bulgarians re- 
mained true to the Roman Church, and they live 
for the most part outside of Bulgaria in the Turkish 
provinces of Macedonia and Thrace. For these two 
Vicariates Apostolic have been erected. The Vicari- 
ate Apostolic of Thrace, with seat at Adrianople, 
contains 3,000 Catholics, 14 parishes and stations, 
20 churches and chapels, 16 native secular priests, 
25 Resurrectionists in 3 houses and 10 Assumptionists 
in 3 houses. 36 Sisters of the Assumption, with a 
boarding school, 3 Sisters of the Resurrection, 2 
colleges, one in Kara-Agasch near Adrianopolis under 
the Assumptionists and the other at Adrianople under 
the Resurrectionists. The Vicariate Apostolic of 
Macedonia, with its see at Saloniki, contains 5,950 
Grseco-Bulgarian Catholics. 21 churches, 33 Bul- 
garian priests of the Slavonic Rite, a seminary it 
Zeitenlink near Saloniki. 17 schools for boys and 10 
for girls, 4 houses of the Congregation of the Mission, 
with 15 priests, 6 houses of the Sisters of Mercy, 4 of 
the Eucharistines, 3 orphan asvlums. 

(c) Oriental Churches. — The Greek Orthodox 
church of Bulgaria is divided into 5 eparchies or 

provinces. Tin- Bulgarians under tl xarcb (or 

supreme head of the Bulgarian National Church) 
are divided into n eparchies, :: in Eastern Rumelia, 
with 2123 pan-he-, ,s monasteries for men, I 
women, lsnii churches an. I 1906 clergy. in Diet. d> iMol. calk., II, 1174-1286, containing an 
extensive bibliography; Miklosich, Monumenta .svr&ica 
(Vienna. 1858); Hilfkrdino, OetchichU ,lrr Srrhm und Hul- 
garen, tr. from Ru.-sian | .' pans. Bautzen. 1S5G, 1864); d'Avril, 



La Bulgarie ehretienne (Paris, 1861); L. Duchesne, Les eglises 
sti>arees l Pans, 1896); Dumont, Les Bulgares (2nd ed., Paris, 
1872); Jirecek, Geschickte der Bulgaren (Germ. tr.. Prague, 
1876); Kamiz, Donau-Bulgarien und der Balkan (2nd ed., 3 
vols., Leipzig, 1882); Balan, Delle relazioni fra la chiesa Cat- 
talica e gli Slavi (Home, 1880); Fermenozin, Acta Bulgaria 
ecetrsiastlea ab 1565 usque ad annum 1799 (Agram, 1887); 
Jireczek in Kirchenleiikon, II, 14.59-67; Samcelson, Bul- 
garia, Past and Present (London, 1888); Dicey. The Peasant 
.Stale: an account of Bulgaria in 1894 (London, 1894); Jirecek, 
Das Furstentum Bulaarkn (Prague, 1S91); Lamouche, La 
Bulgarie dans le passe et le present (Paris, 1S92), with bibli- 
ography; Rattinger, Die Bulgaren und die gruch. schismut 
Kireheii, in Slimmen aus Maria Laach (1873), IV, 45-57, 
252-655; Drandar, Les rrinements pohliques en Bulgarie 
depuis 1878 jusqu'a nos jours (Paris, 1S96); Markovich, Gli 
Slavi ed i papi (Agram, 1897); Strauss, Die Bulgaren (Leip- 
zig, 1898); Durastel, Annuairc international de la Bulgarie 

(Sofia, 1898 ); Falkenegg, Aus Bulgariens Vergangen- 

heit und Gegcnwart (Berlin, 1900); Gelzer, Der Patriarchal 
ion Achrida ' Leipzig. 1902); BoJAN, Les Bulgares el le patriar- 
ehe mcumenique (Paris, 1905); von Mach, Der Machtbereich 
des halgarischen Eiarchats in der Tiirkei (Leipzig and Neu- 

chatel, 1906); Echos d'Orient (Pans, 1S9S ). I-X, passim; 

Herbert, Bq-Paths in the Balkans (London, 1906); MacGahan, 
Turkish Atrocities in Bulgaria (London, 1876). 

Joseph Lins. 

Bulgarian Version. See Versions of the Bible. 

Bulla Aurea (Golden Bull), a fundamental 
law of the Holy Roman Empire, probably the best 
known of all the many ordinances of the imperial 
diet. It takes its name from the golden case in which 
the seal attached to the document proclaiming the 
decree was placed. The law was signed by the Em- 

Seror Charles IV, January, 1356, during the Diet of 
furemberg, and 
was revised at the 
Diet of Metz in 
November of the 
same year. The 
contents of the 
Bulla Aurea were 
of constitutional 
importance for 
the empire. It 
ordained that each 
emperor should be 
chosen by election, 
the right of voting 
being vested in 
electoral princes, 
the number of 
whom was fixed 
at seven. As 

electors the edict appointed, on the one side, the 
three ecclesiastical princes most closely connected 
with the history of the empire, i. e. the Archbish- 
ops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne. On the other 
side, the law settled the question, as far as it was 
still in dispute, as to whether the electoral vote 
pertained to certain secular principalities or to cer- 
tain ruling families. It ordained that the right be- 
longed to Bohemia, the Rhenish Palatinate, Saxony 
(Sachsen-Wittenberg), and the Mark of Brandenburg; 
this made the secular electors the King of Bohemia, 
the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, 
and the Margrave of Brandenburg. The Bull also 
defined the powers given by the imperial constitution 
to the electors, taken as a body, and to certain in- 
dividual electors separately, both during a vacancy 
of the throne and during an imperial reign. Thus 
the document granted to the electors in their char- 
acter as rulers of principalities certain privileges 
which had been originally reserved to the German 
king and emperor and were the signs (if his sover- 
eignty. The transfer (if these rights to subordinate 
rulers would, necessarily, gradually make them in- 
dependent (.1 tin- head of the empire. The Bull also 
provided for the preservation Of peace in the empire 
and enacted measures lor holding in check the in- 
creasing political importance of the rising free cities. 
In the main the law was intended to confirm rights 
which had already had a historical development and 

Golden Bulla 

to settle disputed details of these rights. Constitu- 
tional law in the Holy Roman Empire reached its 
full growth between the years 1220 and 1555. As 
to the position of the "Golden Bull" in connexion 
with this development, see Germany. 

Brvce, The Holy Roman Empire (New York, 1904), 234 
and passim; Hahn. Urspruna u. Bedeutung d. Goldenen Bulle 
(Breslau. 1903); Mittheil. des Instituts /. oesterreieh. Gesch. 
(1SS4), V, 96-120. 

Martin Spahn. 

Bulla Sacrae Cruciatae. See Crusade, Bull of 


Bullaker, Thomas (or John Baptist), Vener- 
able, Friar Minor and English martyr, b. at Chi- 
chester about the year 1604; d. at Tyburn, 12 Oc- 
tober, 1642. He was the only son of a pious and 
well-to-do physician of Chichester. His parents were 
both fervent Catholics, and, following their example, 
Bullaker grew up in the ways of innocence and piety. 
At an early age he was sent to the English College at 
St-Omer, and from there he went to Valladolid in 
Spain to complete his studies. Convinced of his vo- 
cation to the Franciscan Order, after much anxious 
deliberation, he received the habit at Abrojo, and a 
few years later, in 1628, was ordained priest. Having 
left Spain to labour on the English mission, he landed 
at Plymouth, but was immediately seized and cast 
into prison. Liberated after two weeks from the 
loathsome dungeon where he had suffered the most 
untoward hard- 
ships, Bullaker, 
by order of Father 
Thomas of St. 
Francis, then 
Provincial in Eng- 
land, laboured for 
nearly twelve 
years with much 
zeal and devoted- 
ness among the 
poor Catholics of 
London. On the 
11th of Septem- 
ber. 1642, Bulla- 
ker was seized 
while celebrating 
the Holy Sacrifice 
in the house of a 
pious benefactress. He has left a partial, but touching, 
account of his apprehension and trial. He was con- 
demned to be drawn on a hurdle to Tyburn and there 
hanged, cut down alive, quartered and beheaded. It 
is related that as he was going out of prison he met 
Ven. Arthur Bell, a religious of his own order, who 
said to him: "Brother, I was professed before you. 
Why do you take precedence of me?" Bullaker 
answered: "It is the will of God. But you will follow 
me". Bell remembered the prophetic words of the 
pious Bullaker when his own day of martyrdom was 
at hand. The cause of the beatification of Bullaker 
was introduced in Rome in 1900. 

Thadpeus. The Franciscans in England (London, 1898). in. 
62, 63, 67; xv, 205, 206; Stone, Faithful unto Death (London, 
1892), vii, 132-150; Mason (Angeh s a S. Fris 
Certamen Seraphwum (2d ed., Quaracchi, 1885), 35-68; 
Ortolani. De eausi-s bcatorum et sereorum Del ord. min. (Qua- 
racchi, 1905), 14. 

Stephen M. Donovan. 

Bullarium is a term commonly applied to a col- 
lection of bulls and other analogous papal docu- 
ments, whether the scope of the collection lie quite 
general in character, or whether it he limited to the 
bulls connected with any particular order, or in- 
stitution, or locality. The name biillariii/n seems to 

have been invented by the canonist Laertius Cheru- 

bini who in 1586 published under the title " Bullarium. 
sive Collectio diversarum Constitutionum multorum 
Pontificum" a large folio volume of 1404 pages con- 

Empf.ror Charles IV 




Coining 922 papa] constitutions from Gregory VII 
down to Sixtus V, the pope then reigning. With re- 
gard to this anil all subsequent collections, three 
things have carefully to be borne in mind. First, 
whatever may have been the intrinsic importance or 
binding force of any of the bulls so published, the 
selection itself was a matter which depended entirely 
upon the arbitrary choice of the various editors. As 
a collection the publication had no official character. 
The only recognized exception to this assertion is the 
first volume of a collection of his own bulls which 
was sent by Pope Benedict XIV in 1746 to the Uni- 
versity of Bologna to serve as a jons itirix, or source 
of legal principles. Secondly, it was never seriously 
maintained, despite some rather pretentious title 
pages, that these collections were in any sense com- 
plete or that they even included all the constitutions 

of more general interest. Thirdly, it was the inten- 
tion of the editors, at least at first, rather to exclude 
than to include the papal pronouncements which 
had already been incorporated in the text of the 
canon law. The avowed object of the early collec- 
tions was to render assistance to canonists by bring- 
ing within their reach papal enactments which cither 
had been overlooked by the compilers of the "Cor- 
pus" or which had been issued subsequently to the 
latest decrees included in it. 

We may disregard in the present, notice various 
small collections of relatively recent papal constitu- 
tions which were published in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. A typical specimen of such DOok- 
supplied by i rare tittle volume of sixty-two 
pages printed at Home per Slephanum Guiliereti in 
regione, Parionis 1509, a copy of which is in the 
British Museum Library. A contribution of more 
III.— 4 

substantial value appears to have been a volume 
edited by Mazzutellus in 1579 which contained 723 
documents. But it. istoLaertius Cherubim that the 
credit is usually given of creating the bullarium in 
substance as well as in name. In the preface to the 
volume of which the title has been already given, the 
editor refers to his personal experiences in the eccle- 
siastical courts of Rome. "In these courts I have 
noticed", he says, "that certain advocates and 
judges went completely astray because they had not 
at hand the text of those apostolic constitutions a 
knowledge of which is most necessary in treating and 
pronouncing upon causes, seeing that in such con- 
stitutions is embodied the whole of the most recent 
pontifical law". After this explanation it is not 
surprising to find that out of Cherubini's 922 docu- 
ments more than 800 were of recent date, that is to 
say, that they belonged to the hundred years imme- 
diately preceding the appearance of the volume. 
Of this collection a second edition in three volumes, 
was printed at Rome in 1617, and a third edition in 
four volumes extending in this cast' from Leo I to 
Urban VIII, was prepared by the editor's son, 
Angelo Cherubini, in 1638. with 'a supplement added 
in 1659. Other editions followed, always somewhat 
enlarged. The fifth in six volumes was brought out 
by two Franciscans at Rome 1669-72. 

The Luxemburg Bullarium. — Moreover, a fuller 
but not more accurate reprint with supplementary 
volumes appeared in the eighteenth century, nomi- 
nally at Luxemburg, though the actual place of im- 
pression is said to nave been Geneva. Of this edi- 
tion, which is one of the most commonly met with 
in libraries, the first eight volumes coming down to 
Benedict XIII all bear the date 1727, while a ninth 
and tenth volume, supplementing the earlier portion, 
appeared in 1730. Other supplements followed tit 
intervals. Four volumes which were published in 
1741 covered respectively the periods 1670 89, 
1689-1721, 1721-30, 1730-40. In the same series, 
and still later, we have the following volumes: XV 
(174S), extending over 1734-40; XVI (1752), 1710 
45; XVII (1753), 1746-49; XVIII (1754), 17 Is 52; 
XIX (1758>, 1752-57. The last four volumes are 
entirely taken up with the Bulls of Benedict XIV. 
Although this is not the most important bullarium, 
it smiled worth while to indicate the arrangement 
of this Luxemburg edition as it appears to have been 
in part the source of the great confusion which is to 
be found in many accounts of the subject, notably 
in the recent article "Bullaire" in the Dictionnaire 

de thdologie catholique". It is not quite true, as has 

sometimes been supposed, that the- "Luxemburg" 

editors contributed nothing of their own to the col- 
lection. For example, in Vol. IX (1730) we have two 
Hulls of the English pope, Adrian IV, printed from 
the originals at Geneva with engraved facsimiles of 
tin' rota and leaden bulla, and in fact the whole of 
the contents of Vols. IX and X represent a large 
measure of independent research. The later volumes 
of the series, however, have simply been copied from 
the Roman edition next to be mentioned. 

\1 ainardi's Roman Bullarium. — This Roman 
edition of the Bullarium, which still remains the 
most accurate and practically useful, bears on the 
title pages of its thirty-two volumes the name of 
tin' publisher, tlirolatno Mainardi, while the dedica- 
tion^ to various cardinals prefixed to the different 
volumes and extending from 1733 to 1762 are also 
sinned by him. The arrangement of the volumes, 
however, is peculiar, and the neglect to indicate these 
peculiarities has made the account given of this edi- 
tion in most bibliographies almost unintelligible. 
Mainardi began with the idea of printing a 
ment to the latest Roman edition of Cherubini's 
bullarium. As this was in six volumes and stopped 
short at the pontificate of Clement X (1670 76j. 




Mainardi railed his first published volume Tom. VII, 
and reprinted the Bulls of Clement X from the be- 
ginning of his pontificate to his death. Moreover, an 
engraved frontispiece prefixed to this volume, printed 
in 1733, bears the words "Bullarium Romanum, 
Tom. VII". The book further contains a promise 
that the six volumes of Cherubini's bullarium should 
in course of time be reprinted in a corrected and en- 
larged form, with the aid of the documents con- 
tained in the secret archives of the Holy See. Seven 
other volumes followed in sequence to this first. 
They were printed from 1734 to 174-1 and brought 
the collection from Clement X in 1670 to the acces- 
sion of Benedict XIV in 1740. Meanwhile the pub- 
lisher had engaged an able scholar, Charles Coeque- 
lines, to re-edit the six volumes of Cherubini's 
bullarium from Leo I to Clement X. In his hands an 
immense mass of material accumulated. The first 
volume was printed in 1739 and it. bore a slightly 
different title from that of the instalment which 
.Mainardi had already published, beginning at "Tom. 
VII". Cocquelines' section was headed "Bullarum, 
privilegiarum ac diplomatum Romanorum Pontificum 
amplissima collectio" and in comparison with Cheru- 
bini's meagre gleanings from antiquity the epithet 
amplissima was fully deserved. This series, like all 
good work, advanced very slowly. A tabular ar- 
rangement will best show the details. The editor had 
to make his numbering correspond with Cherubini's 
six volumes and consequently some of the nominal 
tomi of the new edition were divided into several parts: 


Year of 






Tom. I I 450-1061 



Tom. II 1061-1181 



Tom. Ill (in 3 parts) 




Tom. IV (in 4 parts) 




Tom. V (in 5 parts) 




Tom. VI (in 6 parte) 



Some time before the completion of the series Cocque- 
lines had died, and the last five volumes to appear did 
not bear his name. Simultaneously with this am- 
plified edition of Cherubim, Mainardi had also been 
publishing, in folio, but somewhat smaller, the four 
volumes of the bullarium of Benedict XIV, the first 
of which, as already noted, appeared with that 
pontiff's own authentication. In sum the whole col- 
lection which issued from Mainardi's press amounted 
to thirty-two folio volumes and extended from Leo I 
in 450 to the death of Benedict XIV. 1758. As this 
in time grew antiquated, Andrew Barberi began in 
1835 the publication of the Bulls of Pope Clemen! 
XIII and his successors under the title of "Bullarii 
Romani Continuatio" (19 vols., fol.), Rome, 1835- 
57. These came down to the fourth year of Pope 
Gregory XVI, i. e. to 1834. There is also another 
series of the same kind which appeared as a con- 
tinuation of the bullarium of Benedict XIV at Prato 
in 1843-67 (10 vols., fol.). 

The Turin Bullarium. — Finally, a large quarto 
edition of the bullarium was begun at Turin under 
the auspices of Cardinal Gaude in 1857, edited by 
Tomasctti. It claims to be more comprehensive, 
better printed and better arranged than the work of 
Cocquelines, but the additions made are insignificant 
and the typographical errors are numerous. More- 
over among the documents added, e pecially in Ap- 
pendix I (1S67), are included some whose authen- 
ticity is more than doubtful. At Turin twenty-two 
volumes were printed (1857-72) down to Clement XI] 
and five more, continuing the work to the end of 
Benedict XIV, were added at Naples (1867-85). 

Particular Bullaria. — Besides the general bul- 
larium of which we have so far spoken, various 
particular bullaria have been compiled at different 
times collecting the papal documents relating to 
this or that religious order or institution or locality. 
For example, eight volumes have recently been pub- 
lished by R. de Martinis under the title "Jus Pontifi- 
cium de Propaganda Fide" (Rome, 1S88-9S). This 
is in substance the bullarium of the Congregation of 
Propaganda brought up to date. Similarly an ex- 
haustive collection or rather calendar of early papal 
documents concerning the churches of Italy has been 
undertaken by P. F. Kehr under the title of "Italia 
Pontifacia" (Berlin, 1906). The expense is defrayed 
by the Gottingen Academy. Of the more important 
religious orders nearly all have at some time or other 
collected their privileges in print. Among the most 
extensive of such compilations, which formerly often 
went by the name of "Mare Magnum" (Great 
Ocean) may be mentioned the Bullarium of the 
Dominicans, edited by Ripoll and Bremond (8 vols., 
Rome, 1729-40); that of the Franciscans, edited by 
Sbaralea (4 vols., Rome, 1758-80), with a more 
modern continuation by Eubel (3 vols., Rome, 1897- 
1904); that of the Capuchins (7 vols., Rome, 1740- 
52); that of the Benedictines of Monte Cassino (2 
vols., Venice, 1650). All the volumes here men- 
tioned are folios, mostly of considerable bulk. 

Historically speaking, the most interesting papal 
documents are often those contained in the "Regesta" 
(see Bulls and Briefs) which have never been in- 
cluded in the general Bullarium. Since the Archives 
of the Vatican were thrown open to students by 
Leo XIII in 1883, immense labour has been spent 
upon the copying and publication of the Bulls con- 
tained in the "Regesta". But even before this date 
facilities fcr research were not unfrequently accorded. 
Many hundreds of copies of documents relating to 
Great Britain were made for the British Government 
by Marino de Marinis in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century and are now preserved in the British 
Museum. In 1873 the Rev. Joseph Stevenson was 
sent to Rome for a similar purpose and the large col- 
lection of transcripts made by him during four years' 
residence may be consulted at the Record Office, 
London. Since then Messrs. Bliss and Twenlow have 
been engaged on the same task and have published 
at the expense of the British Government seven 
volumes of a "Calendar of Entries in the Papal 
Registers illustrating the History of Great Britain and 
Ireland". These are primarily papal letters, and 
they extend from the beginning of the thirteenth 
to the middle of the fifteenth century. The members 
of the Ecole Francaise de Rome have been equally 
active and it is mainly to them that we owe the pub- 
lication of detailed calendars of the entire contents 
of the "Regesta" of various pontificates mostly of 
the thirteenth century. Those of Honorius IV (1285- 
87), Nicholas IV (1288-92), Benedict XI (1303-04) 
have been published and are complete. Those of 
Innocent. IV (1243-54), Urban IV (1261-64), Clem- 
ent IV (1265-68) are all but complete; while great 
progress has been made with those of Gregory X and 
John XXI (1271-77), Nicholas III (1277-80), Mar- 
tin IV (1281-85), Boniface VIII (1294-1303), Greg- 
ory IX (1227-41), and Alexander IV (1254-61). 
Besides these, the "Regesta" of Clement V (1305- 
14) have been published by the Benedictines in nine 
volumes folio at the cost of Leo XIII. and those of 
John XXII (1316-34), as far as they relate to France. 
are being printed by A. Coulon, while those of the 
other Avignon popes are also in hand. The "Re- 
gesta" of Innocent III and his successor Honorius III 
have long been printed, and they are among the last 

volumes included in the Patrology of Migne. Finally 
among local bullaria we may mention the consider- 
able collections published some years ago by Augus- 




tine Theiner for various countries under the general 
heading of "Vetera Monumenta". 

With regard to the early centuries, where no origi- 
nals of official copies exist to which we can make 
appeal, the task of distinguishing genuine from 
spurious papal letters becomes exceedingly delicate. 
The collection of Dom Coustant, "Epistola; Ro- 
manorum Pontificum" (Paris, 1721), is of the high- 
est value, but the compiler only lived to carry nis 
work down to the year 440, and A. Thiele, who con- 
tinued it, brought it no further than 553. Some 
further help has been furnished by Hampe, regard- 
ing the papal letters to Charlemagne and Louis the 
Pious, and by Hirsch-Oerenth for Sergius II. For 
practical purposes the chief court of appeal for an 
opinion on all early papal documents is the "Regesta 
Pontificum Romanorum" of Jaffe, much improved 
in its second edition by its editors, Wattcnbach, 
Ewald, Kaltenbrunner, and Lowenfeld. In this a 
brief synopsis is given of all existing papal docu- 
ments known to be in existence, from the time of 
Peter to that of Innocent III (1198), with indica- 
tions of the collections in which they have been 
printed and with an appendix dealing with spurious 
documents. This most useful work has been con- 
tinued by Potthast to the year 1304 (2 vols., Berlin). 

It may be added that compendiums have also 
been published of the " Bullarium Romanum" as 
printed in the eighteenth century. Of these the most 
valuable is probably that of Guerra "Pontificiarum 
Constitutionum in Bullario Magno contentarum 
Epitome" (4 vols., Venice, 1772), which possesses a 
very complete and useful index. Commentaries 
upon the bullarium or upon large portions of it have 
been published by the Jesuit J. B. Scortia (Lyons, 
1625), by the Dominican, M. de Gregorio (Naples, 
1648), and by Cardinal Vincent Petra (Rome, 1705- 
26). Finally, attention may be called to the impor- 
tant Bulls contained in a useful little volume recently 
edited by Galante "Fontes Juris Canonici" (Inns- 
bruck, 1906). 

No long bibliography is needed for an article which is itself 
bibliographical. Ortolan in Dirt, de thiol, rath.. II. 1243- 
55, with fuller details regarding monastic and other bullaria. 
See remark, page 49. col. 2, under sub-title The Luxemburg 
Bullarium. Geisar in KirchenUx., 11, 1479-82; I'itra, Anna- 
lecta SoUsmenaia Noviasima (Frascati, 1885); Phillips, 
Kirrhenrecht (Ratisbon, 1845), IV, 483 sqq.; Wernz, Jus 
Decretalium (Rome, 1905), 1, 379. 

Herbert Thurston. 

Bull-Fight, The Spanish. — Neither the English 
term nor the German (Sliergcjccht) used to designate 
this popular diversion of the Spaniards, can be said 
to express adequately the essential idea of the Spanish 
corrida de toros. 

Great has been the discussion as to the origin of 
this spectacle. Some attribute it to the Roman 
Circus, where men contended with wild beasts, among 
them wild bulls; others — Don Nicolas de Moratfn, 
for example — to the customs of the ancient Celti- 
berians. As Spain was infested by wild bulls, first 
necessity and afterwards sport led to this personal 
combat. In this opinion, indeed, is to be found 
what might be called the philosophic origin of the 
bull-fight. Man, surrounded by wild natural con- 
ditions, saw himself obliged to struggle with wild 
beasts in order to protect himself from thorn; and 
as the peoples naturally acclaimed as heroes those 
who slew in single combat these ferocious animals, 
so, when the necessity of protecting life had ceased, 
brave men still sought glory in these struggles. (In 
this connexion the killing of the Calydonian boar by 
the vEtolians, as related by Homer, the legend of 
Hercules and the Nemean lion, the Catalonian legend 
of Wilfrid slaying the Tarasque, and the Swiss legend 
preserved by Schiller in his "Wflliam Tell", witli 
many others of a like nature, suggest themselves as 
examples.) But if, putting aside these a priori 

considerations, we turn our attention to historical 
facts, we shall find that the Spanish bull-fight origi- 
nated in a Moorish custom. 

To understand this better if will be necessary to 
distinguish between three kinds of bull-fights: (1) 
cdbaUerescas, (2) popular es, and (3) yladiatorias. 

(1) The corridas caballerescas had their origin, 
without a doubt, in the usages of the Arabo-Spanish 
jinetes (cavaliers or mounted men-at-arms) who, to 
accustom themselves to the activities of war, occu- 
pied themselves in time of peace with exercises in 
the use of arms, among which exercises were fights 
with wild bulls; the Moorish cavaliers fought on 
horseback, killing the bulls with spears, thus com- 
bining courage with knightly address. From his- 
torical sources we know that the Cid Rodrigo Diaz 
de Vivar was the first Christian to vie with the Aral) 
knights in the sport of killing fierce bulls, spearing 
several from his horse in the 11th century, to the en- 
thusiastic admiration of Ferdinand I of Castile. The 
lawyer Francisco de Cepeda, in his "Resumpta 
Historial de Espana". assures us that in 1100 there 
were bull-fights for the public, and that in Leon 
there was a bull-fight on the occasion of the marriage 
of Dona Urraca, daughter of Alfonso VIII, to the 
King Don Garcia of Navarre. These corridas 
cdbaUerescas reached the highest degree of splendour 
in the reign of John II, when plazas began to be built, 
as we see by a story of the Marques de Villena. 
The marriage of John II to Dona Maria de Aragon 
(20 October, 141S) was celebrated by corridas in 
Medina del Campo. In the last epoch of the recon- 
quest, the intercourse, frequent in times of peace, 
between the Spaniards and the Moors of Granada — 
where bull-fights were held until the time of Boabdil 

■ — resulted in an increase of valour among the Chris- 
tian cavaliers, and a desire to demonstrate it in this 
dangerous sport. 

(2) From this time the bull-fight developed into a 
popular amusement, and became so rooted in the 
affections of the Spanish people that neither Isabella 
the Catholic, who wished to suppress it, nor Philip II, 
nor Charles III, dared issue an order that would 
prohibit it absolutely. The Emperor Charles V, 
although he had not been educated in Spain, killed 
a bull during the festivities held in Valladolid to cele- 
brate the birth of his son Philip. The first Bourbons 
were educated in France and naturally did not 
display much fondness for the popular corridas de 
toros. The corridas populares, heritage of the Mo- 
hammedan population, more especially in Valencia 
and Andalusia, differ from the caballerescas in their 
democratic character. Hulls not quite so ferocious 
are selected and are fought on foot, sometimes in an 
enclosure formed of wagons and planks, sometimes 
through the streets, in which case the bull is generally 
tied to a long rope. In these corridas populares 
the bull is not killed, but after the populace has 
amused itself with the bull, provoking him, and then 
fleeing from his attack, a tame cow is let loose and 
the bull follows her quietly to the pen. Generally 
the bull is taken to the slaughter-house and the meat 
used for the feasts that follow. 

(3) The corridas gladiatorias are those in which 
the participants arc professionals, and these are the 
ones which have given rise among foreigners to so 
much criticism of this popular diversion of the Span- 
iards. Francisco Romero, a native of Honda, about 
the middle of the eighteenth century, sets forth in 
the " Arte Taurino (Tauromaquia) the rules which 
are the guiding principle of these contests. Romero 
invented the muhUi. a scarlet cloth laid oyer a stick, 
used to attract the attention of the hull, and he was 
the first to kill a bull on foot and face to face. His 
skill was inherited by his son Juan, and his grandsons, 
Pedro, Jos6. and Antonio. Alter this the different 
skilful manoeuvres (sucrtis) that give variety to the 




bull-fight were evolved. Juan Romero was the first 
to organize a cuadriUa de toreros (band, or company, 
of bullfighters). 

The Modern Bull-fight. — The modern bull- 
fight begins with the entrance of the toreros into the 
plaza (ring), marching to music, and dressed in richest 
satin, embroidered in silk or gold thread. The 
costume consists of tight-fitting satin knee-breeches, 
a short open Andalusian coat and vest, silk hose, 
and shoes without heels. The shoulders are deco- 
rated with handsome shoulder knots which in reality 
serve as protection in case of falls, as also the moha, 
a pad which is worn on the head, and which is covered 
with a rich cloth cap ornamented with tassels on each 
side. From the shoulders a short cape of embroi- 
dsred satin is suspended. In the centre of the ring 
they ceremoniously salute the presiding official — 
the governor, sometimes the king himself — and 
receive from him the key of the bull pen (toril). 
Then each one takes his place. At the four equi- 
distant points of the circumference of the ring the 
picadores are situated. These are men mounted on 
old or otherwise incapacitated horses, with cow-boy 
saddles, very large iron stirrups, and one leg protected 
against the bull's horns by the espinillera, an appa- 
ratus of iron. The bugle now gives the signal, the 
door of the pen opens, and the first bull is released. 
The capeadores attract the bull's attention with their 
scarlet capes, leading him towards the picadores who 
ride into the middle of the ring to meet him, and 
parry his attacks with their spears. If the bull hap- 
pens to unhorse one of the picadores, or kill his horse, 
the capeadores rush to the rescue, attracting the bull 
once more with their scarlet capes, and carrying him 
off to another part of the ring. When the picadores 
have had their turn with the bull, the bugle sounds 
for banderiUas. These are tiny steel points to which 
are attached many coloured ribbons or papers, which 
are stuck in the fleshy portion of the bull's neck 
by the banderilleros, who await his coming in the cen- 
tre of the ring, facing him with arms extended. These, 
and many other tricks, such as el salto de la garrocha, 
etc., besides giving incident and variety to the spec- 
tacle, have as their object to weaken the enormous 
strength of the bull, so as to render possible and less 
dangerous the work of the matador — not, as many im- 
agine, to infuriate the bull still more. When the pre- 
siding officer gives the signal for the death of the bull, 
the matador draws near trie bull with the muleta in his 
left hand and the sword in his right hand; he calls the 
bull to him, or throws himself upon him, and plunges 
the sword into the neck of the bull. If he strikes him 
in the nape of the neck, killing him instantly, it is 
called dcscabellar, but if the bull is simply wounded 
the purdillero puts an end to his life with a dagger. 
The music now strikes up, while two little mules, 
richly caparisoned, drag out the bull and the dead 
horses. This is repeated again and again, the num- 
ber of bulls being usually eight for each corrida. 

Bull-fights have occasioned many accusations of 
barbarity against the Spaniards. The reason for 
this is, first, an utter ignorance of a game in which 
man with his reason and dexterity overcomes the 
brutal strength and ferocity of the bull. Foreigners 
as a rule think that die Spanish populace go to the 
bull-fight to witness the shedding of human blood. 
This is false. Generally there are no casualities; 
and when an accident does occur, no one derives 
pleasure from it; on the contrary, all deplore it. 
Second, the misconception implies a lack of com- 
parison with other spectacles. The risks taken by 
acrobats, tight-rope dancers, and tamers of wild 
I leasts are no less barbarous than those of the bull- 
fight, although the performances themselves are less 
diverting. And prize-fighting is surely much more 
brutal, seeing that the vanquished is a human being 
and not a brute. Lastly, the modern theatre is 

frequently more evil in its effects than bull-fighting, 
which, whatever else may be said of it, arouses no 
immoral or anti-social passions. 

The authorities of the Catholic Church have often 
condemned bull-fighting. St. Pius V (1 November, 
1567, Const. "De salute") prohibited this form of 
amusement everywhere, threatening with many pen- 
alties the princes who countenanced it, as well as 
the performers and spectators, especially clergymen 
and religious. But in Spain to-day these prohibi- 
tions are not in force. Gregory XIII (23 August, 
1575, "Exponi") moderated the constitution of St. 
Pius V for Spanish laymen, and Clement VIII (Bull 
"Suscepti muneris", 12 January, 1597) reduced it 
to a -jus commune, limiting the prohibition to holidays 
and to the clergy. Moralists as a rule are of the 
opinion that bull-fighting as practised in Spain 
is not forbidden by the natural law, since the skill 
and dexterity of the athletes precludes immediate 
danger of death or of serious injury (of. P. V, Casus 
conscientiae, Vromant, Brussels, 1895, 3d ed., I, 
353,354; Gury-Ferreres, Comp. Th. mor., Barcelona, 
1906, I, n. 56). Even in Spain and Spanish America 
they have been forbidden to clergymen and relig- 
ious, by Pius V, as well as by the Plenary Council for 
Spanish America (n. 650; cf. also C. prov., Vallisol., 
I, p. 5, tit. 1, n. 11). The Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo 
received the same answer from the Penitentiaria 
(19 September, 1893). It is false to say that the 
Spanish clergy encourage these spectacles. Al- 
though public festivals are celebrated with religious 
ceremonies as well as bull-fights, the clergy is in no- 
wise responsible for this. If both are announced on 
the same bill poster, the authorities, or particular 
associations, are responsible for the printing of this, 
not the clergy. It is worthy of note that foreigners 
who have been present at bull-fights are not so harsh 
in their judgments as those who have formed an 
opinion from what they have heard about them from 
the societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals. 
Ram6n Ruiz Amado. 

Bullinger, Johann Heinrich. See Zwingli. 

Bullion, Angeliqtje, b. in Paris, at commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, her parents being 
Guichard Favre and Madeleine Brulart de Sillery. 
Claude de Bullion, her husband, was Keeper of 
the Seals and Superintendent of Finances under 
Louis XIII; Cardinal Richelieu annually rewarded 
his intelligent and disinterested administrations 
by a bonus of 100,000 livres. After his death (1640), 
her four children being well provided for, she followed 
the advice of the Recollet Father Rapin, and con- 
tributed in 1641-42, 60,000 livres to the foundation 
of Ville-Marie, now the city of Montreal, Canada. 
She founded and endowed (1643) a Hotel-Dieu in 
honour of St. Joseph, begun at Ville-Marie (1642) 
by Mademoiselle Mance, and confided in 1657-59, 
to the care of the Sisters of St. Joseph, an order in- 
stituted at La Fleche by a pious layman, Royer de la 
Dauversiere, one of the joint founders of Montreal. 
She likewise contributed more than 20,000 livres for 
the defence of the settlement against the Iroquois 
Indians, thereby helping to save the whole colony 
of New France from destruction. She always in- 
sisted on being mentioned in the deeds ratifying 
her donations as "An unknown benefactress". Her 
identity was revealed only after her death. 

Faillon, Vie d* Mademoiselle Mance (Villemarie, 1854). 
Lionel Lindsay. 

Bulls and Briefs. — A bulla was originally a 
circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its re- 
semblance in form to a bubble floating upon water 
( hid/ire, to boil). In course of time the term 
came to be applied to the leaden seals with which 
papal and royal documents were authenticated in 
the early Middle Ages, and by a further development 




the name, from designating the seal, was eventually 
attached to the document itself. This did not hap- 
pen before the thirteenth century and the Dame 
bull was at first only a popular term used almost 
promiscuously for all kinds of instruments which 
issued from the papal chancery. A much more pre- 
cise acceptation has prevailed since the fifteenth 
century, and a bull has long stood in sharp contrast 
with certain other forms of papal documents. For 
practical purposes a bull may be conveniently de- 
fined to be "an Apostolic letter with a leaden seal", 
to which one may add that in its superscription the 
pope invariably takes the title of episcopus, servus 
servorum Dei. 

In official language papal documents have at all 
times been called by various names, more or less 
descriptive of their character. For example, there 
are "constitutions", i. e. decisions addressed to all 
tin- faithful and determining some matter of faith 
or discipline; "encyclicals" which are letters sent 
to all the bishops of Christendom, or at least to all 
those of one particular country, and intended to 
guide them in their relations with their Hocks; "de- 
crees", pronouncements on points affecting the 
general welfare of the 
t'lui re h; "decretals" 
(epistola tier nln It s), 
which are papal replies 
to some particular dif- 
ficulty submitted to 
the Holy See, but hav- 
ing the force of prece- 
dent - to rule all anal- 
ogous cases. " lie- 
script ". again, is a term 
applicable to almost 
any form of Apostolic 
letter which lias been 
elicited by some previ- 
ous appeal, while the 
nature of a "privilege" 
for itself. But 
all these, down to the 
fifteenth century, seem 
to have been expedited 
l>y the papal chancery 
in the shape of bulls au- 
thenticated with leaden 
seals, and it is common 
enough to apply the 
term bull even to those 
very early papal letters 
of which we know little 
more than the substance, independently of the forms 
under which they were issued. 

It will probably be most convenient to divide the 
subject into periods, noting the more characteristic 
features of papal documents in each age. 

I. Earliest times to Adrian I (772). — There can 
be no doubt that the formation of a chancery or 
bureau for the drafting and expediting of official 
papers was a work of time. Unfortunately, the 
earliest papal documents known to us are only pre- 
served in copies or abstracts from which it is difficult 
to draw any safe conclusions as to the forms ob- 
served in issuing the originals. For all that, it is 
practically certain that no uniform rules can have 
been followed as to superscription, formula of salu- 
tation, conclusion, or signature. It was only when 
some sort of registry was organized, and copies of 
earlier official correspondence became available, 
that a tradition very gradually grew up of certain 
customary fnnns that oiidit nut to lie ]. parted from. 

Except tor the unsatisfactory mention of a body 
of notaries charged with keeping a record of the 
Acts of the Martyrs, e. 235 (Duchesne, Fiber Pontifi- 
calia, I, pp. c-cij, we meet with no clear reft 

Monks or the Ofrtosa of P 

to the papal archives until the time of Julius I 
(337-353), though in the pontificate of Damasus, 
before the end of the same century, there is mention 
hi a building appropriated to this special purpose. 
Here in the scrinium, or archivium sanctce Romance 
ecclesiae, the documents must have been registered 
and kept in a definite order, for extracts and copies 
still in existence preserve traces of their numbering. 
These collections or rrgetsta went back to the time of 
Pope Gelasius (492-496) and probably earlier. In 
the correspondence of Pope Hormisdas (514-525) 
there are indications of some official endorsement 
recording the date at which letters addressed to him 
were received, and for the time of St. Gregory the 
• Ileal i.V.HI iii)4) Kwald has been at least partially 
successful in reconstructing the books which con- 
tained the copies of the pope's epistles. There can 
be little doubt that the pontifical chancery of which 
we thus infer the existence was modelled upon that 
of tin' imperial court. The scrinium, the regionary 
notaries, the higher officials such as the primicerius 
and secundicerius, the arrangement of the Regesta 
by indictions, etc. are all probably imitations of 
the practice of the later empire. Hence we may 
infer that a code of rec- 
ognized forms soon es- 
tablished itself, analo- 
gous to that observed 
by the imperial nota- 
ries. One formulary of 
this description is prob- 
ably still preserved to 
us in the book called 
the " Fiber Diurnus," 
the bulk of which seems 
to be inspired by the 
official correspondence 
of I'i ipe Gregory the 
Great, In the earlier 
papal letters, however, 
there are as yet but 
few signs of the observ- 
ance "l t tad i t iona I 
forms. Sometimes the 
document names the 
pope first, sometimes 
tin- addressee. For the 
most part the pope 
bears no title except 
Sixtus episcopus or Leo 
episcopus catholicat ec- 

rb : in . s 'times, but 

more rarely, he is called 
Papa Under Gregory the Great, servus servorum 
Dei (servant of the servants of God) was often added 
after episcopus, Gregory, it is said, having selected 
this designation as a protest against the arrogance 
of the Patriarch of Constantinople. John the Faster, 
who called himself "Oecumenical Bishop". But 
though several of St. Gregory's successors followed 
him in this preference, it was not until the ninth 
century that the phrase came to be used invariably 
in documents of moment. Before Pope Adeodatus 
(i lei ti d in 672) few salutations are found , but he used 
the form "salutem a Deo et benedictionem nostram ". 
The now consecrated phrase "salutem et apostolicam 
benedictionem" hardly ever occurs before the tenth 
century. The Benedictine authors of the "Nouveau 
ti aito'le diplomatique" in ascribing a much earlier 
date to this formula were misled by a forged hull pur- 
port im: to be addressed to the monastery of St. Benig- 
nusat Dijon. Again, in these early letters the pope 
often addressed his correspondent, more especially 
when he was a kins or person of high dignity, by the 
plural Vos. As ages went on this became rarer, and by 
the second half of the twelfth century it had com- 
pletely disappeared. On the other hand, it may be 

Bin or 




noticed incidentally that persons of all ranks, in writ- 
ing to the pope invariably addressed him as Vos. 
Sometimes a salutation was introduced by the pope at 
the end of his letter just before the date — for example, 
"Deus te incolumem custodial", or "Bene vale frater 
carissime". This final salutation was a matter of 
importance, and it is held by high authorities (Bress- 
lau, "Papyrus und Pergament", 21; Ewald in 
"Neues Archiv", III, 548^ that it was added in the 
pope's own hand, and that it was the equivalent of 
his signature. The fact that in classical times the 
Romans authenticated their letters not by signing 
their names, but by a word of farewell, lends proba- 
bility to this view. In the earliest original bulls 
preserved to us Bene Valete is written at full length 
in capitals. Moreover, we have at least some con- 
temporary evidence of the practice before the time 
of Pope Adrian. The text of a letter of Pope Gregory 
the Great is preserved in a marble inscription at the 
basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls. As the letter 
directs that the document itself is to be returned 
to the papal archives (Scrinium) , we may assume 
that the copy on stone accurately represents the 
original. It is addressed to Felix the subdeacon 
anil concludes with the formula " Bene Vale. 
Dat. VIII Kalend. Februarias imp. dn. n. Phoca PP. 
anno secundo, et consulatus eius anno primo, indict. 
7." This suggests that such letters were then fully 
dated and indeed we find traces of dating even in 
extant copies as early as the time of Pope Siricius 
(384-398). We have also some bulla or leaden seals 
preserved apart from the documents to which they 
were once attached. One of these perhaps dates 
back to the pontificate of John III (560-573) and 
another certainly belongs to Deusdedit (615-618). 
The earliest specimens simply bear the pope's name 
on one side and the word papce on the other. 

II. Second Period (772-1048).— In the time of 
Pope Adrian the support of Pepin and Charlemagne 
had converted the patrimony of the Holy See into 
a sort of principality. This no doubt paved the way 
for changes in the forms observed in the chancery. 
The pope now takes the first place in the super- 
scription of letters unless they are addressed to 
sovereigns. We also find the leaden seal used more 
uniformly. But especially we must attribute to 
the time of Adrian the introduction of the "double 
date" endorsed at the foot of the bull. The first 
date began with the word Script mn and after a 
chronological entry, which mentioned only the month 
and the indiction, added the name of the functionary 
who drafted or engrossed the document. The other, 
beginning with Data (in later ages Datum), indicated, 
with a new and more detailed specification of year 
and day, the name of the dignitary who issued the 
bull after it had received its final stamp of authen- 
ticity by the addition of the seal. The pope still wrote 
the words Bene Valete in capitals with a cross 
before and after, and in certain bulls of Pope Syl- 
vester II we find some few words added in shorthand 
or "Tyronian notes". In other cases the Bene 
Valete is followed by certain dots and a big comma, 
by a S S (subscri psi) , or by a flourish, all of which 
no doubt served as a personal authentication. To 
this period belong the earliest extant bulls preserved 
to us in their original shape. They are all written 
upon very large sheets of papyrus in a peculiar 
handwriting of Lombard type, called sometimes 
littera romana. The annexed copy of a facsimile 
in Mabillon's " He re diplomatics reproducing part 
Of B bull of Pope Nicholas I (S63), with the editor's 

interlinear decipherment, will serve to give an idea 
of the style of writing. As these characters were 
even then not easily read outside of Italy it seems 
to have been customary in some cases to issue at 
the same time a ropy upon parchment in ordinary 
minuscule. A French writer of the tenth century 

speaking of a privilege obtained from Pope Benedict 
VII (975-984) says that the petitioner "going to 
Rome obtained a decree duly expedited and ratified 
by apostolic authority, two copies of which, one in 
our own character (nostra littera) on parchment, the 
other in the Roman character on papyrus, he de- 


a 1 u77J r*» 

'.<y 7 .....yo. ' a • - y ■•" ••• <-->"■ 

ity Co . J&Qnw<Yu #£ \&y o 4?ir 

ipsy h - f y ^-w 

Bull from Mabillon's " Diplomatique " 

posited on his return in our archives". (Migne, 
P. L., CXXXVII, 817.) Papyrus seems to have 
been used almost uniformly as the material for these 
official documents until the early years of the eleventh 
century, after which it was rapidly superseded by 
a rough kind of parchment. Apart from a small 
fragment of a bull of Adrian I (22 January, 7S8) 
preserved in the National Library at Paris, the 
earliest original bull that remains to us is one of 
Pope Paschal I (11 July, 819). It is still to be found 
in the capitular archives of Ravenna, to which church 
it was originally addressed. The total number of 
papyrus bulls at present known to be in existence 
is twenty-three, the latest being one issued bv Bene- 
dict VIII (1012-24) for the monastery of Hildes- 
heim. All these documents at one time had leaden 
seals appended to them, though in most cases these 
have disappeared. The seal was attached with laces 
of hemp and it still bore only the name of the pontiff 
on one side and the word papa on the Other. After 
the year 855 the letters of the pope's name were 
usually stamped round the seal in a circle with a 
cross in the middle. 

The details specified in the "double dates" of 
these early bulls afford a certain amount of indirect 
information about the personnel of the papal chan- 
cery. The phrase script um per manum is vague and 
leaves uncertain whether the person mentioned 
was the official who drafted or merely engrossed 
the bull, but we hear in this connexion of persons 
described as 7>otarius, scriniarius (archivist), proto- 




scriniarius sanctce Romance ecclatice, cancellarius, 
ypocanccllarius, etc., and after 1057 of camerarilts, 
or later still notarius S. ixilatii. On the other hand, 
the dalarius, the official mentioned under the head- 
ing data, who presumably delivered the instrument 
to the parties, after having superintended the sub- 
scriptions and the apposition of the seal, seems to 
have been an official of still higher consequence. In 
earlier documents he bears the titles primicerius sanc- 
t(r scdis apostolicce, senior et consiliarius, etc., but as 
early as the ninth century we have the well-known 
phrase bibliothecarius sanctce scdis apostolical, and later 
cancellarius et bibliothecarius, as a combined title borne 
by a cardinal, or perhaps by more than one cardinal 
at once. Somewhat later still (under Innocent 111) 
the cancellarius seems to have threatened to develop 
into a functionary who was dangerously powerful, 
and the office was suppressed. A vice-chancellor re- 
mained, but this dignity also was abolished before 
1352. But this of course was much later than the 
period we have now reached. 

III. Third Period (1048-1198).— The accession 
of Leo IX, in 1048, seems to have inaugurated a 
new era in the procedure of the chancery. A definite 
tradition had by this time been created, and though 
there is still much development we find uniformity 
of usage in documents of the same nature. It is 
at this point that we begin to have a clear distinction 
between two classes of bulls of greater and less 
solemnity. The Benedictine authors of the " Nouveau 
traite de diplomatique" call them great and little 
bulls. In spite of a protest in modern times from 
M. Leopold Delisle, who would prefer to describe 
the former class as "privileges", and the hitter as 
"letters", this nomenclature has been found suffi- 
ciently convenient, and it corresponds, at any rate, 
to a very marked distinction observable in the papal 
documents of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth 
centuries. The most characteristic features of the 
"great bulls" are the following: — 

(1) In the superscription the words servus ser- 
vorum Dei are followed by a clause of perpetuity, 
e. g. in perpetuam memoriam (abbreviated into 
in pp. m.) or ad perpetuam rei memoriam. In contrast 
to this the little bulls have usually salutem et apos- 
tolicam benediclionem, but these words also appear 
in some great bulls after the clause of perpetuity. 

(2) After the second quarter of the twelfth century 
the great bulls were always subscribed by the pope 
and a certain number of cardinals (bishops, priests, 
and deacons). The names of cardinal-bishops are 
written in the centre, under that of the pope; those 
of cardinal-priests on the left, and those of cardinal- 
deacons on the right, while an occasional blank 
shows that space had been left for the name of a car- 
dinal who accidentally failed to be present. The 
pope has no cross before his name; the cardinals 
have. Earlier than this, even great bulls were 
subscribed by the pope alone, unless they em- 
bodied conciliar or consistorial decrees, in which 
case the names of cardinals and bishops were also 

(3) At the foot of the document to the left of the 
signature of the pope is placed the rota or wheel. 
In this the outer portion of the wheel is formed by 
two concentric circles and within the space between 
these circles is written the pope's signum or motto, 
generally a brief text of Scripture chosen by the new 
pontiff at the beginning of his reign. Thus Leo IX's 
motto was " Miscricordia domini plena est terra"; 
Adrian IV's "Oculi mei semper ad dominum". 
Before the words of the motto a cross is always 
marked, and this is believed to have been traced by 
the hand of the pope himself. Not onlv in the case 
of the pope, but even in the case of the cardinals, 
the signatures appear not to have been their own 
actual handwriting. In the centre of the rota we 

have the names of Sts. Peter and Paul above and 
beneath them the name of the reigning pope. 

(4) To the right of the signature opposite the rota 
stands the monogram which represents Bene Valele. 
From the time of Leo IX, and possibly somewhat 
earlier, the words are never written in full, but as 
a sort of grotesque. It seems clear that the Bene 
Valete is no longer to be regarded as the equivalent 
of the pope's signature or authentification. It is 
simply an interesting survival of an earlier form of 

(5) As regards the body of the document, the pope's 
letter in the case of great bulls always ends w'ith 
certain imprecatory and prohibitory clauses De- 
cernimus ergo, etc., Siqua igitur, etc. On the other 
hand, Cunclis autem, etc., is a formula of blessing. 
These and the like clauses are generally absent 
from the "little bulls", but when they appear — and 
this happens sometimes — the wording used is some- 
what different. 

(6) In the eleventh century it was usual to write 
Amen at the end of the text of a bull and to repeat 
it as many times as was necessary to fill up the line. 

(7) In appending the date, or, more precisely, 
in adding the clause which begins datum, the custom 
was to inter the place, the name of the datarius, the 
day of the month (expressed according to the Roman 
method), the indiction, the year of our Lord's In- 
carnation, and the regnal year of the pontiff, who is 
mentioned by his name. An example taken from a 
bull of Adrian IV will make the matter clear: " Datum 
Laterani per manum Rolandi sanctae Romana> 
ecclesiae presbyteri cardinalis et cancellarii, XII Kl. 
Junii. indie. V°, anno dominicse incarn. MCLVII", 
pontificatus vero domini Adriani papa; quarti anno 
tertio. " 

Before this period, it was also usual to insert the 
first dating clause, "Scriptum", and there was 
sometimes an interval of a few days between the 
"Scriptum" and the "Datum". The use of the 
double date, however, soon came to be neglected even 
in "great bulls", and before 1121 it had gone out of 
fashion. This was probably a result of the general 
employment of "little bulls", the more distinctive 
features of which may now be specified. 

(1) Although both great and little bulls alike 
begin with the pope's name — Urbanus, let us say, 
or Leo, "episcopus, servus servorum Dei" — in the 
little bulls we have no clause of perpetuity, but in- 
stead of it there follows immediately "salutem et 
apostolicam benedictionem". 

(2) The formulae of imprecation, etc.. at the end 
only occur by exception, and they are in any case 
more concise than those of the great bulls. 

(3) The little bulls have no rota, no Bene Valete 
monogram and no subscriptions of pope and car- 

The purpose served by this distinction between 
great and little bulls becomes tolerably clear when 
we look more narrowly into the nature of their 
contents and the procedure followed in expediting 
them. Excepting those which are concerned with 
purposes of great solemnity or public interest, the 
majority of the "great bulls" now in existence 
are of the nature of confirmations of property or 
charters of protection accorded to monasteries and 
religious institutions. At an epoch when there was 
much fabrication of such documents, those who 
procured bulls from Rome wished at any cost to 
secure that the authenticity of their bulls should 
be above suspicion. A papal confirmation, under 
certain conditions, could be pleaded as itself con- 
stituting sufficient evidence of title in eases where 
the original deeds had been lost or destroyed. Now 
the "great bulls" on account of their many for- 
malities and the number of hands they passed 
through, were much more secure from fraud of all 




kinds, and the parties interested were probably 
willing to defray the additional expenditure that 
might be entailed by this form of instrument. On 
the other hand, by reason of the same multiplication 
of formalities, the drafting, signing, stamping, and 
delivery of a great bull was necessarily a matter 
of considerable time and labour. The little bulls 
were much more expeditious. Hence we are con- 
fronted by the curious anomaly that during the 
eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, when 
both forms of document were in use, the contents 
of the little bulls are from an historical point of view 
immensely more interesting and important than 
those of the bulls in solemn form. Of course the 
little bulls may themselves be divided into various 
categories. The distinction between litterce communes 
and curiales seems rather to have belonged to a 
later period, and to have primarily concerned the 
manner of entry in the official "Regesta", the com- 
munes being copied into the general collection, the 
curiales into a special volume in which documents 
were preserved which by reason of their form or 
their contents stood apart from the rest. We may 
note, however, the distinction between tituli and 
mmidamenta. The tituli were letters of a gracious 
character — donations, favours, or confirmations con- 
stituting a "title". The}' were, indeed, little bulls 
and lacked the subscriptions of cardinals, the rota, 
etc., but on the other hand, they preserved certain 
features of solemnity. Brief imprecatory clauses 
like Nulli ergo, Si quis autem, are usually included, 
the pope's name at the beginning is written in large 
letters, and the initial is an ornamental capital, 
while the leaden seal is attached with silken laces 
of red and yellow. As contrasted with the tituli, 
the mandamenta, which were the "orders", or in- 
structions, of the popes, observe fewer formalities, 
but are more business-like and expeditious. They 
have no imprecatory clauses, the pope's name is 
written with an ordinary capital letter, and the 
leaden seal is attached with hemp. But it was by 
means of these little bulls, or litterw, and notably 
of the mandamenta. that the whole papal administra- 
tion, both political and religious, was conducted. 
In particular the Decretals, upon which the whole 
science of Canon Law is built up, invariably took 
this form. 

IV. Fourth Period (1198-1431).— Under In- 
nocent III, there again took place what was prac- 
tically a reorganization of the papal chancery. 
But even apart from this, we might find sufficient 
reason for beginning a new epoch at this date in 
the fact that the almost complete series of Regesta 
preserved in the Vatican archives go back to this 
pontificate. It must not, of course, be supposed 
that all the genuine bulls issued at Rome were copied 
into the Regesta before they were transmitted to 
their destination. There are many perfectly authentic 
bulls which are not found there, but the existence 
of this series of documents places the study of papal 
administration from this time forward on a new 
footing. Moreover, with their aid it is possible to 
make out an almost complete itinerary of the later 
medieval popes, and this alone is a matter of con- 
siderable importance. In the light of the Regesta 
we are able to understand more clearly the working 
of the papal chancery. There were, it seems, four 
principal bureaux or offices. At the office of the 
"Minutes" certain clerks (chrici), in those days 
really clerics, and known then or later as dbbn via 
drew up in concise form tin- draft (litem notata) of 
the document to be issued in the pope's name. 
Then this draft, after being revised by a higher 
official (either one of the notaries or the vice-chan- 
cellor) passed to the " Engrossing" office, where other 
clerks, called grossatores or scriptores, transcribed 
in a large official hand (in grossam literam) the copy 

or copies to be sent to the parties. At the "Regis- 
tration" office again it was the duty of the clerks 
to copy such documents into the books, known as 
Regesta, specially kept for the purpose. Why only 
some were copied and others not, is still uncertain, 
though it seems probable that in many cases this 
was done at the request of the parties interested, 
who were made to pay for the privilege which they 
regarded as an additional security. Lastly, at the 
office of "Bulls", the seal, which now bore the heads 
of the two Apostles on one side and the name of 
the pope on the other (see cut), was affixed by the 

Boniface VIII 

officials called bullatorrs or bullarii. At the beginning 
of the thirteenth century the great bulls, or priri- 
legia, as they were then usually called, with their 
complex forms and multiple signatures, became 
notably more rare, and when the papal court was 
transferred to Avignon in 1309 they fell practically 
into disuse save for a few extraordinary occasions. 
The lesser bulls (litterce) were divided, as we have 
seen, into tituli and mandamenta, which became 
more and more clearly distinguished from each 
other not only in their contents and formula? but in 
the manner of writing. Moreover, the rule of authen- 
ticating the letter with a leaden seal began in certain 
cases to be broken through, in favour of a seal of 
wax bearing the impression of the "ring of the 
fisherman". The earliest mention of the new prac- 
tice seems to occur in a letter of Pope Clement IV 
to his nephew (7 March, 1265). "We do not write", 
he says, "to thee or to 
our intimates under a 
[leaden] bull, but un- 
der the signet of the 
fisherman which the 
Roman pontiffs use 
in their private affairs" 
(Potthast, Regesta, no. 
19,051). Other exam- 
ples are forthcoming 
belonging to the same 
century. The earliest 
impression of this seal 
now preserved seems to 
1 >e one lately discovered 
iu the treasury of the 
Sancta Sanctorum at 
the Lateran, and be- 
longing to the time of Nicholas III (1277-80). It 
represents St. Peter fishing with rod and line and 
nut as ai present drawing in his net. 

V. Fifth Period (1431-1878).— The introduction 
of briefs, which occurred at the beginning of the 
pontificate of Eugenius IV. was clearly prompted 
by the same desire for greater simplicity and ex- 
pedition which had already been responsible for 
the disappearance of the greater bulls and the 
general adoption of the less cumbersome mandamenta. 
A brief {breve, i e. "short") was a compendious 
papal letter which dispensed with some of the for- 
malities previously insisted on. It was written on 
vellum, generally closed, i. e. folded, and sealed 





: n red wax with the ring of the fisherman. The 
pope's name stands first, at the top, normally written 
in capital letters thus: Pins PP IIII; and, instead 
of the formal salutation in the third person used 
in hulls, the brief at once adopts a direct form of 
address, e. g. DilecU- fUi—Carissime in Christo fli, 
the phrase used being adapted to the rank and 
character of the addressee. The letter generally 
begins by way of preamble with a statement of the 
case and cause of writing and this is followed by 
certain instructions without minatory clauses or 
other formulae. At the end the date is expressed 
by the day of the month and year with a mention 
of the seal — for example in this form: "Datum 
Romse apud Sanctum Petrum, sub annulo Pis- 
catoris die V Martii, MDLXXXXI, pont. nostri 
anno primo. " The year here specified, which is 

Bulla of Paul II 

used in dating briefs, is probably to be understood 
in any particular case as the year of the Nativity, 
beginning 25 December. Still this is not an absolute 
rule, and the sweeping statements sometimes made 
in this matter are not to be trusted, for it is certain 
that in some instances the years meant are ordinary 
years, beginning with the first of January. (See 
"(dry. "Manuel tie diplomatique", pp. 12l>. 09(1. TDD.) 
A similar want of uniformity is observable in the 
dating of bulls though, speaking generally, from 
the middle of the eleventh century to the end of 
the eighteenth, bulls are dated by the years of the 
Incarnation counted from 25 March. After the 
institution of briefs by Pope Eugenius IV, the use 
even of lesser bulls, especially in the form of rnnn- 
damenta, became notably less frequent. Still, for 
many purposes bulls continued to be employed — 
for example in canonizations (in which case special 
forms are observed, the pope by exception signing 
his own name, under which is added a stamp imi- 
tating the rota as well as the signatures of several 
cardinals), as also in the nomination of bishops, 
promotion to certain benefices, some particular 
marriage dispensations, etc. Put the choice of the 
precise form of instrument was often quite arbi- 
trary. For example, in granting the dispensation 
which enabled Henry VIII to marry his brother's 
widow, Catherine of Aragon, two forms of dispensa- 
tion were issued by Julius II, one a brii i. eemingly 
expedited in L r " it haste, and the other a bull which 
was sent nn afterwards. Similarly we may notice 
that, while the English Catholic hierarchy was 
restored in 1850 by ;i brief, Leo XIII in the first 
year of his reign used a bull to establish the Catholic 
episcopate in Scotland. So also tin- Society of Jesus, 
suppressed by brief in 177:i. was restored by a bull 
in IMS. A very interesting account of the formali- 
ties which had to be observed in procuring bulls in 
Home at the end of the fifteenth cent in y is eon t a i tied 

in the "Practica" recently published by Schmitz- 
VI, Sixth Period: since 1878. Ever since the 
,th century the briefs have always been written 
in a clear Roman hand upon a sheet, of vellum of 
convenient size, while even the wax seal with its 

guard of silk and the impression of the fisherman's 
ring was replaced in 1S42 by a stamp which affixed 
the same device in red ink. The bulls, on the other 

hand, down to the death of Pope Pius IX retai I 

m. my medieval features apart from their great size, 
leaden seal, and Roman fashion of dating. In par- 
ticular, although from about 1050 to the Reformation 
the writing employed in the papal chancery did 
not notably differ from the ordinary book-hand 
familiar throughout Christendom, the engrossers 
of papal bulls, even after the end of the sixteenth 
century, went on using an archaic and very artificial 
type of Gothic writing known as serittwa bollatica, 
with manifold contractions and an absence of all 
punctuation, which was practically undecipherable 
by ordinary readers. It was in fact the custom in 
issuing a bull to accompany it with a transsumptum, 
or copy, in ordinary handwriting. This condition 
of things was put an end to by a motu proprio issued 
by Pope Leo XIII shortly after his election. Bulls 
are now written in the same clear Roman script 
which is used for briefs, and, in view of the diffi- 
culties arising from transmission by post, the old 
leaden seal is replaced in many cases by a simple 
stamp bearing the same device in red ink. In spite, 
however, of these simplifications, and although 
the pontifical chancery is now as an establishment 
much reduced in numbers, the conditions under 
which bulls are prepared are still very intricate. 
There are still four different "roads" which a bull 
may follow in its making. The via di cayicelleria, 
in which the document is prepared by the abbreviatori 
of the chancery, is the ordinary way, but it is, and 
especially was, so beset with formalities and conse- 
quent delays (see Schmitz-Kalemberg, Practica) that 
Paul III instituted the via di camera (sec Apostolic 
Camera) to evade them, in hope of making the 
procedure more expeditious. But if the process 
was more summary, it was not less costly, so St. 
Pius V, in 1570, arranged for the gratuitous issue 

Bulla of Sixtus IV 

of certain bulls by the via segreta; and to these was 
added, in 173.5, the via di curia, intended to meet 
exceptional cases of less formal and more personal 
interest. In the three former processes the Cardinal 
Vice-* 'hancellor. who is at the same time "Snmmista", 
is the functionary now theoretically responsible. 
In the last case it is the Cardinal "Pro-Datario", 
and he is assisted in this charge by the "Cardinal 
Secretary of Briefs". As the mention of this last 

oliiee suggests, the win nttlld i employed in the 

preparation of briefs form a separate department 

under the presidency of a Cardinal Secretary and a 

prelate his substitute. 
Spurious Bulls. -There can be no doubt that 

during a greal part of the Middle Ages papal and 

other documents were fabricated in a very un- 
scrupulous fashion. A considerable proportion of 
the early entries in chartularies of almost every 
class are not only open to grave suspicion, but art 
often plainly spurious. It is probable, however. 
thai the motive for these forgeries in most cases 
• t criminal. They were prompted by the de- 




sire of protecting monastic property against tyran- 
nical oppressors who, when title deeds were lost 
or illegible, persecuted the holders and extorted 
large sums as the price of charters of confirmation. 
No doubt, less creditable motives — e. g. an ambitious 
desire to exalt the consideration of their own house — 
were also operative, and while lax principles in this 
matter prevailed almost universally it is often diffi- 
cult to distinguish the purpose for which a papal 
bull was forged. A famous early example of such 
forgery is supplied by two papyrus bulls which 
profess to have been addressed to the Abbey of St. 
Benignus at Dijon by Popes John V (685) and Ser- 
gius I (697), and which were accepted as genuine 
by Mabillon and his confreres. M. Delisle has, 
however, proved they are fabrications made out of 
a later bull addressed by John XV in 995 to Abbot 
William, one side of which was blank. The document 
was cut in half by the forger and furnished him with 
sufficient papyrus for two not unsuccessful fabrica- 
tions. Though deceived in this one instance, Ma- 
billon and his successors, Dom Toustain and Doin 
Tassin, have supplied the most valuable criteria 
by the aid of which to detect similar fabrications, 
and their work has been ably carried on in modern 
times by scholars like Jaffl, Wattenbach, Ewald, 
and many more. In particular a new test has been 
furnished" by the more careful study of the laws of 
the cursus, or rhythmical cadence of sentences, 
which were most carefully observed in the authentic 
bulls of the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. 
It would be impossible to go into details here, but 
it may be said that M. Noel Valois, who first in- 
vestigated the matter, seems to have touched upon 
the points of primary importance. Apart from this, 
forged bulls are now generally detected by blunders 
in the dating clauses or other formalities. In the 
Middle Ages one of the principal tests of the genuine- 
ness of bulls seems to have been supplied by count- 
ing the number of points shown in the circular 
outline of the leaden seal or in the figure of St. Peter 
depicted upon it. The bullatores apparently fol- 
lowed some definite rule in engraving their dies. 
Finally, regarding these same seals, it may be noted 
that when a bull was issued by a newly elected pope 

before his consecration, only the heads of the Apos- 
tles wen- stamped upon the bulla, without the pope's 
name. These are called bulla dimidiatm. The use 
of golden bulke (bulla aurece), though adopted 
seemingly from the thirteenth century (Giry, 634) 
for occasions of exceptional solemnity, is too rare 
to call for special remark. I hie noteworthy instance 
rn which a golden seal was used was that of the bull 

by which Leo X conferred upon King Henry VIII 
the title of Fidei Defensor. 

Ortolan in Diet, de thiol, cath., II, 1255-63 — see remark, 
page 49, col. 2; Grisar in Kirchenlex., Il, 1482-95; Giry, 
Manuel de diplomatique (Paris, 1894), 661-704 — an excellent 
summary of the whole subject; Pflugk-Harttung, Die Bullen 
der Pdpstc (Gotha, 1901) — mainly concerned with the period 
before Innocent III; Melampo in Miscellanea di Storia e Cul- 
ture. Eeclesiastica (1905-07), a valuable series of articles not 
too technical in character, by a Custodian of the Vatican 
Archives; Mas-Latrie, Les elements de la diplomatique pontiji- 
cale in Revue des questions historiques (Paris, 1S86-87), XXXIX 
and XLI; Diekamp, Zum pdpstiiehen Urkundenu-esen in Mit- 
theilunqen des Inst. f. Oesterr. Geschichtsforsch-ing l Vienna, 1SS2- 
83), III and IV. and in Histurisches Jahrbuch. 1883, IV; De- 
lisle, Les rigistres d'Innocent III in Biblieitheque de I'ecole des 
chartes (Paris, 1S53-54), with many other articles; Bresslau, 
Handbuch der Urkundenlehre (Leipzig, 1SS9I. I, 120-25S; De 
Rossi, Preface to Codices Palatini Latini Bib. lot. (Home, 
ISSOl; Berger, preface to its rigistres d'Innocent I\ (Paris, 
1884); Kehr and Brachmann, Paveturkwnden in various 
numbers of the Gottinger Nachrichten (Phil. Hist. CI., 1902-04); 
Kehr, Scrinium und Palatium in the Austrian Miltheilunqen. 
Enianzunqsband. VI; Pitra, Analeeta Novissima Solesmensia 
(Tuseulum. 1885), I; Schmitz-Kalemberg, Practica (1904). 
Among earlier works mention mav be made of Mabillon, De 
Re Diplomatic* (Pans, 1709). and the Nouveau traiti- de diplo- 
matique by the Benedictines of Saint-Maur (Paris, 1765, VI 

Early Bulls. — Bresslau, Papyrus und Perqament in der 
papstlichen Kanzlei in the Miltheilunqen des Instituts, jur Oest. 
Geschichtsforschung (Innsbruck, 1888), IX; Omont, B idles 
pontificates sur papyrus in Bibl. de I'ecole des chartes (Paris, 
1904\ LXV; Ewald, Zur Diplomalik Silvesters II in Neues 
Arcfiiv (Hanover, 18S4). IX; Kehr, Scrinium und Palatium 
in the Austrian M iltkeilunqen. Erganzumjsband ( Innsbruck, 
1901), VI; Kehr. YerscholUne Papiirusbullen mtjuiilcn und Eor- 
schungen aus italienischen Archival (Rome, 1907\ X, 216-224; 
Hodolico, Note paleoqrafiche e diplomatiche (Bologna, 1900). 

For facsimiles both of early bulls and of their seals, the 
great collection of Pfi.ugk-Harttcng. Specimina Selects 
Chartarum Pontificum Romanorum (3 vols.. Stuttgart, 1887) 
is of primary importance, but isolated facsimiles are to be 
found elsewhere. 

On the cursus it will be sufficient to mention the article of 
Noel Valois, Etudes sur le rythme des bulles pontificates in 
Bibl. de I'ecole des chartes (1881), XLII, and De Santi, II 
Cursus nella storia litter, e nella liturgia (Rome, 1903). 

Herbert Thurston. 

Bulstrode, Sir Richard, soldier, diplomatist, and 
author, b. 1610; d. 1711, was the second son of 
Edward Bulstrode by Margaret, daughter of Richard 
Astley, chamberlain of the queen's household and 
member of the Inner Temple. He was educated 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge, and while at the 
university was the author of a poem on the birth of 
the Duke of York. At twenty-three years of age 
he entered the Inner Temple and in 1649, at his 
father's request and through bis interest, was made 
a bencher. During the Civil War he was loyal to 
the king, serving in the Prince of Wales's regiment 
and holding at times the post of adjutant. He was 
later promoted to the rank of Adjutant-General of 
Horse, and still later to be Quartermaster-General. 
He was appointed to take charge of the funeral 
of Lord Strafford and became responsible for the 
expenses attending it; on being pressed by his 
creditors he fled to Bruges. He subsequently 
underwent a short term of imprisonment, which 
was terminated by the payment of the debt by 
Charles II. On his return he was appointed auditor 
of a Scotch regiment then serving in the Nether- 
lands and in 1673 was appointed agent at the Court 
of Brussels. He was temporarily recalled two years 
later, and in 1675 was knighted and again sent to 
Brussels, this time as resident, where he remained 
until the accession of James II when he was made 
envoy. When the revolution of 16SS compelled 
James to leave England, Bulstrode accompanied him 
to the court of Saint-Germain, wdiere he remained 
until his death. Among his writings are: "Original 
Letters written to the Earl of Arlington, with an 
account uf the Author's Life and Family", "Life of 
James II", "Memoirs and Reflections on the Reign 
and Government of Charles I and Charles II" and a 
lartfe number of elegies and epigrams. 

Henderson in Diet. Nat. Binq.. VII, 259; Gn.i.ow, Bibl. 
Diet. Eng. Cath., I, 340. Thomas Gaif.NEY Taaffe. 




Bunderius (Van den Bundere), Joannes, Flemish 
theologian and controversialist, b. of distinguished 
parents at Ghent in 1482; d. there 8 January, 1557. 
He entered the Dominican Order in his native city 
about 1500, and after having made his religious 
profession was sent to Louvain to pursue his studies 
in philosophy and theology. He obtained the degree 
of Lector in Sacred Theology, and in 1517 returned 
to Ghent, where, until near the close of his life, he 
taught philosophy and theology. While occupied 
in teaching he tilled the office of prior of the convent 
of Ghent throe times (1529-35; 1550-53), and dis- 
charged the duties of General Inquisitor of the Diocese 
of Tournai. As inquisitor he was untiring in his 
efforts to check the spread of the errors that were 
being disseminated by Lutherans, Calvinists, and 
Mennonites; but always used prudence in his dealings 
with heretics. Long training in the schools and the 
experience he had gained as professor of theology 
fitted him exceptionally well to explain and de- 
fend Catholic doc- 
trine, and to detect 
and expose the errors 
of heretical teaching. 
While prior of the 
convent of Ghent for 
die first time, he form- 
ed a federation of re- 
ligious orders in that 
city for the safeguard- 
ing of the faith of 
the people and for 
the preservation of 
the rights of the 
Church and the priv- 
ileges of the orders. 
In recognition of his 
ability as a preacher 
and as a reward for 
his long labours in the 
pulpit a general chap- 
ter of his order con- 
ferred upon him the 
degree of Preacher 
General. Of his writ- 
ings, which are neaily 
all of a polemical char- 
acter, the most worthy 
of note are: (^"Com- 
pendium dissidii quor- 
umdam hereticorum 
at que theologorum" 
(Paris, 1540-43,1545); 
C-'i "Compendium 
concert at ionis hujus 
sa'culi sapientium et 
theologorum" (Paris, 
1549; Venice, 1553, etc). After the author's death 
tins work was frequently published under the title: 
"Compendium rerum tlieologarum, qua? hodie in eon- 
troversiaagitantur"; (3) " Detect io nugarum Lutheri 
cum dcclaratione veritatis Catholics (Louvain, 1551 ); 
(4) "De Vero Christi baptismo contra Mcnnonem 
Anabaptistarum principe (Louvain, 1553). 

Ill .lo\<.to, H'l,juim (Brussels. 1719), 72; 
Echard. Script. Ord. PrTd., II, 160; Paqcot, Mhntrircs pour 
sirnr a rhistoire des Paye-Bas (Louvain. 17<',.",). 1,391. 

A. L. McMahon. 

Buonarroti, Michelangelo, Italian sculptor, 
painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of 
the upper Arno. fi March, 1475; d. at Rome, 18 Feb- 
ruary, 1564. Michelangelo, one of the greatest 
artists of all times, came from a noble Florentine 
family of small means, and in 1488 was apprenticed 
to Domenico Ghirlandajo. While apprentice, he 
excited the admiration of his master by the life-like 
animation of his drawings, and upon Ghirlandajo's 

Michelangelo Buonarroti 

recommendation, and at the wish of Lorenzo the 
Magnificent, he received further training (1489-92) 
in the palace of the Medici, at the school of sculpture 
then under the direction of Bertoldo, one of Do- 
natello's pupils. As student and resident of the 
palace, Michelangelo lived with Lorenzo's sons in 
the most distinguished society of Florence, and at 
this time was introduced by the poet Politian into 
the circle of the scholars of the Academy and to 
their learned pursuits. Meanwhile, Michelangelo 
was studying with marked success the frescoes in 
the Brancacci chapel. After Lorenzo's death he 
passed his time partly at home, partly at the mon- 
asti iy of Santo Spirito, where be busied himself 
with anatomical studies, and partly in the house of 
I'ietro de' Medici, who, however, was banished in 
1491. About the same time Michelangelo left Flor- 
ence for Bologna. He returned in 1495, and began 
to work as a sculptor, taking as his model the works 
of his predecessors and the masterpieces of classical 
a n t iquity, without, 
however, sacrificing 
his individuality. In 
1496 he went to Rome, 
whither his fame had 
preceded him, and re- 
mained there work- 
ing as a sculptor until 
1501. Returning to 
Florence, he occupied 
himself with his paint- 
ing and sculpture un- 
til 1505, when Pope 
Julius II called him 
tu enter his service. 
After this, Michelan- 
gelo was employed al- 
ternately in Rome and 
Florence by Julius and 
his successors, Leo X, 
Clement VII, and Paul 
III being his special 
patrons. In 1534, 
shortly after the death 
of his father, Michel- 
angelo left Florence, 
never to return. The 
further events of his 
life are closely con- 
nected with his ar- 
tistic labours. Some 
weeks alter his death 
his body was brought 
bark tu Florence, and 
a few months later a 
stalely memorial serv- 
ice was held in the 
church of San Lorenzo. His nephew, Leonardo 
Buonarroti, erected a monument over his tomb in 
Santa Croce, fur which Vasari, his well-known pupil 
and biographer, furnished the design, and Duke 
Cosimo de' Medici the marble. The three arts are 
represented as mourning over the sarcophagus, above 
which is a niche containing a bust of Michelangelo. 
A monument was erected to his memory in 1 he church 
of the Santi Apostoli, at Rome, representing him 
as an artist in working garb, with an inscription: 
Tanto nomini nullum }>ar elogium. (No praise is 
sufficient lor so meat a man | 

Michelangelo was a man of a many-sided character, 
independent and persistent in his views and his 
endeavours, His most striking characteristic was a 
sturdy determination, guided by a lofty ideal. 
Untiring, he worked until far advanced in years, 
at the cost of great personal sacrifices. He was 
not, however, unyielding to the point of obstinacy. 
His productions in all departments of art show the 




great fertility of his mind. In literature he was a 
devoted student and admirer of Dante. A copy of 
the "Divine Comedy", ornamented by him with 
marginal drawings, has unfortunately been lost. 
Imitating the style of Dante and Petrarch, he wrote 
verses, canzoni, and especially sonnets, which are 
not without value, and excite surprise by their 
warmth of feeling. Some of his poems give ex- 
pression to an ideally pure affection. He never 
married. A stern earnestness is characteristic of 
the sculptor, but the tenderness of his heart is shown 
in his touching love and solicitude for his father 
and brothers. Although seemingly absorbed in his 
art, and often straitened in circumstances, he was 
ever ready to aid them by word and deed. "I will 
send you what you demand of me", he wrote, "even 
if I have to sell myself as a slave". After the death 
of his father he conceived a deep affection for a 
young Roman, Tommaso de' Cavalieri, and also 
entered into intimate friendship with the noble- 
minded poetess, Vittoria Colonna, then past her 
youth. With his pupils, Vasari and Condi vi, lie 
was on the most cordial terms, and a servant who 
was twenty-six years in his employ experienced his 
bounty. The biographies we have from the pupils 
just mentioned and the letters of Michelangelo 
himself testify to the gentler traits of his character. 
He gave younger artists generous aid by suggestions, 
sketches, and designs, among others to Sebastiano del 
Piombo, Daniele da Volterra, and Jacopo da Pon- 
tormo. Michelangelo had few personal wants and 
was unusually self-denying in dress and diet. Sa- 
vonarola's sermons, which he recalled even in his 
old age, probably influenced him in some degree 
to adopt this austerity of life. Moreover, the serious- 
ness of his own mind caused him to realize the 
vanity of earthly ideals. His spirit was always 
absorbed in a struggle to attain perfection. Yet 
with all this he was not haughty; many of his say- 
ings that have come down to us show him to have 
been unusually unassuming. The explanation of 
his unwillingness to have the aid of assistants must 
be sought in the peculiarity of his artistic methods. 
Michelangelo's life was one of incessant trials, yet 
in spite of an imperious temper and many bodily 
infirmities he showed remarkable composure and 
forbearance. No matter how much trouble was 
caused him by his distinguished patrons he seldom 
failed in loyalty to them. He was equally faith- 
ful to his native city, Florence, although the po- 
litical confusion which reigned there wrung from 
him many complaints. It obliged him to spend 
half of his life elsewhere, yet he wished to lie after 
death in Florentine earth; nor could the most en- 
ticing offers induce him to leave Italy. A con- 
temporary bestows praise which seems merited, 
when he says that Michelangelo in all the ninety 
years of his life never gave any grounds for sus- 
pecting the integrity of his moral virtue. 

Sculptuue. — First Period. — If the years before 
1505, that is, before the summons by Julius II, be 
taken as Michelangelo's youth, it may be said that. 
even when a pupil in Bertoldo's school, he attracted 
attention not only by his work in clay and by the 
head of a faun in marble after a classical model, but 
especially by two marble bas-reliefs of his own 
design. The " Madonna Seated on a Step", pressing 
the Child to her breast under her mantle, shows, 
it is true, but little individuality, grace, and tender- 
ness, though perhaps for this very reason all the 
more dignity. Michelangelo's later style is more 
easily recognized in the "Battle of the Centaurs", 
which represents a large group of figures, anatomi- 
cally well drawn, engaged in a passionate struggle. 
It is said that in after years the artist, in referring 
to this group, expressed regret that he had not 
devoted himself exclusively to sculpture. He 

appears to have taken the conception for this work 
from a bronze relief of Bertoldo and to have imi- 
tated the style of Donatello. Michelangelo's work 
certainly recalls Donatello in the drapery of the 
Madonna above mentioned and in the realistic 
way in which the sentiment of this composition is 
expressed. After Lorenzo's death Michelangelo 
produced a marble Hercules of heroic size that was 
taken to Fontainebleau and has since disappeared. 
Thode, however, appears to have found the Crucifix 
which Michelangelo carved for the church of Santo 
Spirito. The body in this is almost entirely free 
from the cross; there is no intense pain expressed on 
the youthful face, and the hands and hair are not 
completely worked out. The "St. John in the 
Wilderness", with the honeycomb, now at Berlin, 
is probably the San Giovannino that Michelangelo 
executed in Florence in 1495. The realistic model- 
ling of the head and the beautiful lines of the body 
show a study of both classic and modern models. 
Shortly before this Michelangelo completed several 
figures for the shrine of St. Dominic which Niccolo 
dell' Area had left unfinished. A figure of a pagan 
deity was the occasion of Michelangelo's first visit 
to Rome, and a statue of Bacchus carved by him 
on that occasion is extant at Florence. This work, 
which is the result of a study of the antique, is merely 
a beautiful and somewhat intoxicated youth. 

Far more important is the Pieta executed in 1499 
for the French chapel in St. Peter's. A calm, 
peaceful expression of grief rests on all the figures 
of the group. The face of the mother has youthful 
beauty; the head is bowed but slightly, yet ex- 
pressive of holy sorrow. Her drapery lies in 
magnificent folds under the body of the Saviour. 
The latter is not yet stiff and reveals but slight 
traces of the suffering endured, especially the noble 
countenance so full of Divine peace. Not the lips 
but the hand shows the intensity of the grief into 
which the mother's soul is plunged. When sixty 
years old Michelangelo desired to execute a Pieta, 
or, more properly, a "Lamentation of Christ" for 
his own tomb. The unfinished group is now in 
the Cathedral of Florence, and is throughout less 
ideally conceived than the Pieta just mentioned. 
The body of Christ is too linip, and Nicodemus and 
Mary Magdalen are somewhat hard in modelling. 
This Pieta was broken into pieces by the master, 
but was afterwards put together by other hands. 
Two circular reliefs of the "Virgin and Child", 
one now in London and one in Florence, belong 
to the sculptor's youthful period. In the Florentine 
relief, especially, intensity of feeling is combined 
with a graceful charm. Mother and Child are 
evidently pondering a passage in Scripture which 
fills them with sorrow; the arms and head of the 
Boy rest on the book. A life-sized group of about 
the same date in the church of Our Lady (Eglise 
Notre-Dame) at Bruges shows the Madonna again, 
full of dignity and with lofty seriousness of mien, 
while the Child, somewhat larger than the one just 
mentioned, is absorbed in intense thought. In 
contrast to Raphael, Michelangelo sought to express 
Divine greatness and exalted grief rather than 
human charm. He worked entirely according to 
his own ideals. His creations recall classical an- 
tiquity by a certain coldness, as well as by the strain 
of superhuman power that characterizes them. 

Second Period. — To Michelangelo's second cre- 
ative period (beginning 1505) belongs the statue of 
Christ which he carved for the church of Santa 
Maria sopra Minerva. It \\:is sent to Home in 1521 
in charge of an assistant who was to add some last 
touches to the statue when it was put in position. 
The Saviour, a life-sized marble figure, holds the 
cross, sponge, and rod of hyssop. The face, earnest, 
almost hard, is turned to the left, as if saying: 




"My people, what have ye done to Me?" Properly, 
however, the figure is not that of the suffering 
Saviour, but of the risen Saviour and therefore nude, 
according to the desire of the patron who gave the 
commission. The age of the Renaissance, in its 
ardour for the nude, paid no regard to decorum. 
At a later date a bronze loin cloth, unfortunately 
too long, was placed on the statue. In conformity 
with the spirit in which the whole composition is 
conceived, the figure of Christ is not stiff and severe 
like the statue of an antique god, but expresses a 
resigned humanity. A youthful Apollo produced 
at about the same time has also little of the classic 
in its design. A dying Adonis comes nearer to 
classic models in its* conception. But the gigantic 
David, the em- 
bodiment of fresh 
young daring, in 
reality a repre- 
sentation of a 
noble boy, re- 
sembles an an- 
tique god or hero. 
It can hardly be 
said dial the co- 
lossal size, over 
twi Ive and a half 
feet, is suitable 
forayouth; how- 
ever, the deed for 
which David is 
preparing, or 
more probably, 
the action which 
he has just com- 
pleted, is a deed 
of courage. The 
right hand is half 
closed, the left 
hand with the 
sling stems to be going back to the shoulder, while 
i he gaze follows the stone. The figure resembles that 
of an ancient athlete. The body is nude, and the 
full beauty of the lines of the human form is strik- 
ingly brought out. In 1508 Michelangelo agreed 
to carve the twelve Apostles in heroic size (al>out 
nine and a half feet high) for the church of Santa 
Maria del Fiore, but of the whole number only the 
figure of St. Matthew, a great and daring design, 
was hewn in the rough. Similarly, he executed 
but four of the saints which were to decorate the 
memorial chapel to Pius II and left the rest of the 
work unfinished. A bronze statue of David with 
the head of Goliath under his feet was sent to France 
and has since disappeared. A pen-and-ink sketch of 
this statue is still in the Louvre. 

His powers fully matured, Michelangelo now 
entered the service of the popes and was entrusted 
with the carrying out of two great undertakings. In 
1505 Julius II called him to Rome to design and 
erect for the pope a stately sepulchral monument. 
The monument was to be a four-sided marble struc- 
ture in two courses, decorated with some forty 
figures of heroic size. Michelangelo spent eight 
months in Carrara superintending the sending of 
the marble to Rome. He hoped in carrying out 
this commission to execute a work worthy of classic 
times, one containing figures that would bear com- 
parison with the then newly discovered Laocoon. 
His plans, however, were brought to nought by a 
sudden change of mind on the part of Julius, who 
now began to consider the rebuilding of St. Peter's 
after the designs of Hramante. Julius may be said 
to have driven Michelangelo from the Roman court. 
Fearful of the malice of enemies, Buonarroti fled in 
despair to Florence and. turning a deaf ear to the 
pope's entreaties to return to Rome, offered to go 


on with the work for the monument at Florence. 
To this, however, Julius would not listen. In his 
exasperation Michelangelo was on the point of going 
to Constantinople. However, at the invitation of 
the pope, in the latter part of 1506, he went to Bo- 
logna, where, amid the greatest difficulties and in 
straitened circumstances, he cast a bronze statue 
of Julius II, of heroic size. This effigy was de- 
stroyed during a revolt against Julius in 1511. 
Once more in Rome, he was obliged for the time 
being to abandon the scheme for the monument 
to Julius and, against his will, to decorate the Sis- 
tine Chapel with frescoes. Julius II lived only 
long enough after the completion of the frescoes 
to arrange for his monument in his will. After his 
death in 1513 a formal contract was made for the 
construction of the memorial. According to this 
new agreement the monument was no longer to be an 
independent structure, but was to be placed against 
the church wall in the form of a chapel. The plan 
for the structure was even more magnificent than 
the original design, but was in the end abandoned, 
both on account of its size and of other circum- 
stances which arose. The new pope, Leo X, of the 
Medici family, was a friend of Michelangelo's youth 
and looked on him with much favour, but had new 
designs in reference to him. After Michelangelo 
had laboured for two years on the monument to 
Julius, Pope Leo, during a visit to Florence, com- 
manded him, to construct a stately new facade for 
the church of San Lorenzo, the family burial place 
of the Medici. With tears in his eyes, Michelangelo 
agreed to this interruption of his great design. 
The building of the new facade was abandoned in 
1520, but the sculptor returned to his former work 
for a time only. The short reign of Adrian VI 
was followed by the election to the papal throne of 
another early friend of Michelangelo, Giulio de' 
Medici, who took the name of Clement VII. Sinci 
1520 Giulio de' Medici had desired to erect a family 
mortuary chapel in San Lorenzo. When he became 
pope he obliged Michelangelo to take up this task. 
The new commission was not unworthy of the 
sculptor's powers, yet an evil fate prevented this 
undertaking also from reaching its full completion. 
.Michelangelo suffered unspeakably from the con- 
stant alteration of his plans: he- was, moreover, beset 
by many detractors; the political disorders in his 
native city filled him with grief, and the years 
brought with them constantly increasing infirm- 

In 1545 the designs, some of which still exist, for 
the monument to Julius II were carried out on a 
much reduced scale. The monument is in the 
church of San Pietro in Vincoli; in the centre of the 
lower course of the monument between two smaller 
figures is placed the gigantic statue of Moses, which 
was originally intended for the upper course, where 
it would have made a much more powerful im- 
pression. When seen close by, the criticism may 
be made that the expression is too violent, there 
is no sufficient reason for the swollen veins in the 
left arm, the shoulders are too massive in comparison 
with the neck, the chin, and the forehead; thai 
even the folds of the robe are unnatural. Vt 
seen from a distance, it is precisely these features 
that produce the desired effect. The great statue, 
which is double life size, was intended to express 
the painfully restrained and mighty wrath of the 
leader of a stiff-necked people. It is plain that an 
allusion to the warlike prowess of Julius II was 
intended and that the sculptor here-, as in many of 
his other undertakings, lias embodied his own 
tremendous conception of force. The way in which 
the Tables of the Law are grasped, the bare arm 
and right knee, the heavy beard and the "horns'' 
heighten the effect^ that is aimed at. The Hank- 





ing figures of Rachel and Leah, symbols respec- 
tively of contemplative and active life, were carved 
by Michelangelo himself, but they are not as satis- 
factory as the Moses. The monument itself and 
the figures on the upper course were not executed 
by the great master, though they were w-orked out 
according to his 
suggestions. On 
the other hand, 
two shackled 
figures out of 
the series plan- 
ned by the sculp- 
tor are in the 
Louvre, though 
incomplete. The 
"Slaves" were 
intended to typi- 
fy the power of 
the pope in the 
domains of war 
and art. and were 
to stand in front 
of the herma; pil- 
lars, where the in- 
verted consoles 
now are. In the 
"Slaves" in the 
Louvre the an- 
tithesis between 
resistance to the 
fetters and sub- 
mission to the 
inevitable is expressed with remarkable skill. There 
are also in Florence some unfinished figures belonging 
to this monument, namely, a victor kneeling on a 
fallen foe, and four other figures, which are merely 
blocked out. About the tune of the completion of 
this momunent Michelangelo carved a striking bust 
of Brutus as the hero of liberty. Michelangelo 
regarded the freedom of his native city as lost after 
the second return of the Medici from exile and the 
assumption of the control of affairs by Alessandro 
and Cosmo de' Medici. The sorrow this caused 
him suggested the bust of Brutus, and cast a shadow 
on the tombs of Giuliano and Lorenzo de' Medici 
in the chapel spoken of above. The greater part 
of the work in the chapel, however, had been done 
before this time, and so the expression of embittered 
sorrow must be explained by the general depression 
of the artist not less than by his failure to realize 
his highest ideal, which also accounts for the gloom 
characteristic of his other creations. 

Twelve figures included in the original design for 
the sepulchral monument of the Medici were never 
carved. According to Vasari's arrangement in 
1563, a seated figure of Giuliano is placed in an 
upper niche of one of the monuments, while sym- 
bolical figures representing Day and Night recline 
on a sarcophagus below. If Michelangelo's words 
have been rightly understood, these symbolical 
figures are to be regarded as mourning for the 
untimely death of the duke, and as grieving that 
life for him had not been worth the living. "Not 
to see, nor to hear must be happiness for me", 
are the words attributed to Night, which is repre- 
sented as a giantess sunk in heavy and uneasy 
slumber, and symbolized by a mask, an owl, and a 
bunch of poppy-heads. The other allegorical fig- 
ure, Day, a man, is represented as having no desire 
to rouse himself to action. The plan of the second 
monument is similar to that of the one just de- 
scribed; the figures of Evening and Dawn make the 
same impression as those of Night and Day. The 
two Medicean dukes are ideally treated as ancient 
warriors, rather than portrayed as in life. In the 
statue of Giuliano it is the superb modelling of 

the different parts that delights the eye; in the 
statue of Lorenzo the charm lies in the pose and 
the way in which the face is shadowed by the helmet. 
This figure of Lorenzo bears the name of II Pen- 
seroso (the Meditative). Against the wall of the 
chapel stands the unfinished and really unsuccessful 
Madonna and Child; the pose of the Madonna is 

Paintings. — Michelangelo once said that he was 
no painter; on another occasion he declared he was 
no architect, but in reality he was both. About 
1503 he painted a Holy Family, now in Florence, 
in which the Madonna holds the Child over her 
shoulder to St. Joseph who stands behind. In 
this canvas Michelangelo departs from the tra- 
ditional representation of the Holy Family, by the 
quaint grouping of nude figures in the background 
even more than by the entirely new pose of the 
Mother and Child. An "Entombment of Christ", 
now in London, is unfinished. lake Leonardo da 
Vinci, the greatest painter of that period, Michel- 
angelo made a large number of sketches. He also 
entered into competition with that famous artist 
by undertaking (1504) a battle-piece which was 
to adorn the wall opposite Leonardo's "Battle 
of Anghiari" in the great council chamber of the 
palace of the Signory, called then the Palazzo dei 
Priori and now the Town-hall of Florence. As 
Michelangelo just at this date entered the service 
of the popes, the cartoon he prepared was never 
carried out and is now lost. After years of dis- 
agreement with Julius II the painting of the Sis- 
tine Chapel was begun in 1508, and in 1512 the 
ceiling was uncovered. Michelangelo, who was 
not a fresco-painter, exerted all his powers of mind 
and body, abandoning his preference for the effects 
of sculpture in order to express without assistance, 
and in defiance of the envious, the full ideal of his 
conceptions in this unwonted medium. Creation, 
the Fall, and the preparation for the coming of 
the Redeemer form the subject of the fresco. The 
painter first divided and enclosed the ceiling with 
painted architecture which formed a frame for the 
frescoes; the cornice for this frame on the broad 
side of the chapel is adorned with the figures of 
naked youths. The nine fields of the smooth 
vault contain the history of the sinful human race 
as far as Noe. Around the dome, between the 
lunettes, are vaulted triangular spaces or penden- 
tives; in these are placed prophets and sibyls, to- 
gether with boy-angels, all pointing to the approach- 
ing redemption. In the lunettes over the windows, 
and in the vaulted triangular spaces over the lu- 
nettes are represented the ancestors of Christ. 
The subject, arrangement, and technical excellence 
of these frescoes have always excited the greatest 
admiration. The Divine, the prophetic, and the 
human are here most happily expressed; the con- 
ception of the first is original; the prophets and 
sibyls have wonderful individuality, and great 
skill is shown in handling the drapery, while human 
beings are represented in animated action. The 
architect created the beautiful division of the space 
and the exact proportions, the sculptor produced 
the anatomically correct figures, and the painter 
knew how to blend forms and colours into perfect 
harmony. After the completion of the work Michel- 
angelo could no longer regret that it had been 
forced upon him against his will. Equally famous 
is the great fresco of the "Last Judgment" which 
he painted upon the altar-wall of the chapel (1535- 
41). In this fresco, however, the nudity of the 
figures aroused objection, and they have been painted 
over by various hands. The "Last Judgment" 
has been more blackened and disfigured by time 
than the painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. 

Architecture. — The commission given by Leo X 




for the rebuilding of the facade of the church of 
San Lorenzo, which has been already mentioned, 
ended in a bitter disappointment for Michelangelo. 
He produced very rapidly a fine design for the 
front and made the first preparations for the work. 
After four years (in 1520) the contract was rescinded 
without anything having been accomplished. How- 
ever, the commission that Michelangelo received 
from Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Clement VII, 
for a mortuary chapel for the Medici family was 
not revoked, and the chapel was completed in 1524. 
It is a simple building surmounted by a dome. 
Its only purpose is to hold the monuments. Michel- 
angelo's design for the enlargement of San Giovanni 
de' Fiorentini at Rome was never used. He also 
produced designs for the Piazza of the Campidoglio 
(Capitol) and the Porta Pia. It is a remarkable 
fact that the citizens of Florence in 1529 appointed 
him engineer-in-chief of the fortifications of the city. 
Of more importance was his appointment as chief 
architect for the reconstruction of St. Peter's by 
Pope Paul III, after the death of Sangallo (1546). 
He held this position seventeen years Michelangelo 
carried out, with some changes, P.ramante's plans 
for the new building and rejected those of San- 
gallo. His own work is notably the magnificent 
dome. He completed the drum, but not, however, 
the upper dome. The clay model made by his 
own hands is still to be seen at the Vatican. 

Death brought to an end a life filled with fame 
and success, but also replete with suffering and 
sorrow; a life on which a great genius made demands 
which could not be satisfied. The ambitions of 
Michelangelo were insatiable, not so much owing to 
his desire for renown, as to his almost gigantic 
striving after the absolute ideal of art. For this 
reason Michelangelo's creations bear the stamp 
of his subjectivity and of his restless efforts to 
attain the loftiest ideals by new methods. He 
accomplished much that was extraordinary in three 
or four departments of art, but at the same time 
broke through many limitations prescribed by the 
laws of beauty in all arts, wilfully disregarding, at 
times, in his modelling of the human figure, even 
that fidelity to nature which he esteemed so highly. 
The way he pointed was dangerous, inasmuch as 
it led directly to extravagance, which, though per- 
haps endurable in Michelangelo, in his successors 
often substituted empty show for an ideal of lofty 
beauty. For a time Michelangelo obscured even 
the fame of Raphael; he swayed not only his own 
age, but succeeding generations. 

Monographs by SuTHERLAND-GoWBB, Holyrod, Strtttt 
(London, 1903): Thode, Michelangelo unci das K rule der Renais- 
lance (1903, 1904); Holland, Michelange (1905). 


Burchard of Basle (also of Hasenburg or 
Asif.i., from bis ancestral castle in 'Western Berne, 
Switzerland), Bishop of Basle in the eleventh cen- 
tury and a warm partisan of Henry IV (1056-1106). 
He belonged to the family of the counts of Neuen- 
burg, or Neuchatel, was l>. towards the middle of the 
eleventh century, and d. 12 April, 1107. Having en- 
tered the ecclesiastical state he was made Bishop of 
Basle (1072) by Henry IV; in recognition of this 
favour he was ever loyal to the king, and became one 
of his foremost advisers. In Henry's first difficulties 
with the Saxons (1073-75) Burchard rendered him 
all possible assistance. When the conflict between 
the king and Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) broke nut. 
Burchard was among the bishops who assembled at 
Worms (January, 1076), proclaimed the deposition 
of the pope, and wrote him an insulting letter. To- 
gether with Bishop Huzmann of Speyer he also went 
to Northern Italy for the purpose of inducing the 
Lombard bishops to take similar action with regard 
to the pope. In this he was successful; a synod was 

assembled at Piacenza, and the Lombard bishops 
renounced obedience to Gregory. For these rebellious 
acts Burchard was excommunicated and deposed by 
the pope in the Lenten synod of 1076; a similar sen- 
tence was inflicted on other bishops and on Bur- 
chard's royal master. King Henry obtained abso- 
lution at Canossa in January, 1077; and Burchard, 
who accompanied him on the penitential pilgrimage, 
was reinstated in office. 

During the civil war in 1077 and the following years, 
between Henry and his rival, Duke Rudolf of Suabia, 
raised to the throne by many princes, Burchard stood 
on the side of Henry, in whose interest he fought re- 
peatedly, both against Rudolf and his supporter, 
Berthold of Zahringen. In 107S Burchard and his 
friend suffered a crushing defeat , and he barely saved 
his life by precipitate flight. But the fortunes of 
war turned; Burchard and his partisans ravaged the 
country of Alemannia, or Suabia, the home of Rudolf 
and Berthold, and many cruelties were committed. 
Churches, sanctuaries, and perhaps monasteries as 
well were destroyed b}- the reckless and savage sol- 
diery. But it all helped the cause of Henry and 
weakened that of his rival, who was finally vanquished 
and killed in 1080. Burchard was rewarded for his 
services with grants of land from Henry. It is not 
certain that he was present in the synod held at 
Brixen (Tyrol) in June, 1080, where the partisans of 
Henry again deposed Gregory VII and elected in 
his stead Wibert, Archbishop of Ravenna. He was 
with Henry, however, when the schismatic king took 
possession of Rome, 21 March, 1084, and it may be 
taken for granted that he assisted at the installation 
of the antipope Clement III (10S4-1100) and at the 
imperial coronation of Henry, which events occurred 
on the 24th and 31st of March respectively. Shortly 
afterwards Burchard returned to Germany with his 
royal master. 

Two synods were held there during the year 1085, 
in which Burchard, though not present, was directly 
concerned. The first, in the latter part of April, was 
held at Quedlinburg by the partisans of Gregory VII; 
it condemned all adversaries of the pope, including 
Bishop Burchard. Henry's faction held its synod at 
Mainz in the early part of May; Pope Gregory and all 
the bishops loyal to him were deposed. For the next 
twenty years Burchard was less active in the cause 
of Henry, but he remained to the end loyal to his 
king. When Henry was hard pressed in Italy by his 
son Conrad, in rebellion since 1093, and other enemies, 
Burchard was one of the very few bishops of Germany, 
who brought him any comfort. In 1095 he appeared 
at the king's court at Padua, and after Henry's return 
to Germany he paid several other visits to the royal 
court. How much Henry- counted on the loyalty 
of Burchard was made evident in a letter which the 
monarch wrote to the princes of the empire from 
Liege in the early part of the year 1106, shortly be- 
fore his death. Henry besought the princes to accord 
him sufficient time to consult with the princes and 
bishops about the matters relating to his abdication 
or reconciliation with his rebellious son Henry V 
(1106-25), and among the bishops faithful to him he 
mentioned the name of Burchard of Basle. 

Burchard, however, did not always remain an un- 
compromising adversary of the popes. After the 
death of Gregory VII, particularly after the election 

of 1'rban II (1088 99). his sentiments underwent a 
change. He sought a reconciliation with the Holy 
See; and in order to prove his interest in purely 
ecclesiastical and spiritual matters he l>ecame in- 
strumental in the erection of several mona.steries or 
other religious institutions. Among those founded 
by him may be mentioned ihe monastery of St. Alban 
in Basle, the chapterhouse of ( irandis VallLs to the 
south of Basle, and the monastery of St. John, 
erected partly by his brother and partly by himself 




at Erlach in the neighbourhood of his ancestral castle. 
In spite of his attachment to Henry IV he died fully 
reconciled with the pope. 

Trouillat, Monument* de I'histoire de Vancien rvechc de Bdle 
(Porrentruy, 18521; Bi.osch. Zicei bernische Bischofe in Berner 
Taschenbuch (Bern. 1SS1); Giesebrecht, Gesch. der deutschen 
Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 1890), III; Fiala in Kirchenlez., II, 

Francis J. Schaefer. 

Burchard of Worms, Bishop of that see, b. of 
noble parents in Hesse, Germany, after the middle of 
the tenth century; d. 20 August, 1025. He received 
his education in Coblenz and other places, and ulti- 
mately entered the service of Archbishop Willigis 
of Mainz (975-1011), by whom he was ordained dea- 
con. He rose gradually in ecclesiastical rank and was 
finally appointed by Willigis first chamberlain, and 
primate or judge of the city. In these offices he 
showed so much discretion and impartiality, that his 
reputation reached Emperor Otto III. During a per- 
sonal interview with his imperial master (1000) he 
was appointed to the vacant Bishopric of Worms; a 
few days later he was advanced to the priesthood 
and the episcopal dignity by Willigis at Heiligenstadt. 
Thenceforth he laboured unceasingly for the temporal 
and spiritual welfare of his subjects. He rebuilt the 
walls of Worms and with the approval of Henry II 
tore down the stronghold of a certain Duke Otto, 
which served as a place of refuge to criminals and 
malefactors. Between 1023 and 1025 he promul- 
gated a celebrated body of laws, the "Leges et 
Statuta familise S. Petri Wormatiensis", with the 
purpose of insuring the impartial administration of 
justice. (Boos, in Urkundenbuch der Stadt Worms, 
I, 1SS6; Weiland, in Mon. Ger. Hist.: Leges, IV, 1.) 
Many monasteries and churches were erected by him. 
On the site of the aforesaid Otto's castle he built a 
monastery in honour of St. Paul; his sister Mathilda 
was placed in charge of a community of religious 
women, whose home was practically rebuilt; the 
cathedral of St. Peter at Worms was reconstructed 
and dedicated in 1016. He also devoted himself to 
the formation of ecclesiastical students in his cathe- 
dral school and to the instruction of ecclesiastics 
generally. To stimulate their zeal he would at times 
answer difficult questions submitted to him. The 
prevalent evils he tried to reform through visitations 
and synods. 

For the sake of uniformity in all church matters 
he drew up a manual for the instruction and guidance 
of young ecclesiastics, this is his well-known "Col- 
lectarium canonum"or "Decretum"in twenty books, 
a compilation of ecclesiastical law and moral theology, 
drawn from previous similar collections, the peniten- 
tial books, the writings of the Fathers, the decrees of 
councils and popes, and the Sacred Scriptures. For 
more than a century, until the publication of the 
"Deeretum" of Gratian (c. 1150), this was a widely 
used practical guide of the clergy, often quoted as 
"Brocardus". The nineteenth book, known as "Cor- 
rector, seu medicus", was circulated frequently as a 
separate work and was esteemed as a practical con- 
fessor's guide. (Von Scherer, Kirchenrecht, I, 238.) 
The work was undertaken at the suggestion of Bru- 
nicho, the provost of the Worms Cathedral, and was 
executed with the help of Bishop Walter of Speyer 
and Abbot Olbert of Gembloux (ed. Foucher, Paris, 
1549; Migne, P. L., CXL, Paris, 1853). Burchard en- 
joyed the special esteem of his imperial masters. 
With Otto III he was on the most intimate terms; 
Henry II and Conrad II made visits to him in 1009 
and 1025 respectively. Personally Burchard was a 
saintly man. His biographer, probably an ecclesias- 
tic, praises his devotion to prayer, his mortification, 
his fairness and charity towards others. 

Vita Burchardi Kpiscopi in Mon. <!t rm. 11 Lit.: Script., IV; also 
in P. L. (Paris. 18531. CXL; (lit,,-, n. Bur, hard 1 Bischof ni 
Worms (.lena, 18901; Hauck, Kirchengisch. Deutschlands (Leip- 
zig, 1890), III; Von Scherer in Kirchenlex., U; Hauck in 

Herzog, Realencyc. (Leipzig. 1897), III; Gietl, Hist.Jahrb. 
(1895), XVI, 116-119; Wattf.nbach, Deutschl. Geschichts- 
quellen (6th ed., 1893), I, 392; Conrat, Gesch. d. Quellen des 
ram. Rechts im M. A., 1, 261. 

Francis J. Schaefer. 

Burchard of Wurzburg, Saint, first Bishop of 
Wurzburg, b. in England of Anglo-Saxon parents, 
date unknown; d. in Germany most probably in 7.54. 
After the death of his father and mother he left home 
to go as a missionary to Germany, being drawn to 
this life by the great reputation of his countryman, 
St. Boniface, to whom he offered himself as an as- 
sistant. As Boniface was at this time an archbishop 
it must have been after the year 732 that Burchard 
began missionary work on German soil. He soon 
showed himself a competent and zealous messenger 
of the Faith and was consecrated Bishop of the new 
See of Wurzburg by St. Boniface when the latter 
erected the ecclesiastical hierarchy in the mission 
territory of Thuringia. The date is probably 741, 
for on 22 October, 741 . Burchard and Witta of Biira- 
burg took part as bishops in the consecration of 
St. Willibald as Bishop of Eichstatt. In a letter to 
St. Boniface, 1 April, 743, Pope Zachary confirmed 
the founding of the new diocese. But a year before 
this (April, 742) Burchard had been a member of 
the first German synod. He now devoted himself 
to spreading and confirming Christianity in the new 
bishopric. In the spring of 74S he went to Rome to 
make a report on the condition of the Church in 
Franconia and to submit various questions for de- 
cision. Burchard was held in high esteem by Pepin 
the Short. When the latter, in 749, appointed an 
embassy to lay before Pope Zachary the question who 
should be King of the Franks, he placed Burchard 
and Abbot Fulrad of St. Denis at its head. After 
his return from Rome Burchard was not able to con- 
tinue his apostolic activity for any great space of 
time and died before St. Boniface. One of his suc- 
cessors, Hugo (984-990), had Burchard 's remains 
dug up and solemnly buried on 14 October. This 
day has remained the feast-day of the saint. 

Vita S. Burchardi in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XV, 47-50 
(unreliable account of ninth and tenth centuries); Vita S. 
Burchardi, in Acta SS., Oct., IV. 575 sqq. (account of twelfth 
century); Nurnberger, Aus der litterar. Hinterlassenschafi 
des hi. Bonifatius und des hi. Burchardus (Neisse, 1888); Ul- 
rica", Der hi. Burchardus, erster Bischof von Wurzburg (Wiirz- 
burg, 1877); Hauck, Kirchengesch. (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1898- 
1900), I, II, passim. 

J. P. KlRSCH. 

Burckmair (or Burgkmair), Hans, a painter of 
the Swabian school, b. at Augsburg in 1473; d. in 
1531. He was the son of Toman, or Thomas Burck- 
mair, and received his first lessons in art from his 
father, then went, it appears, to Schongauer in Al- 
sace, and afterwards to Italy. In company with 
the elder Holbein he painted, between the years 
1501 and 1504, the seven great churches of Rome on 
panels in the monastery of St. Catherine at Augsburg. 
To Burckmair belong, among these, the basilica of 
St. Peter, the basilica of the Lateran, and the church 
of Santa Croee. The building itself is represented 
in the main compartment of each picture; above are, 
respectively, Christ's prayer in the Garden of Geth- 
semane, the Scourging, and the Crucifixion. Follow- 
ing the titles of t lie churches there are, in the first 
picture. St. Peter enthroned and accompanied by 
the Fourteen Holy Martyrs; in the second, the legend 
of St. John the Evangelist, and in the third, the mar- 
tyrdom of the Eleven Thousand Virgins. Several 
fine figures in the paintings show Italian influence. 
Not much later in date is the painting of Christ 
and the Blessed Virgin, the latter wearing a crown; 
most charming figures of angels anil three groups of 
saints are depicted on the win^s :is surrounding the 
central personages. The pictures just mentioned are 
in Augsburg. Among the Madonnas at Nuremburg, 
the Madonna with the bunch of grapes is especially 






admired. An attractive genre picture with a back- 
ground of harmonious tone that brings out the effect 
is the Holy Family in the Berlin Museum. 

The best of Burckmair's later panel pictures are: 
the Crucifixion, with St. George and the Emperor 
Ilcinrich on the wings, painted in 1519 and now at 
irg; St. John in Patmos, and Esther before As- 
suerus. painted in 1528 (these two at Munich). Sev- 
eral portraits still exist which Burckmair painted in 
the later years of his life. Among these is one of the 
artist himself and his wife, painted in 1529, now at 
Vienna. In this picture his wife holds a mirror in 
her hand in which two skulls are reflected. 

A woodcut of earlier date (1510) resembles a pic- 
ture from a Dance of Death. In tins engraving 
Death stops a pair of lovers, throws the youth down, 
and strangles him; at the same time he seizes with 
his teeth the dress of the young woman, who is flee- 
ing. The woodcuts that Burckmair produced in the 
middle part of his career (1510-19), at the command 
of the Emperor Maximilian, possess unusual merit. 
Only one of them, or, at most, very few were in- 
serted in the emperor's Prayer Book. For the 
other books concerned with Maximilian or his an- 
cestors Burckmair's work was as follows: for the 
" Osterreichische Heiligen" (Austrian Saints) Burck- 
mair made 124 engravings on wood ; for " Teuerdank " 
12; for "The Triumph" over 60; for the "Weiszku- 
nig" more than 200; he finally completed the "Ge- 
nealogie" with some 70 illustrations. As an example 
of his decorative work may be mentioned the 
adornments, which are full of imaginative power, in 
the so-called "Damenhof" of the house of the 
I agger family at Augsburg. Under the influence of 
Italian art Burckmair modified the old realistic 
method of treating a subject, gradually replaced 
Gothic architecture in his work by that of the Ren- 
ie, substituted colour for gold in painting, and 
developed the use of landscape as a background. 

Janxtbchek, Qeachichte der deutschen Malerei (Berlin. 1890): 
Hvbeh in Zetischrift tit's hist. Vtreirus fur Schwaben. I. Parts II, 
III; Mother in Zeitschrift fur bildewlr Kunst.XlX; [deu in 
Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft. IX. 


Burgis, Edward AMBROSE, a Dominican historian 
and theologian, b. in England c. 1(573; d. in Brussels, 
L'7 Vpril, 1747. When a young man lie left the 
Church of England, of which his father was a minis- 
ter, and became a Catholic, joining the Dominican 
Order at Rome, where he passed his noviceship in 
the convent of Sts. John anil Paul on the Ccelian Hill, 
then occupied by the Enelish Dominicans. After his 
religious profession (1696) he was sent to Naples to 
the Dominican school of St. Thomas, where he dis- 
played unusual mental ability. Upon the comple- 
tion of his studies he was sent to Eouvain, where for 
nearly thirty years he taught philosophy, theology, 
Sacred Scripture, and church history in the College 
of St. Thomas, established in 1697 for the Dominicans 
of England through the bequest of Cardinal Thomas 
Howard, O.P. He was rector of the college from 
171.". t.i 1720 and again from 1724 to 1730. In the 
latter year he was elected to the office of provincial; 
in 1711 he became Prior of the English Dominican 
convent at Bomhem, and in 1746 he was appointed 
Vicar-General of the English Dominicans in Belgium. 
He published a number of pamphlets ot considerable 
merit containing theses written in Latin on Scriptural, 
theological, and historical subjects. But it was as a 
writer of English that he excelled, especially along 
historical lines: liis style is easy anil |> 
he is accurate in his statements. In 1712 he pub- 
lished in London "The Annals of the Church", a 
volume embracing the period from A. D. 34 to 300. 
ted in the preface it was his intention to bring 
the annals down to his own time in a work of nine 
volumes, but he abandoned this plan, rewrote the 
III.— 5 

first period, and published "The Annals of the Church 
from the Death of Christ ". in five octavo volumes 
(London, 1738), the first work of the kind written in 
English by Catholic or Protestant. The book en- 
titled "An Introduction to the Catholic Faith", by 
Father Thomas Worthington, O.P. (London, 1709), 
was completed by Father Burgis, although his name 
does not appear in connexion with it., Obituary Notices O.S.D. (London, 1SS4); Olliver, 

A. L. McMahon. 

Burgoa, Francisco, b. at Oaxaca about 1600; d. 
at Teopozotlan in 16S1. lie entered the Dominican 
Order 2 August, 1629, and soon became master in 
theology. The voluminous books written by him 
on the past of his native Mexican State, Oaxaca, are 
very rare. They are valuable, though not absolutely 
reliable on several topics. He was curate of several 
Indian parishes and his knowledge of the Indian 
languages, the Zapotec and Mixteco, is stated to 
have been very thorough. In 1649 he became 
Provincial of the Province of San Hipolito and took 
part in the chapiter general of his order at Rome, 
1656. Returning to Mexico with the title of vicar- 
general, a member of the Inquisition of Spain, and 
Commissary and Inspector of Libraries of New 
Spain (Mexico), he again became Provincial of Oaxaca 
in 1662. He was interested in several ecclesiastical 
foundations and improvements, and highly respected 
at the time of his death. The two historical and 
geographical works through which he is best known 
are the " Palestra historica, 6 Historia de la Provincia 
de San Hipolito de Oaxaca, de la Orden de Predica- 
dores" (Mexico, 1670), and the " Description geo- 
grafica de la America setentrional" etc. (Mexico, 
1674). He published a number of sermons and also 
wrote "Itinerario de Oaxaca ;i Roma y de Roma 6. 
Oaxaca", which is still in manuscript. 

Pinelo. Epitome de la biblioteca oriental y occidental (Madrid, 

1737); Antonio, Bibliotheca hispnna nova (Madrid, 1733-38): 

,*. liiblwteca mexicana (Mexico, 1755): Beristain, 

Biblioteca hispano-amerieana etc. (Amecameca, 1883); Bras- 

seur DE Bourdourg, Bibl. meiieo-uuatirwslu nnr (Pans, 1871). 

Ad. F. Bandelier. 

Burgos (Burgensis), Archdiocese of. — Burgos 
(from burgi, burgorutn, signifying a consolidation 
of districts or small villages) has been since the 
tenth century an episcopal see of Spain, to which in 
the eleventh century the ancient Sees of Oca and 
Valpuesta were transferred. In 1571 Gregory XIII 
raised it to metropolitan rank, at the request of 
Philip II. The archdiocese now (Concordat of 1851) 
comprises almost the entire province of Burgos. Its 
suffragans are: Calahorra (Logrono), El Burgo de 
Osma, Palencia, Santander, Leon, and Vitoria. Its 
area is approximated 8694 square miles, with a popu- 
lation of 340,000. The diocese is divided into 1220 
parishes, which form forty-seven vicariates. 

Physical Features. — The northern and eastern 
portion of the diocese is mountainous, thickly wooded, 
and traversed by rivers, among which is the Ebro, 
which rises in the mountains and serves as the eastern 
boundary for Miranda. The Arlanza which crosses 
the diocese from east to west flows by Salas de los 
Infantes, near the famous monastery of Silos, and 
through the centre of the well-known town of I.erma. 
The mountainous region is unproductive of cereals, 
but fruits grow in abundance, and line pasture-lands 
sustain great herds of cows and sheep, which furnish 
excellent meat and milk. Deli. ate cheeses which 
take their name from the city and are famous through- 
out Spain, are made in this section. Minerals are 
abundant, especially sulphate of soda, common salt, 
iron, and hard coal. The southern part of the diocese, 
especially the valley and plains, is fertile and pro- 
duces abundantly vegetables, cereals, and quite a 
quantity of wine. The climate, cold but healthy, if 




damp towards the north. Although this section has 
few industries, the transportation of its fruit and 
minerals is greatly facilitated by the numerous high- 
ways and by the railroad between Madrid and France 
which crosses the eastern side of the diocese from 
south to north. There are also some secondary rail- 
way lines for the operation of the mines. 

Religious Edifices. — Burgos possesses more re- 
ligious monuments than any other Spanish diocese, 
not even excepting Toledo — evidences of the piety 
of the counts and kings of Castile and Leon. In addi- 
tion to the collegiate churches of Lerma, Villadiego, 
Plampiega, Palenzuela, Cobarrubias, and others, 
there are in Burgos alone many magnificent build- 
ings. The cathedral, with its chapel of the Condes- 
table, the monastery of l^as Huelgas, and the Car- 
thusian monastery of Miraflores, are museums of 
really permanent value. 

The Cathedral . — As an architectural monument 
this structure displays the best features of the art 
of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 
It was commenced by Bishop Mauritius in 1221, in 


Facade, the Cathedkal, Btjbgos 

the reign of Ferdinand III and Beatrice of Swabia, 
and is Gothic in style. The principal facade, Santa 
Maria la Mayor, faces west, and on either side rise two 
towers about 262 feet in height, terminating in oc- 
tagonal spires covered with open stonework traceries. 
The facade is composed of three stories, or sections. 
The first, or ground story has three ogival entrances 
with rectangular openings; the second has a gallery 
enclosed by a pinnacled balustrade and a rose win- 
dow as delicately carved as a piece of lace, which 
admits some light into the church. In the upper- 
most story there are two double-arched windows of 
ogival style, with eight intercolumnar spaces, in each 
of which there is a statue on a pedestal. The whole 
is finished with a balustrade of letters carved in stone 
and forming the inscription: Pulchra eset decora (Thou 
art beautiful and graceful), in the centre of which is a 

statue of the Blessed Virgin. In the lateral sections 
(the towers) the windows are enclosed by stone 
balustrades, and the top is surmounted by balconies 
of stone surrounded by balustrades formed of Gothic 
letters in various inscriptions; needle-pointed pinna- 
cles finish the four corners. The spires, as already 
said, are octagonal in shape; a gallery runs around the 
eight sides near the top, upon which rest the graceful 
points of the conical finial. 

The north portal is known as the poriada de la 
Coroneria. In the lower portion of this are statues 
of the Twelve Apostles, the windows in the central 
section being of the primitive ogival style, and 
in the upper story there are three double-arched 
windows with statues joined to the shafts of the 
columns; two small spires, conical in shape like the 
main ones and decorated with balustrades, rise on 
either side of this facade. From the portal of the 
Coroneria one can descend to that of the Pellejeria, 
which faces east and is of the Renaissance style 
known as the Plateresque. It is divided into three 
sections, the two end ones being alike, with the centre 
different in style and dimensions. The former are 
composed of pilasters minutely carved, between which 
four statues are placed. The middle section, which 
serves for an entrance, has three alabaster pilasters, 
the intercolumnar spaces bearing panel-pictures rep- 
resenting the martyrdom of saints. The facade as a 
whole gives the impression of a gorgeous picture, 
and the ornate and fantastic devices sculptured all 
over its magnificent surface are simply innumerable. 

The octagonal chapel of the Condestable, of florid 
Gothic and very pure in design, is the best of the 
many chapels of the cathedral. Its roof is finished 
with balustraded turrets, needle-pointed pinnacles, 
statues, and countless other sculptural devices. In 
the lower portion coats of arms, shields, and crouch- 
ing lions have been worked into the ensemble. The 
exterior of the sacristy is decorated with carved 
traceries, figures of angels and armoured knights. 
The tabernacle is of extraordinary magnificence and 
is composed of two octagonal sections in Corinthian 

Las Huelgas. — Next to the cathedral in magnifi- 
cence is the famous Monasterio de las Huelgas on the 
outskirts of the city. It dates from the year 1180, 
and architecturally belongs to the transition period 
from Byzantine to Gothic, although in the course 
of time almost every style has been introduced into 
it. This convent has two remarkable cloisters, one 
a very fine example of the earlier period and of the 
use of semi-circular arches and delicate and varied 
columns; the other of the ogival style of the transition 
period. The interior of the church is in the style of 
the latter, enormous columns supporting its magnifi 
rent vault; the entrance is modern. This convent 
is celebrated for the extraordinary privileges granted 
to its abbess by kings and popes. 

Miraflores. — The Carthusian monastery of Mira- 
flores, celebrated for the strict observance of its rule, 
is situated about one mile from the city. A very 
beautiful and life-like statue of St. Bruno carved in 
wood is one of the treasures of the monastery; the 
stalls in the church also display exquisite workman- 
ship. The mausoleum of King John II and of his 
wife Isabel, in this monastery, is constructed of the 
finest marble anil so delicately carved that portions 
seem to be sculptured in wax rather than stone. 
Around the top are beautiful statues of angels in 
miniature, which might be the work of Phidias. The 
French soldiers in the War of Independence (1814) 
mutilated this beautiful work, cutting off some of the 
heads and carrying them away to France. 

Celebrated Churches. — Burgos has other important 
churches. That of Santa Agueda, commonly called 
Santa Gadea., is chiefly celebrated for its antiquity 
and for the historic fact that it was in this church 




that Alfonso VI, in the presence of the famous Cid 
Campeador (Rodrigo Diaz del Vivar), swore that he 
had taken no part in the death of his brother the king, 
Don Sancho, assassinated in the Cerco de Zamora. 
Without this oath he never would have been allowed 
to Bucceed to the royal crown of Castile. In this 
church also the Augustinian friar, St. Juan de Saha- 
giin, was wont to preach, hear confessions, and give 
missions, after he had renounced the canonry and 
other ecclesiastical benefices which he held in that 
diocese. Among the other notable churches are: 
San Esteban, San Gil (Sancti .Egidii), San Pedro, 
San Cosnie y San Damian, Santiago (Sancti Jacobi), 
San Lorenzo, and San Lesmes (Adelelmi). The Con- 
vento de la Merced, occupied by the Jesuits, and the 
Hospital del Rey are also worthy of mention. In the 
walls of the city are the famous gateway of Santa 
Maria, erected for the first entrance of the Emperor 
Charles V, and the arch of Fernan Gonzalez. The 
diocese has two fine ecclesiastical seminaries. There 
are also many institutions for secular education. 
Schools are maintained in every diocese, the Insti- 
tute Provincial, and many colleges are conducted by 
private individuals, religious orders, and nuns both 
cloistered and uncloistered. 

History of Burgos. — When the Romans took pos- 
session of what is now the province of Burgos it was 
inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigos, Berones, 
and perhaps also the Pelendones, the last inhabitants 
of the northern part of the Celtiberian province. 
The principal cities, according to Ptolemy, were: 
Brabum, Sisara, Deobrigula, Ambisna Segisamon, 
Verovesca (Briviesca), and others. In the time of 
the Romans it belonged to Hither Spain (Hispania 
Citerior) and afterwards to the Tarragonese province. 
The Arabs occupied all of Castile, though only for a 
brief period, and left no trace of their occupation. 
Alfonso (III) the Great reconquered it about the 
middle of the ninth century, and built many castles 
for the defence of the Christians, then extending their 
dominion and reconquering the lost territory. In 
this way the region came to be known as Cast ilia 
(Lat. casteUa), i. e. "land of castles". Don Diego, 
Count of Porcelos, was entrusted witli the govern- 
ment of this territory, and commanded to promote 
the increase of the Christian population. With this 
end in view he gathered the inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding country into one village, which took the 
name of Burgos, or Burgi. The city thus bounded 
began to be called Caput Castella?. The territory 
(corulado), subject to the Kings of Leon, continued to 
be governed by counts anil was gradually extended 
by victories over the Moors, until the time of Fernan 
Gonzalez, the greatest of these rulers, when it became 
independent; it later on took the name of the King- 
dom of Castile, being sometimes united with Navarre 
and sometimes with Leon. In the reign of St. Fer- 
dinand 111 (e. 1200-52), Leon and Castile were defi- 
nitely united, hut they continued to be called re- 
spectively the Kingdom of Leon and the Kingdom 
of Castile until (he nineteenth century. This district 

has 1 n tin' scene of many and varied events: the 

wars with the Arabs, the struggles between Leon and 
Navarre, and between Castile and Aragon, the War 

of Independence against France, and the civil wars 

of the Spanish succession. 

Councils Some important councils have been 
held in Burgos. A national council look place there 
in 1078, although opinions differ as to .late (the 
" Boll tin <le la Vadctnia de la Ilistoria de Madrid", 
1906, XLIX, 337, says 1080). This was presided 

over by the papal delegate, Cardinal Roberto and 

attended by Alfonso VI, and was convoked for the 
purpose of introducing into Spain the Roman Brev- 
iary and Missal instead of the Gothic, or Mozarabic, 
then in use. Another national council, presided over 
by Cardinal Boso (d. 1181), also papal delegate, 

settled questions of discipline and established dio- 
cesan rights and limits. The proceedings of this 
council remained unpublished until quite recently, 
when they were made known in the Boletfn already 
mentioned (XLVIII, 395). In 1898 a provincial 
council was called by Archbishop (now Cardinal) Don 
Fr. Gregorio Aguirre, in which the obligations of the 
clergy and the faithful were most minutely set forth. 

Saints of Burgos. — St. Julian, Bishop of Cuenca, 
called the Almoner, because of his great charity to 
the poor, was born in Burgos; also St. Amaro the 
Pilgrim, who has always had a special cult paid to 
him in Burgos, though not found in the Roman 
Martyrology. St. Inigo (Enecus or Ignatius), abbot 
of Ona, while not born in Burgos, laboured there for 
many years; also St. Domingo de Silos, abbot and 
reformer of the famous convent of Silos, and St. 
Juan de Sahagiin, a native of that town in the prov- 
ince of Leon. Among its saints may also be men- 
tioned the martyrs of Cardena, religious of the con- 
vent of the same name, who in the tenth century were 
put to death for the Faith by the Arab soldiers of 
the Emir of Cordova in one of their numerous in- 
vasions of Castile; and St. Casilda, daughter of one 
of the Moorish kings of Toledo. She was converted 
near Burgos whither she had gone with her father's 
consent to drink the water of some medicinal springs. 
She built a hermitage and died a saintly death. 

Famous Bishops and Citizens. — In the long line 
of bishops and archbishops the following deserve 
special mention: Pablo de Santa Maria (1396-1456), 
a converted rabbi, preceptor and counsellor of John II; 
his son and successor (1435-50) Alfonso (de Cartagena) , 
one of the most learned members of the Council of 
Basle and to whom is owing the erection of the Chapel 
del Condestable by Juan de Colonia, a German archi- 
tect who accompanied him to Spain; Cardinal Inigo 
Lopez de Mendoza y Zuniga, brother of the Count of 
Peiiaranda, Duke of Miranda, who in 1535 convoked 
a synod; the Cardinal Archbishop de Pacheco, in 
whose time Burgos was raised to the dignity of an 
archiepiscopal see; and Archbishop Don Fr. Gregorio 
Aguirre, also administrator of the See of Calahorra. 

Among the famous laymen, the name of Rodrigo 
Dfaz del Vivar (d. 1099), the Cid Campeador, nat- 
urally stands pre-eminent. He was the hero of his 
time, and the man most feared by the Mohammedans, 
whom he defeated in innumerable encounters. He 
is buried in Burgos, in the monastery of San Pedro 
de Cardena. Don Ramon Bonifaz was according to 
some authorities a native of Burgos, but in any event 
he lived there. St. Ferdinand entrusted to him the 
task of forming the Spanish squadron with which he 
established and maintained communication with the 
troops who were besieging Seville, and prevented the 
Moors from communicating with the city. One of 
his fleets destroyed the bridge by which the Moors 
had access to the outside world and received pro- 
visions; this brought about the surrender (1248) of 
the city of Seville to the Christians, led by St. Ferdi- 
nand himself. 

Burgos has produced many men of letters. The 
bibliography, published (1889) by Don Manuel Mar- 
tinez Afilbarro under t he title "Diccionario Biografico 
y Bibliografico de Burgos ", forms a small folio volume 
of 570 pages. Among the most distinguished writers 
arc Archbishop Pablo de Santa Maria who wrote 
"Scrutinium Script urarum" (Mantua, 1171) against 
the Jews; the aforesaid Don Alonso de Cartagena, his 
son, author of various works; the learned Augustinian 
friar Enrique Florcz, author of the famous works, 
"La Espafia Sagrada" (1743-75, 29 vols., continued 
by others to 1886, 51 vols), "Memorias de las Rey- 
nas" (1762), "Medallas Antiguas" (1757-73), and 
many others. His statue was erected in his native 
town of Villadiego by popular subscription. 

Among the several newspapers published at Burgos, 




"El Castellano" and "El Boletfn Eclesiastieo " are 
under the direction of the archbishop. 

Flc5rez, La Espaila Sagrada (1743-1886); Gil DXvila, 
Teatro de las Iglesias de Esparia; Venero, Historia de la Viudad 
de Burgos; Cant6n, Memorias para la Historia de Burgos; 
Cuadrado, Descripciones de Espana; Salva, Burgas a Yuela 
Pluma; Street, Gothic Architecture in Spain. 

Tmso Lopez. 

Burgundy (Lat. Burgundia, Ger. Burgund, Fr. 
Bourgogne) , in medieval times respectively a kingdom 
and a duchy, later a province of France (to 1789), 
and now represented mostly by the departments of 
Ain, Saone-et-Loire, Cote-d'Or, and Yonne. It has 
nearly 2,000,000 inhabitants, and is famous for its 
diversified scenery, its rich wines, its rivers and 
canals, varied industries, mineral wealth, and many 
prosperous cities. In the fifth century a Germanic 
tribe, the Burgundi or Burgundiones, conquered 
from the Romans the fertile basins of the Rhone, 
the Saone, and the Loire, but were unable to main- 
tain their sovereignty (Lyons, Geneva, Vienne) 
which in the next century they lost (534) to the 
Frankish successors of Clovis [Binding, "Das bur- 
gundisch-romanische Konigreich von 443-532", Leip- 
zig, 1S6S; Drapeyron, "Du role de la Bourgogne sous 
les Merovingiens " in "M6m. his a la Sorbonne", 
1866, 29-42; B. Haureau, "L'Eglise et l'Etat sous 
les premiers rois de Bourgogne" in "Mem. de l'Aoad. 
des inscriptions et belles-lettres", Paris, 1867, XXVI 
(1), 137-172]. In the latter quarter of the ninth 
century this territory again acquired independence, 
first as the short-lived Kingdom of Aries, and then 
as the dual Kingdom of North and South (or Lesser) 
Burgundy, the latter including Provence or the lands 
between Lyons and the sea, while the former took in, 
roughly speaking, the territory north of Lyons, now 
divided between France and Switzerland. These 
kingdoms, known as Transjurane and Cisjurane 
Burgundy, were reunited (935) under Rudolf II. 
The independence of this "middle kingdom", the 
medieval counterpart of modern Switzerland, was 
short-lived, for in 1038 Emperor Conrad II obtained 
the crown of Burgundy for his son (later Emperor) 
Henry III. For two centuries German influence was 
uppermost in the counsels of the Burgundian rulers, 
but little by little the growing prestige and power 
of neighbouring France asserted themselves, beginning 
with the annexation of Lyons by Philip the Fair in 
1310 and ending with that of Savoy and Nice in 1S60. 
During this time, in language, laws, and institutions 
Burgundy became regularly more closely assimilated 
to France, and finally an integrant part of that nation 
when, on the death of Charles the Bold (1477), 
Louis XI incorporated with France the Duchy of 
Burgundy and extinguished thereby, in favour of 
the royal prerogative, one of the most important 
fiefs of the French Crown (G. Hiiffer, " Das Verhalt- 
niss des Konigreiehs Burgund zu Kaiser und Reich, 
besonders unter Friedrich I", Paderborn, 1874; 
Reese, "Die staatsrechtliche Stellung der Bischofe 
Burgunds und Italiens unter Kaiser Friedrich I", 
Gottingen, 1885; cf. Andre Du Chesnc, "Hist, des 
rois, dues, et comtes de Bourgogne et d'Arles ", 
Paris, 1619; de Camps, "De la souverainete' de la 
couronne de France sur les royaumes de Bourgogne 
Transjurane et d'Arles", in "Mercure de France", 
April, 1723; von Ber touch, "Burgund als Scheide- 
wand zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich, einehis- 
torisch-politische Frage ", Wiesbaden, 1885). _ 

The medieval political vicissitudes of the Kingdom 
of Burgundy are accurately outlined in E. Freeman, 
"Historical Geography of Europe" (ed. Bury, Lon- 
don, 1903), passim. ' The following passage from 
that work (pp. 258-259) exhibits in a brief but philo- 
sophic way the political vicissitudes and role of me- 
dieval Burgundy: — 

"The Burgundian Kingdom, which was united 
with those of Germany and Italy after the death of 

its last separate king, Rudolf the Third [1032], has 
had a fate unlike that of any other part of Europe. 
Its memory, as a separate state, has gradually died 
out. The greater part of its territory has been swal- 
lowed up, bit by bit, by a neighbouring power, and 
the small part which has escaped that fate has long 
lost all trace of its original name or its original politi- 
cal relations. By a long series of annexations, 
spreading over more than five hundred years, the 
greater part of the kingdom has gradually been in- 
corporated with France. Of what remains, a small 
corner forms part of the modern Kingdom of Italy, 
while the rest still keeps its independence in the form 
of the commonwealths which make up the western 
cantons of Switzerland. These cantons, in fact, are 
the truest modern representatives of the Burgundian 
Kingdom. And it is on the confederation of which 
they form a part, interposed as it is between France, 
Italy, the new German Empire, and the modern 
Austrian Monarchy, as a central state with a guaran- 
teed neutrality, that some trace of the old function 
of Burgundy, as the middle kingdom, is thrown. 
This function it shares with the Lotharingian lands 
at the other end of the empire, which now form part 
of the equally neutral Kingdom of Belgium, lands 
which, oddly enough, themselves became Burgundian 
in another sense." The present article deals chiefly 
with Northern Burgundy since the middle of the 
fourteenth century, and may serve as an introduc- 
tion to the articles on Belgium and the Nether- 

States of the House op Burgundy. — The for- 
mation of the Burgundian State from which sprang 
the two Kingdoms of Belgium and the Netherlands, 
is an historical phenomenon of intense interest. The 
Duchy of Burgundy was one of the fiefs of the French 
Crown. Made vacant in 1361 by the death of Philippe 
de Rouvre, the last of the older line of dukes, it was 
presented by John II, King of France, to his son 
Philip the Bold who, at the age of fourteen, had 
fought so valiantly at his father's side in the battle 
of Poitiers. In 1369, as the result of the negotiations 
of his brother, King Charles V, Philip married Mar- 
guerite de Male, widow of his predecessor and sole 
heir to the countship of Flanders, thereby acquiring 
that magnificent domain including the cities of Ant- 
werp and Mechlin and the countships of Nevers and 
Rethel, not to mention the countships of Artois and 
Burgundy to be inherited from his wife's grand- 
mother. He thus became the most powerful feud- 
ary of the Kingdom of France. To be sure he had to 
conquer Flanders by dint of arms, as the people of 
Ghent, who had rebelled against the late count, 
Louis de Male, had no intention of submitting to his 
heir. But Philip had the armies of his nephew, King 
Charles VI, march against them and they lost the 
battle of Roosebeke (1382); then, after continuing 
the struggle for two years longer, they were finally 
obliged to submit in 13S5. The Peace of Tournai put 
Philip in possession of his countship, yet lie was not 
satisfied and, through adroit negotiations, he suc- 
ceeded in securing foothold for his family in most of 
the other Netherland territories. By the marriage 
of his daughter Margaret with Count William of 
Hainault, proprietor of the countships of Hainault, 
Holland, and Zealand, Philip provided for the annex- 
ation of these three domains. Moreover, he obtained 
for his wife, Margaret, the inheritance of her widowed 
and childless aunt, Jane, Duchess of Brabant and 
Limburg, and gave it to Anthony, his youngest son, 
whilst the eldest, John the fearless, was made heir 
to his other states (14011. But John the Fearless 
did nothing great for the Netherlands, being better 
known for his ardent participation in the troubles 
that disturbed the Kingdom of France during the 
reign of the deranged King Charles VI. After as- 
sassinating Louis of Orleans, the king's brother, John 




himself perished at the Bridge of Montereau during 
his famous interview with the Dauphin, being dis- 
patched by the latter's followers (1414). The first 
two Dukes of Burgundy who reigned in the Nether- 
lands were pre-eminently French princes and bent 
upon preserving and augmenting the prestige they 
enjoyed in France as princes of the blood royal. On 
the other hand, their two successors were essentially 
Belgian princes whose chief aim was the extension of 
their domains and whose policy was distinctly anti- 
French. Of course the assassination at Montereau, 
by setting them at variance with the French Crown, 
had helped to bring this change about, but it would 
have taken place in any event. To avenge his father, 
Philip the Good allied himself with the English to 
whom he rendered valuable services, especially by 
delivering to them Joan of Arc, made prisoner by 
his troops at Compiegne. When, in 1435, he at length 
became reconciled to the king by the treaty of Arras, 
it was on condition of being dispensed from all vassal- 
age and of receiving the cities along the River Somme. 
At this price he agreed to help the king against his 
own former allies and participated in the unsuccessful 
siege of Calais (1436). 

Effect of Philip's Rule. — The chief work of Philip 
the Good was to reunite under his authority most 
of the Netherland provinces. In 1421 he purchased 
the countship of Namur from John III, its last 
incumbent. In 1430 he became Duke of Brabant 
and Limburg as heir of his first cousin, Philip of 
Saint-Pol, son of Duke Anthony; in 142S he con- 
strained his cousin Jacqueline of Bavaria, Countess 
of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand, and Lady of 
Friesland, to recognize him as her heir, and even dur- 
ing her lifetime, in 1433, he obliged her to relinquish 
this inheritance. Finally, in 1114. he purchased the 
claims of Elizabeth of Gorlitz to the Duchy of Luxem- 
burg, thus owning all of modern Belgium except the 
principality of Liege, all the western provinces of 
the present Kingdom of the Netherlands, and several 
French provinces. However, this did not suffice and 
he managed to place his bastards in the episcopal 
Sir- n[ Cambrai ami Utrecht and his nephew in that 
of Liege. Victorious over all his enemies, among 
whom was the King of France, in 1437 he held out 
against the Emperor Sigismund who tried in vain to 
re-establish the dependency of the Netherlands upon 
the empire. On two different occasions in 14 17 and 
1463, he importuned the Emperor Frederick III to 
give him the title of king, but the attempts failed. 
Nevertheless, under the title of "Grand Duke of the 
West" he won the admiration of his contemporaries 
and was the richest and most powerful sovereign in 
Europe. It was he whom Pope Nicholas V wished 
to place at the head of the new crusade he was plan- 
ning, and during a sumptuous feast at which he made 
the celebrated run tin jnisnn, Philip promised to take 
the cross. But the crusade did not take, place. 
Being master of so many provinces, Philip wished to 
unite 1 1 if in under a central government, but this was 
not easy of accomplishment. F.aeli of them con- 
sidered itself a self-governing State, independent of 
all the others and living its own life; moreover, the 
large cities of Flanders also claimed to be separate 
commonwealths and tried to escape centralization, 
Despite his entreaties, Ghent forsook the duke at 
the siege of Calais in 143li; in 143S Bruges was the 
scene of a revolt where he was neatly made prisoner; 
and in 14.51 Ghent revolted. But the duke overcame 
all these obstacles to his ambition and, through 
his victory of Gavre in 1 I.":;, obtained possession of 
the commune of Ghent, the must intractable of all. 
The people of Liege were now the only ones who 
resisted him. but in 1465 he conquered them at 
Mnnteiiaeken and imposed upon them very severe 
conditions. A twelvemonth later he destroyed the 
city of Dinant. During his last years Philip's facul- 

ties became impaired and Louis XI of France not 
only made trouble between him and his son but even 
influenced the duke into giving up the cities of the 
Somme. However, in 1465 Philip became reconciled 
to his son, Charles, and confided to him the adminis- 
tration of affairs, dying 15 June, 1467. A shrewd 
man and cunning politician, Philip was likewise 
ostentatious, irascible, and licentious. The splendour 
of his court was unequalled, and the founding of the 
Order of the Golden Fleece at Bruges in 1430, on the 
occasion of his third marriage, this time with Isabella 
of Portugal; marks, to some extent, the culmination 
of the luxury of the time. 

Charles the Bold. — Inheriting neither the astute- 
ness nor the vices of his father, Charles the Bold was 
industrious, eager for justice, and irreproachable 
in his private life; but his boldness amounted to rash- 
ness and his ability was not at all commensurate with 
his unbounded ambition. In his earlier years all 
was well. During his father's lifetime he placed him- 
self at the head of the "League of the Public Weal" 
which gathered about him the French lords who 
were unfavourably disposed toward Louis XI. 
Charles was victorious over Louis at Montlhery, after 
which triumph the Peace of Conflans (1465) gave him 
the cities of the Somme. He humbled the cities of 
Ghent and Mechlin for having dared to oppose him, 
fought the people of Liege at Brusthem, and deprived 
them of their freedom. King Louis XI, who strove 
to combat the duke by dint of intrigue, was destined 
to become the victim of his own trickery. While he 
was visiting Charles in PeVonne, the latter sovereign 
learned that the people of Liege were again in revolt, 
having been excited thereto by the king's agents. 
Furious at this intelligence, he kept Louis prisoner 
and forced him to accompany him to Liege where the 
wretched monarch witnessed the total destruction 
of the unfortunate city to which he had promised 
assistance (1468). Although the conqueror of all 
his enemies Charles still entertained mighty projects, 
and in 1469 he obtained possession of the landgravi- 
ate of Alsace and the county of Ferrette (Pfirt) as 
security for a loan made to Sigismund. He prevailed 
upon Duke Arnoul to sell him the Duchy of Guelder- 
land, the duke being at war with his son Adolphus 
( ! 472). He then marched against the King of France, 
but was stopped before the walls of Beauvais by the 
heroic resistance of its citizens (1472) and made to 
sign the truce of Senlis. Nor was he any more suc- 
cessful in his attempt to obtain a king's crown from 
the Emperor Frederick III, to whose son, Maximilian, 
he had promised the hand of his own daughter, Mary. 
Later, however, the emperor and the duke met at 
Trier for the approaching coronation, when the 
emperor, whom the agents of Louis XI had suc- 
ceeded in alarming, hastily disappeared. At the 
same time Louis stirred up further hostilities against 
Charles on the Upper Rhine where a confederacy, 
including the Alsatian villages and Swiss cantons, 
was already plotting against, him. .Meanwhile Charles 
had been wasting his troops on the tedious, fruitless 
siege of the little city of N'eiiss on the Rhine, and 
was therefore in no condition to rejoin his ally, 
Edward IV of England, who had just landed in 
France. In order to have full sway along the Rhine 
he signed the truce of Soluvre (1475) with Louis XI 
and profited by it to take possession of Lorraine, 
which till then had separated his Burgundian do- 
mains from those of the Netherlands (provinces de 
jmr dera). He then advanced upon the Swiss who 

defeated him most mercilessly atGranson ami Morat 

and fairly annihilated his army. Ren6, the young 
Duke of Lorraine, recovered his country and when 
Charles afterwards laid siege to Nancy, its capital 
city, he lost courage, and betrayed by one of his 
own hirelings, was defeated and killed in a sortie. 
The next day his frozen corpse was found in a pond, 




having been half devoured by wolves (5 January, 

Mary and the "Great Privilege". — This catastro- 
phe left the Burgundian estates in a most critical 
condition. The sole heir to all these provinces, Mary 
of Burgundy, who was then barely twenty years old, 
beheld storms gathering both within and without. 
The King of France seized the Duchy of Burgundy 
as a male fief of the Crown and also the cities of the 
Somme and held up the other provinces to tempt the 
cupidity of neighbouring princes. The large cities 
of Flanders roused by Louis' confederates, grew 
restless and the States-General, convened in Febru- 
ary, 1477, obliged the young duchess to grant the 
"Great Privilege". This famous act was a violent 
reaction not only against the despotic tendencies of 
preceding governments, but also against all their work 
of unification; it destroyed central institutions and re- 
duced the Burgundian States to nothing but a sort of 
a federation of provinces combined under the regime 
of personal union. Not content with this, the people 
of Ghent brought to the scaffold Hugonet and d'Hum- 
bercourt, Mary's two faithful counsellors, whom they 
looked upon as representatives of the deceased duke's 
absolutist regime. Satisfied that the country was 
sufficiently weakened and disorganized, Louis XI 
threw off the mask and ordered his army into Artois 
and Hainault. The imminence of danger seemed to 
revive a spirit of loyalty in the Burgundian provinces 
and the marriage of Mary and Maximilian of Haps- 
burg, son of Frederick III, was hastened. This 
marriage saved the inheritance of the young princess 
but, as we shall see, it resulted in thereafter making 
the Netherlands dependent upon foreign dynasties. 
Meanwhile Maximilian vigorously repulsed the French 
in the battle of Guinegate (1479). Unfortunately 
Mary of Burgundy died in 1482 from injuries sus- 
tained in a fall from her horse, and Maximilian's 
claim to the right of governing the provinces in the 
capacity of regent during the minority of his son 
Philip, roused the indignation of the States-General, 
which were led by the three large Flemish cities of 
Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres. Duped by Louis XI they 
concluded with him the second Peace of Arras (1482) 
which gave the hand of their Princess Margaret to 
the Dauphin, with Artois and Burgundy for her 
dower, and Maximilian was deprived of his children 
who were provided with a regency council. This was 
the origin of a desperate struggle between himself 
and the States-General during which he was made 
prisoner by the people of Bruges, and it was with 
the greatest difficulty that he obtained his freedom. 
Immediately upon his release he began again to con- 
tend with the States, which eventually were obliged 
to submit to his power (1492), and the treaty of 
Senlis with France restored Artois to Maximilian 
with his daughter Margaret (1493). In this same 
year Maximilian became emperor and liberated his 
son Philip who assumed the government of the 

Phili/i the Handsome. — The reign of Philip the 
Handsome, which lasted thirteen years, promised 
Belgium an era of self-government and independence, 
but his marriage with Joanna of Castile only paved 
the way for its dependence on a foreign sovereign as, 
on the death of the son of Ferdinand the Catholic 
ami Isabella, it was Philip who. in the name of his 
wife, became King of Castile. However, he died in 
1.506 and as his father-in-law, Ferdinand, soon fol- 
lowed him to the tomb, it was Charles, son of Philip 

the Handsome, who inherited all the great Spanish 
monarchy "on which the sun never set", the Nether- 
lands being thenceforth only a dependency of his 
chief kingdom. But at first this was not noticeable. 
Charles, who was also the emperor (with the title of 
Charles "V), travelled much and paid frequent visits 
to the Netherlands, showing a special predilection 

for his Flemish fellow-cotmtrymen and knowing how 
to make himself popular among them. He confided 
their country to the care of his aunt, Margaret of 
Austria, and later to that of his sister, Mary of Hun- 
gary (1531-5.5), both talented women and of great 
service to him. Charles' reign represents the maxi- 
mum of political and commercial prosperity in the 
Netherlands to which he annexed the city of Tournai 
(1521), the provinces of Friesland (1.523), Utrecht 
and Overyssel (1.528), Groningen and Drenthe (1536), 
and the Duchy of Guelderland (1543). Thus the 
patrimony was definitively settled and known there- 
after as the Seventeen Provinces. By his Pragmatic 
Sanction of 1549 Charles Y declared this domain an 
indivisible whole and nothing contributed more to 
the formation of national unity. He sundered the 
ties of vassalage that bound Flanders to the Kingdom 
of France, and although emperor, permitted the 
authority of the empire to come to naught in the prov- 
inces west of the Scheldt. Beginning with 1548 they 
in truth formed the "Circle of Burgundy", a title 
which implied little or no duty toward the empire. 
In the interior Charles V organized a central govern- 
ment by creating three councils, called collateral, 
and established with a view to simplifying matters 
for the female ruler; they were the council of state for 
general affairs, the privy council for administrative 
purposes, and the council of finance. He introduced 
the Inquisition, issued extremely severe "placards" 
prohibiting heresy, and harshly suppressed Ghent, 
his native city, which had refused to vote certain 
subsidies and had given itself up to acts of violence 
(1540). It was deprived of all its freedom and at this 
time communal government may be said to have 
received its death-blow in the Netherlands. 

Philip II. — However, Charles V was sincerely 
regretted when, during a solemn session held at 
Brussels before representatives of the States, 25 
October, 1.55.5, he renounced the government of the 
Netherlands in favour of his son, Philip II. Strictly 
speaking, with Charles V ended the Burgundian era 
in this country which was subsequently known as 
the Spanish Netherlands. But as yet these states 
had no national name, the dukes generally alluding 
to them as their provinces de par deca in contradis- 
tinction to the Duchy and Countship of Burgundy 
which were territorially separated from them. Never- 
theless, although this duchy and countship had been 
conquered by France, from the fifteenth century it 
had been customary to call them Burgundy and their 
inhabitants Burgundians. Even the French spoken 
at the ducal court was called Burgundian. In spite 
of the efforts made at bringing about unification, 
the spirit of particularism prevailed in the various 
provinces in matters of legislation, each according 
political rights to its own inhabitants exclusively 
and opposing central institutions as much as possible. 
From the time of Philip the Good the Netherlands 
had been the centre of a luxurious and brilliant 
civilization, and Antwerp, which had replaced Bruges, 
whose harbour had become sand-filled, was recog- 
nized as the chief commercial city of Europe. Noth- 
ing could equal the sumptuousness of the court which 
wis the rendezvous of many literary men and artists, 
and it was during the reign of Philip the Good that 
the Bruges school of painting sprang up and pros- 
pered, boasting of such famous members as the broth- 
ers John and Hubert Van Eyck, Hans Mending, 
and Gerard David, whilst Brussels. Ghent, l.ouvain. 
and Antwerp gloried in artists like Roger Van den 

Weyden, Hugo Van der Goes, Thierry Bouts, Quen- 
t in Metsys, and in the great sculptor Clans Sinter. 
Although literature did not flourish to the same- ex- 
tent as the arts, the historians Philippe de Comines, 
Molinet, Chastelain, and Olivier de la Slarche are cer- 
tainly deserving of mention and were far superior 
to the French historians of the same epoch. 




For the public ecclesiastical history of Burgundy 
see articles Besancon, DlJON, Lyons. Macon. Also 
Antoine Millc. " Abregej chronologique de 1'histoire 
ecclesiastique civile et litteraire de Bourgogne, depuis 
I'eTablissemenl des Bourguignons dans les Gaules 
jusqu'a I'annee 1772" (Dijon, 1771-73); and the his- 
torie ol various religious orders established in Bur- 
gundy, e. g. J. 1 ■'nilere, "Narration historique et 
topographique des couvents de l'ordre de St-Francois 
el de Ste-Claire eriges en la province anciennement 
appelee de Bourgogne", etc. (Lyons, 1619); Lavi- 
rotte, "Memoire statistique sur les eTablissements des 
Templiers et des Hospitallers de St-Jean de Jerusalem 
en Bourgogne" (Paris, 1S.53); "Peferinages en Bour- 
gogne" in "Congres scient. France" (Autun, L876 
78), II. 90; Quantin, "Memoire sur ['influence des 
monasteres des ordresde St-Benotl el de Ctteaux en 
Bourgogne", in same collection (Auxerre L858-59), 
II, 39(1; .1. Simonnet, "Le clerg4 en Bourgogne" 
(XIV, XV siecles) in "Mem de I V.d. de Dijon" 
(1866), XIII. 21-143; ('. Seignobos, "Le regime 
feodal en Bourgogne jusqu'en 1360, etude sur la 
soci6t£ et les institutions d'une province franchise 
au moyen-age", etc. (Paris, 1881). 

ECERTTN Di 1.1 [TENBiOVE, I ' ' >8 a Ih ::■:! <ir, 

de Belgique sous la domis de Bourgogne (Brussels, 

■ ' re. i; I'm t'hmnique, ■■■I Kervyn de I.ettkn- 

hove (Brussels, 1863-66); de la Mai M&moires, ed. 

Beaune im' d'Arbaumont (Paris, L883-88); Molinet, 

I'uns 1SJ7 _'s : l'liii.n.pEDE Comixes 

Memoires, •■ I dj Mandrot ' l\ans, 1901-03); De Barante, 

Bourgognedt la <is (Paris, 1824- 

26), republished several nines in Belgium; Fiikiikkicij, Essai 

Syr Ir r,',lr /'nlitnfw ,t . HourgOgru 'Inns It 

Bas- (Ghent, Isr.v. Piriknnk. Hint.,!, ll,l„>, r „- HiOTi. Ill: 
VON l.Miii h. Jal.nlin'i r,<r: H,ii/rm nnd i/u, Ztit (lMitll; Kirk. 
H,st.,r : . Bold, llul., V •!..: lis ; 

Tovtev, (Shail, ■ I ,'./ Ugue '/<■ Constance I 1902). 

1 "'i>ii itiiin Krimi. 

Burial, CHRISTIAN, the interment of a deceased 

person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground. 

Tin' Jews and most of the nations of antiquity buried 
their dead. Amongst the ('.reeks ami Romans both 
cremation and interment were practised indifferently. 
That the early Christians from the beginning used 
only burial seeiiis certain. This conclusion may be 
inferred not only From negative arguments but from 
tin direct testimony of Tertullian, "De Corona" 
(P, I... II. :i_>, 795; ci. Minuciua Felix, "Octavius", 
xi in P. I... Ill, 266), and from the stress laid upon 
the analogy between the resurrection of the body 
and the Resurrection of Christ (I Cor . \v. -12; ef. Ter- 
tullian. "De Anima". lv; Augustine, "De civitate 
Dei", I, xiii). In the light of this same dogma of the 
resurrection of the body as well as of Jewish tradition 
(ef, To!>.. i. 21 ; xii. 12; Ecclus., xxxviii. Hi; II Made, 
xii. 39), it w easy to understand how the interment of 
the mortal remains of the Christian dead has always 
been regarded as an act of religious import and has 
been surrounded at all times w ith some measure of re- 
ligious ceremonial. The motives of Christian burial 
will be more fully treated in the article CREMATION. 

\- i" the latter practice, it will be sufficient to say 

herc> that, while involving no necessary contradiction 
article of faith, it is opposed alike to the law 
ot the Church and to the usages of antiquity. In de- 
fense of the Church's recent prohibitions, it may be 
urged that the revival of cremation in modern times 
prai tice been prompted less by considerations 
of improved hygiene or psychological sentiment than 
by avowed materialism and opposition to Catholic 
The Law oi mi Church Regarding Burial. — 

\i < i irding to the canon law every man is free to eii 

lor himself the burial ground in which he wishe 
interred. It is not necessary that this choice should 
be formally registered in his will. Any reasonable 

legal proof is sufficient as evidence of his wishes in the 
matter, and it has been decided th it the testimony 
of one witness, for example his confessor, may In- ac- 

cepted, if there be no suspicion of interested motives. 
(S. C. Cmieilii, 21 March, 1871, Lex, 189.) Where no 
wish has been expressed it will be assumed that the 
interment is to take place in any vault or burial place 
winch may have belonged to the deceased or his 
family, and failing this the remains should be buried 
in the cemetery of the parish in which the deceased 
had his domicile or quasi-domicile. Certain excep- 
tions, however, are recognized in the case of cardinals, 
bishops, canons, etc. Formerly monastic and other 
churches claimed and enjoyed under certain condi- 
tions the privilege of interring notable benefactors 
within their precincts. It may be said that no such 
privilege is now recognized as a matter of right to the 
detriment of the claim of the parish. If a man die in 
a parish which is not, his own, the canon law pre- 
scribes that the body should be conveyed to his own 
parish for interment if this is reasonably possible, but 
the parish priest of the place where he died may claim 
the right of attending the corpse to the place of burial. 
In fine, the principle is recognized that it belongs to 
tin parish priest to bury his own parishioners. The 
canon law recognizes for regular orders the right to be 
buried in the cemetery of their own monastery (Sag- 
muller, 453; L. Wagner in "Archiv f. kath. Kirchcn- 
recht ". 1873, XXXIX, 385; Kohn, ibid., XL, 329). 

Originally, as burial was a spiritual function, it was 
laid down that no fee could be exacted for this with- 
out simony (Decretum Gratiani, xiii, q. ii; e. viii, ix; 
Extrav, de sim., V, 3). But the custom of making 
gifts to the Church, partly as an acknowledgment of 
the trouble taken by the clergy, partly for the bene- 
fit of the soul of the departed, gradually became gen- 
eral, and such offerings were recognized in time as 
jiirn stolee which went to the personal support of the 
parish priest or his curates. It was, however, dis- 
tinctly insisted upon that the carrying out of the riles 
of the Church should not be made conditional upon 
the payment of the tee being made beforehand, 
though the parish priest could recover such fee after- 
wards by process of law in case it were withheld. 
Moreover in the case of the very poor he is bound to 
bury them gratuitously. If a parishioner elected to be 
buried outside his own parish, a certain proportion, 
generally a fourth part, of the fee paid or the gifts 
that might be made in behalf of the deceased on oc- 
casion of the burial was to go to the priest of his own 
parish. Where an old custom existed, the contin- 
uance of (lie payment of this fourth part under cer- 
tain conditions was recognized by the Council of Trent 
(Soss. XXV, De ret , c. xiii). Nowadays the princi- 
ple is still maintained, but generally the payment to 
the proprivs parochus takes the form of the fourth 
part of a definite burial-ice which is determined ac- 
cording to some fixed tariff (S. C. Ep. et Reg., 19 Jan- 
uary. 1866; S. C. Cone, Hi February, 1889),and which 
may be exacted by the parish priest for every burial 
which takes place in his district. He has, however, no 
right to any compensation if a non-parishioner dies 
and is taken back to his own parish for burial, nor 
again when one of his own parishioners dies away 
from home and has to be buried in the place of his 

Only baptized persons have a claim to Christian 
burial and the riles of the Church cannot lawfully 
be performed over those who are not. baptized. More- 
Over no strict claim can be allowed in the case of those 
persons who have not lived in communion with the 

Church, according to the maxim which comes down 
from the time of Pope Leo the (beat (448) "quibus 
viventibus nun communicavimus mortuis communi- 

e ire eii possum us" (i. e. we cannot hold communion 
in death with those who in life were not in communion 
with us). It has further been recognized asa principle 

that the last rites of the ( 'liurch constitute a mark of 
respect which is not to be show n to those who in their 

lives have proved themselves unworthy of it. In this 




way various classes of persons are excluded from Chris- 
tian burial — pagans, Jews, infidels, heretics, and their 
adherents (Rit. Rom., VI, c. ii) schismatics, apostates, 
and persons who have been excommunicated by 
name or placed under an interdict. If an excommuni- 
cated person be buried in a church or in a consecrated 
cemetery the place is thereby desecrated, and, wher- 
ever possible, the remains must be exhumed and 
buried elsewhere. Further, Christian burial is to be 
refused to suicides (this prohibition is as old as the 
fourth century; cf. Cassian in P. L., XL, 573) except 
in case that the act was committed when they were 
of unsound mind or unless they showed signs of re- 
pentance before death occurred. It is also withheld 
from those who have been killed in a duel, even though 
they should give signs of repentance before death. 
Other persons similarly debarred are notorious sin- 
ners who die without repentance, those who have 
openly held the sacraments in contempt (for example 
by staying away from Communion at Easter time to 
the public scandal) and who showed no signs of sor- 
row, monks and nuns who are found to have died in 
the possession of money or valuables which they had 
kept for their own, and finally those who have di- 
rected that their bodies should be cremated after 
death. In all such cases, however, the general prac- 
tice of the Church at the present day has been to 
interpret these prohibitions as mildly as possible. 
Ordinarily the parish priest is directed to refer doubt- 
ful cases to the bishop, and the bishop, if any favour- 
able construction can be found, allows the burial to 

Many complications are caused in the administra- 
tion of the canon law by the political conditions un- 
der which the Church exists in modern times in most 
countries of the world. For instance, the question 
may often arise whether a non-Catholic can be buried 
in a consecrated cemetery belonging, not to the civil 
administration, but to the Church, and perhaps ad- 
joining the sacred building itself; or again in such a 
case whether non-Catholic worshippers can perform 
their own rites at the interment. As it often hap- 
pened that a Catholic graveyard was the only avail- 
able place of burial in a large district, it has been de- 
cided as a matter of necessity that in such cases it 
was possible to allow Protestants to be buried in a 
consecrated graveyard (S. C. Inquis., 23 July, 1609). 
In some instances a special portion of ground has been 
set aside for the purpose and non-Catholic ritual is 
permitted to be used there. In cases of necessity the 
Catholic parish priest may preside at such an inter- 
ment, but he must not use any ritual or prayers that 
would be recognized as distinctively Catholic. It 
hardly needs saying that at the present day in almost 
every part of the world the prescriptions of the canon 
law regarding burial are in conflict with secular leg- 
islation in more than one particular. In such cases 
the Church is often compelled to waive her right, in 
order to prevent greater evils. On the other hand, 
we may notice that the Church's claim to exercise 
control over the burial of her members dates back to 
an age anterior even to the freedom given to Chris- 
tianity under Constantine. From the beginning the 
principle seems to have been insisted upon that the 
faithful should be buried apart from the pagans. 
Thus St. Cyprian of Carthage makes it a matter of 
reproach against a Spanish bishop Martial that he 
had not sufficiently attended to this, and that lie had 
tolerated " filios exterarum gentium more apud pro- 
fana sepulchra depositos et alienigenis consepultos" 
(Cyprian, Ep. lxvii, 6). In the same way St. Hilary, 
a century later, considers that Our Saviour warned 
His disciples against a similar profanation "Ad- 
monuit non admisceri memoriis sanctorum mortuos 
infideles" (Hilary, in S. Matt., vii). So also the Do- 
natists when they gained the upper hand were so 
deeply imbued with this principle of exclusive sepul- 

ture that they would not allow the Catholics to be 
buried in the cemeteries they had seized upon. "Ad 
hoc basilicas invadere voluistis ut vobis solis cceme- 
teria vindicetis, non permittentes sepeliri corpora 
Catholica" (Optatus, VI, vii). With regard to the 
exclusion of suicides from the consecrated burial 
grounds it would appear that some similar practice 
was familiar to the pagans even before Christianity 
had spread throughout the empire. Thus there is 
a well-known pagan inscription of Lanuvium of the 
year 133: "Quisquis ex quacunque causa mortem sibi 
asciverit eius ratio funeris non habebitur." Probably 
this was not so much a protest of outraged morality 
as a warning that in the matter of burial no man had 
a right to make himself prematurely a charge upon 
the community. The time of burial is, generally 
speaking, between sunrise and sunset; any other hour 
requires the permission of the bishop (Ferraris, s. v., 
21(3, 274, 279). For the rest the diocesan statutes, 
regulations of the local ecclesiastical authority, and 
custom are to be considered, also the civil law and 
the public sanitary regulations. 

The Ritual op Burial. — Speaking first of the 
usages of the Catholic Church at the present day it 
will probably be convenient to divide the various re- 
ligious observances with which the Church surrounds 
the mortal remains of her faithful children after death 
into three different stages. The prayers and blessings 
which are provided by the "Rituale" for use before 
death will best be considered under the heading 
Death, Preparation for, but in the rites observed 
after death we may distinguish first what takes place 
in the house of the deceased and in bringing the body 
to the church, secondly the function in the church 
anil thirdly the ceremony by the grave side. In 
practice it is the exception for the whole of the 
Church's ritual to be performed, especially in the 
case of the burial of the laity in a large parish; but 
in religious houses ami where the facilities are at 
hand the service is generally carried out completely. 

With regard to the observances prescribed before 
the body is conveyed to the church it may be noted 
that according to the rubrics prefixed to the title 
"De exsequiis" in the "Rituale Romanum" a proper 
interval (debit um temporis intervallum) ought to 
elapse between the moment of death and the burial, 
especially where death has occurred unexpectedly, 
in order that no doubt may remain that life is really 
extinct. In southern climates it is not unusual to 
celebrate the funeral the day after the decease or 
even upon the day itself, but the practice both in 
pagan and Christian times has varied greatly. Among 
the ancient Romans it would seem that the bodies 
of persons of distinction were commonly kept for 
seven days, while the poor were interred the day 
after death. In these matters the Church has gen- 
erally been content to adopt the usages which were 
already in possession. The washing of the corpse is 
so frequently spoken of both in secular and monastic 
rituals as to wear almost the aspect of a religious 
ceremony, but no special prayers are assigned to it. 
Minute directions arc given as to the clothing of the 
dead in the case of all clergy. Tiny arc to be attired 
in ordinary ecclesiastical costume and over this they 
are to wear the vestments distinctive of their order. 
Thus the priest or bishop must be clad in amice, alb, 
girdle, maniple, stole ami chasuble. His biretta 
should be placed upon his head and the tonsure 
should be renewed. The deacon similarly wears his 
dalmatic and stole, the subdeaeon bis tunicle, and 
the cleric his surplice. In practice it is usual in the 
case of a priest to place upon the coffin lid a chalice 
and paten at one end with the biretta at the other; 
but this is not ordered in the rubrics of the " Rituale". 
For the laity it is directed that the body should be 
decently laid out, that a light should be kept burning 
thai a small cross should, if possible, be placed in the 




hands, failing which the hands are to he arranged in 
the form of a cross, and that the body should oc- 
casionally be sprinkled with holy water. The burn- 
ing of more than one candle beside the body is not 
directly enjoined for all, but it is mentioned in the 
"Ceremoniale" in the case of a bishop and is of gen- 
eral observance. On the other hand, it is mentioned 
thai the debita lumina, the candles which according 
to ancient custom are carried in the procession, ought 
to be provided by the parish gratuitously in the case 
of the very poor, and it is very distinctly enjoined 
that in exacting such fees as custom prescribes on 
these occasions the clergy ought sedulously to avoid 
all appearance of avarice. It is also laid down that 
the laity, even in the case of crowned heads, are never 
to be carried to the grave by the hands of the clergy — 
a prescription which can be traced back to a synod of 
Seville in 1512 and is probably much older. But in 
the Early Church this does not seem to have been ob- 
served, for we have several recorded instances in 
which ladies who died in repute of sanctity, as for ex- 
ample St. Paula or St. Macrina, were carried to the 
grave by bishops. 

The first stage in the obsequies of a deceased person 
according to the rite now in use is the conveyance of 
the body to the church. At an appointed hour the 
clergy are directed to assemble in the church, a sig- 
nal oeing given by the tolling of a bell. The parish 
priest in surplice and black stole, or if he prefer it 
wearing a black cope as well, sots to the house of the 
deceased with the rest of the company, one cleric 
carrying the cross and another a stoup of holy water. 
Before the coffin is removed from the house it is 
sprinkled with holy water, the priest with his assist- 
ants saying beside it the psalm Pe Profundis with 
the antiphon Si iniquitates. Then the procession 
sets out for the church. The cross-bearer goes first, 
religious confraternities, if such there be, and mem- 
bers of the clergy follow, carrying lighted candles, 
the priest walks immediately before tin- coffin and 
the friends of the deceased and others walk behind. 
As they leave the house the priest intones the an- 
tiphon Exsultabunt Domino, and then the psalm 
Miserere i- recited or chanted in alternate verses by 
the cantors and clergy. On reaching the church the 
antiphon Exsultabunt is repeated, and as the body 
is borne to its place "in the middle of the church 
the responsory Subvenite (Come to his assistance ye 
Saints of God, come to meet him ye Angels of the 
Lord, etc.) is recited. The present rubric directs that 
if the corpse be that of a layman the feet are to be 
turned towards the altar; if on the other hand the 
corpse be that of a priest, then the position is re- 
versed, the head beinc; towards the altar. Whether 
this exceptional treatment of priests as regards posi- 
tion is of early date in the West is open to considera- 
ble doubt. No earlier example seems so far to have 
been quoted than the reference to it in Burchard's 
"Diary" noted by Catalani, Burchard was the 
ter of ceremonies to Innocent Ylll and Alex- 
ander VI, and he may himself have introduced the 
practice, but his speaking of it as the customary ar« 
rangement does not suggest this. On the other hand, 
the medieval liturgists apparently know no exception 
to their rule that both before the altar and in the 
grave the feet of all Christians should be pointed to 
the East. This custom we find alluded to by Bishop 
Bildeberi at the beginning of the twelfth century 
(P. I... CI. XXI. 896 . and its symbolism is discussed 
by Durandus. "A man ought so to bo buried", he 
says, "that while his head lies to the West his feet 
are turned to the East, for thus he prays as it were 
by his very position and suggests that he is ready to 
hasten from the Wesl to the last" (Ration. Div. 
Off., VII, 3.5). But if Roman medieval practice 
seems to offer no foundation for the distinction now 
made between the priest and the layman, it is note- 

worthy that in the Greek Church very pronounced 
differences have been recognized from an early date. 
In the "Ecclesiastical Hierarchy" of Pseudo-Diony- 
sius. which belongs to the fifth century, we learn that 
a priest or bishop was placed before the altar {(irltrpoa- 
0tp toO Selov dvtnacTTiiptov), while a monk or layman 
lay outside the holy gates or in the vestibule. A 
similar practice is observed to the present day. The 
corpse of a layman during the singing of the "Pan- 
nychis" (the equivalent of the "Vigilise Mortuorum" 
or Vigil of the Dead) is usually deposited in the nar- 
thex, that of a priest or monk in the middle of the 
church, while in the case of a bishop he is laid during 
a certain portion of the service in different positions 
within the sanctuary, the body at one point being 
placed behind the altar exactly in front of the bishop's 
throne and the head towards the throne (Maltzew, 
Begrabniss-Ritus, 278). It is possible that some imi- 
tation of this practice in Dalmatia or in Southern 
Italy may have indirectly led to the introduction of 
our present rubric. The idea of both seems to be that 
the bishop (or priest) in death should occupy the 
same position in the church as during life, i. e. facing 
his people whom he taught and blessed in Christ's 

Supposing the body to have been brought to the 
church in the afternoon or evening, the second por- 
tion of the obsequies, that carried out in the church, 
may begin with the recital of the Vespers for the 
Dead. This, however, is not prescribed in the "Rituale 
Romanum", which speaks only of Matins and Lauds, 
though Vespers are mentioned in the "Ca>remoniaIe 
Episcoporum" in the case of a bishop. If the Ves- 
pers for the Dead are said they begin with the an- 
tiphon Placebo, and the Office of Matins, if we exclude 
the invitatory, begins with the antiphon Dirige. 
For this reason the " Placebo and Dirige," of which 
we so constantly find mention in medieval English 
writers, mean simply the Vespers and Matins for the 
Dead. It is from the latter of these two words that 
the English term dirge is derived. Candles are 
lighted round the coffin and they should be allowed 
to burn at least during the continuance of the Office, 
Mass. and Absolutions. Throughout the Office for 
the Dead each psalm ends with Requiem leternam 
(Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let per- 
petual light shine upon them) in the place of the 
Gloria Patri. It is interesting perhaps to note here 
that the liturgist, Mr. Edmund Bishop, after minute 
investigation has come to the conclusion that in this 
familiar formula, Requiem oeternam dona eis, Domine; 
1 1 lux perpetua luceai eis, we have a blending of two 
distinct liturgical currents; "the second member of 
the phrase expresses the aspiration of the mind and 
soul of the Roman, the first the aspiration of the mind 
and soul of the Goth" (Kuypers, Book of Cerne. 275). 
It is true that it has been maintained that the words 
are borrowed from a passage in IV Esdras (Apocry- 
pha ). ii, 34-35, but we may doubt if the resemblance 
is more than accidental. 

With regard to the Office and Mass which form 
the second portion of the Exsequim, the Matins after 
a preliminary invitatorium: "Regem cui omnia vivunt, 
venite adoremus", consist of nine psalms divided as 
usual into three nocturns by three sets of lessons and 
responsories. The first nocturn, as already noted, 
begins with the antiphon " Dirige, Domine Deus meus, 
in conspectu tuo vitani meam , and is made up of the 
three psalms. Verba mea, Ps. v. Domine ne in furore, 
Ps. vi, and Domine Deus mens, Ps. vii, each having 
its own antiphon, which is duplicated. The lessons 
l)oth in this and in tin- following nocturns are all 
taken from the Book of Job, chapters vii, x, xiii, xiv, 
xvii, and xix. in which the sufferer expresses the 
misery of man's lot, but above all his unalterable 
trust in God. The lessons are read without the usual 
absolution and blessing, but each is followed by a 




responsory, and some of these responsoriea in their 
picturesque conciseness deserve to be reckoned among 
the most striking portions of the liturgy. We may 
quote for example the last responsory of the third 
nocturn which occurs again before the absolution. 
It is thus translated in the Roman Breviary of the 
late Marquess of Bute: 

"Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death in that 
awful day when the heavens and earth shall be 
shaken, and Thou shalt come to judge the world by 

" Verse. Quaking and dread take hold upon me, 
when I look for the coming of the trial and the wrath 
to come. 

" Answer. When the heavens and the earth shall be 

" Verse. That day is a day of wrath, of wasteness 
and desolation, a great day and exceeding bitter. 

" Answer. When Thou shalt come to judge the 
world by fire. 

" Verse. O Lord, grant them eternal rest, and let 
everlasting light shine upon them. 

" Answer. Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death 
in that awful day, when the heavens and the earth 
shall be shaken and Thou shalt come to judge the 
world by fire." There seems reason to believe that 
this responsory is not of Roman origin (Batiffol, 
Roman Breviary, 198) but it is of considerable an- 
tiquity. At present, if the whole three nocturns 
(the second of which consists of Pss. xxii, xxiv, xxvi; 
and the third of Pss. xxxix, xl, and xli) are not said 
owing to lack of time or for any other cause, then 
another responsory, Libera me de viis inferni, is sung 
in place of that just quoted. Lauds follow imme- 
diately, in which the psalms Miserere and Te decet 
hymnus replace those usually said at the beginning 
and the Canticle of Ezechias is sung instead of the 
Benedicite. The Benedictus is recited with a special 
antiphon from John, xi, 25-26. This is familiar to 
many as having been retained in the burial service 
of the Church of England, "I am the resurrection and 
the life: he that believeth in Me, though he were dead, 
yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth 
in Me shall never die". Finally after certain preces 
follows the impressive collect Absolve, which is also 
said in the Mass, "Absolve, we beseech Thee, O Lord, 
the soul of thy servant N. that being dead to this 
world he may live to Thee, and whatever sins he may 
have committed in this life through human frailty, 
do Thou of Thy most merciful goodness forgive; 
through our Lord Jesus Christ", etc. 

The "Rituale" directs that if all three nocturns 
of the office cannot be said, it would be desirable to 
say at least the first. But it is even more emphatic 
in urging that Mass should not be omitted except on 
certain privileged festivals of the highest class which 
exclude a Mass for the dead prcescnte cadavere, i. e. 
even when the body is present. These days include 
the feasts of Christmas, the Epiphany, Easter, the 
Ascension, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, The An- 
nunciation, Assumption and Immaculate Conception, 
Nativity of St. John Baptist, St. Joseph, Sts. Peter 
and Paul, All Saints, the last three days of Holy 
Week, the Quarant' Ore, or Forty Hours, and cer- 
tain patronal feasts. On all other days, roughly 
speaking, the Church not only permits but greatly 
desires that the Holy Sacrifice should be offered for 
the deceased as the most solemn part of the rite of 
interment. To secure this the severer regulations 
of earlier centuries have in many respects been greatly 
relaxed in recenl times. For example it is not novs 

of obligation that the Mass should he sung with 

music. In the case of poor people w 1 1. > cannot de- 
fray the expenses incident to a Mass celebrated with 
solemnity, a simple low Mass of Requiem is permitted 
even on Sundays and other prohibited days, pro- 
vided that the parochial Mass of the Sunday be also 

said at another hour. Moreover this one Missa in 
die obitus sen depositionis may still be offered in such 
cases, even when on account of contagious disease 
or other serious reason the body cannot be brought 
to the church. As in the case of the Office, the Mass 
for the Dead is chiefly distinguished from ordinary 
Masses by certain omissions. Some of these, for 
example that of the Psalm Judica and of the blessings, 
may be due to the fact that the Missa de Requie was 
formerly regarded as supplementary to the Mass of 
the day. In other cases, for instance in the absence of 
hymns from the Office for the Dead, we may perhaps 
suspect that these funeral rites have preserved the 
tradition of a more primitive age. On the other hand, 
the suppression of the Gloria in excelsis, etc., as of the 
Gloria Patri seems to point to a sense of the incongru- 
ity of joyful themes in the presence of God's searching 
and inscrutable judgments. Thus a tractate of the 
eighth or ninth century printed byMuratori (Lit.Rom. 
Vet., II, 391) already directs that in the Vigils for 
the Dead "Psalms and lessons with the Responsories 
and Antiphons belonging to Matins are to be sung 
without Alleluia. In the Masses also neither Gloria 
in exelsis Deo nor Alleluia shall be sung." (Cf. 
Ceriani, Circa obligationem Officii Defunctorum, 9.) 

In the early Christian ages, however, it would seem 
that the Alleluia, especially in the East, was regarded 
as specially appropriate to funerals. Another omis- 
sion from the ordinary ritual of high Mass is that of 
the kiss of peace. This ceremony was always asso- 
ciated in idea with Holy Communion, and as Com- 
munion was not formerly distributed to the faithful 
at Masses for the Dead, the kiss of peace was not re- 
tained. A conspicuous feature of the Requiem Mass 
is the singing of the sequence, or hymn, "Dies ira". 
This masterpiece of medieval hymnology is of late 
introduction, as it was probably composed by the 
Franciscan Thomas of Celano in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It was not designed for its present liturgical 
use but for private devotion — note the singular num- 
ber throughout, voca me cum benedictis, </ui<l sum miser 
tunc dicturus, etc., as also the awkwardness of the 
added pie Jesu Domine dona eis requiem, but the 
hymn appears printed in the "Missale Romanum" of 
1485, though apparently not in the earlier edition of 
1474. However the use of the "Dies irae " in con- 
nexion with the exsequicB montuorvm is much more 
ancient, and Dr. Ebner has found it, musically noted 
as at present, in a Franciscan Missal of the thirteenth 
century. (Ebner. Quellen und Forschungen zur Ges- 
chichte des Missale Romanum. 120). During the Mass 
it is customary, though not a matter of precept, to 
distribute tapers of unbleached wax to the congre- 
gation or at least to those assisting within the sanc- 
tuary. These are to be lighted during the Gospel, 
during the latter part of the Holy Sacrifice from the 
Elevation to the Communion, and during the abso- 
lution which follows the Mass. As already remarked 
the association of lights with Christian obsequies is 
very ancient, and liturgists here recognize a symbol- 
ical reference to baptism (the illumination, (pwriffnis) 
whereby Christians are made the children of Light, 
as well as a concrete reminder of the oft repeated 
prayer et lux perpetua luceat eis. (Cf. Thalhofer, 
Liturgik, II. 529.) 

After Mass follows the absolution or AbsOUte, to 
use the convenient term by which the French desig- 
nate these special prayers for pardon over the corpse 
before it is laid in the grave. These prayers of the 
Absoute, like those said by the grave side, ought 
never to lie omitted. The subdeacon bearing the pro- 
cessional cross, and accompanied by the acolytes 
places himself at the head ol the coffin (i. e, facing the 
altar in the case of a layman, but between the coffin 
and the altar in the case of a priest), while the cele- 
brant, exchanging his black chasuble for a cope of 
the same colour, stands opposite at the foot. The 




assisting clergy are grouped around and the celebrant 
without preamble begins a1 once to read the prayer 
ffon intres in judicium rum servo tuo, praying that 
the deceased "may deserve to escape the avenging 
judgment, who, whilst he lived, was marked with 
the seal of the holy Trinity". This is followed by 
the responsorj " Libera me Domine", which, as oc- 
curring in the Matins for the Dead, has already been 
quoted above. Then after the Kyrie eleison, Christe 
eleison, Kyrie eleison the priest says aloud the Pater 
Noster and while this is repeated in silence by all, 
lie makes the round of the coffin, sprinkling it with 
holy water and bowing profoundly before the cross 
whin he passes it. After which, taking the thurible, 

he incenses tl offin in like manner; where we may 

note that the use of incense at funerals is derived from 
the earliest Christian centuries, though no doubt our 
manner of waving the censer towards persons and 
objects is relatively modern. Moreover it is possible 
that the incense was originally employed on such 
occasions for sanitary reasons. Finally after finishing 
the Pater Noster and repealing one or two short 
versicles to which answer is made by the clergy, the 
celebrant pronounces the prayer of absolution, most 
commonly in the following form: "O God, Whose at- 
tribute it is always to have mercy and to spare, we 
humbly present our prayers to for the soul of 
Thy servant X. which Thou hast this day called out 
of this world, beseeching Thee not to deliver it into 
the hands of the enemy, nor to forget it for ever, 
but to command Thy holy angels to receive it. ami 
to bear it into paradise; that as it has believed and 
Imped in Thee it may be delivered from the pains of 
hell and inherit eternal life through Christ our Lord. 
Amen." Although this prayer in its entirety cannot 
be BUrelj traced to an earlier date than the ninth cen- 
tury, it contains several elements that recall the 
ology of primitive times. It is to be found in 
of our i ■ x i .^ t i 1 1 lt manuscripts of the Gregorian 
nTitary. At the burial of bishops, cardinals. 
igns, etc., not one but live absolutions are pro- 
nounced according to the forms provided in the 
"Pontificale Romanum". These are spoken by five 

bishops Or other "prelates", each absolution being 
preceded by a separate responsory. In these solemn 
functions the prayer just quoted is not said, but most 
of the responsories and prayers used are borrowed 
from the Office for the Dead or from the Masses in 
the Roman Missal. It may be noted that all these 
absolutions are not in the declaratory but in the 
deprecatory form, i. e. they are prayers imploring 
< rod's mercy upon the deceased. 

After the absolution the body is carried to the grave 
and as the procession moves along tin- antiphon "In 
paradisum is chanted by tin- clergy it the choir. 
It runs thus: " May the angels escorl thee to paradise, 
may the martyrs receive thee at thy coming and 
bring thee into the holy city Jerusalem. May the 
choir i't angels receive thee, and with Lazarus, who 

once was poor, mayst thou have eternal rest." Ac- 
cording tn the rubric "the tomb (sepulchrutn) is 

then blessed if it has lint been blessed previously"; 

which has I n ruled In mean that a grave newly 

dug in an already consecrated cemetery is accounted 

i. and requires mi further consecration, but a 

mausoleum erected above ground or even a brick 

chamber beneath the surface is regarded as needing 

blessing when used for thi I hi- blessing 

is short and consists only of a single prayer after which 

the body is again sprinkled with holy water and in- 
to sen ice it t he grave side 
is very brief. The priest intoni the antiphon: "I 
am the Resurrection and the Life", after which the 

coffin is lowi grave and the Canticle 

Benedictus is meanwhile recited or sung. Tien the 
antiphon is repeated entire, the Pater Noster is said 
secretly, while the coffin is again sprinkled with holy 

water, and finally after one or two brief responses 
the following ancient prayer is said: "Grant this 
mercy, O Lord, we beseech Thee, to Thy servant de- 
parted, that he may not receive in punishment the 
requital of his deeds who in desire did keep Thy will, 
and as the true faith here united him to the company 
of the faithful, SO may Thy mercy unite him above 
to the choirs of angels. Through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen." 

Then with the final petition: "May his soul and 
the souls of all the faithful departed through the 
mercy of God rest in peace", the little procession of 
cross-bearer, surpliced clerics, and priest return to 
the sacristy reciting the De Profundis as they go. 
In some places the custom prevails that the officiating 
priest before retiring should offer the holy-water 
sprinkler to the relatives of the deceased who are 
present, in order that they may cast holy water upon 
the coffin in the grave. In others it is usual for the 
priest himself and for all present to throw down upon 
the coffin a handful of earth. This custom symbolical 
no doubt of "dust to dust" is certainly ancient and 
even in the "Rituale Romanum" a rubric is to be 
found prescribing that "in obsequies which have of 
necessity to be performed only in private and at 
the house of the deceased, blessed earth is put into 
the coffin while the Canticle Benedictus is being said". 
This no doubt is to be regarded as the nearest avail- 
able equivalent to interment in a consecrated grave. 
In other localities, more particularly in Germany, it 
it customary for the priest to deliver a short discourse 
(Leichenrede) before leaving the cemetery. This is 
the more appropriate because nearly everywhere in 
< iermany the civil law forbids the corpse to be taken 
to the church except in the case of bishops and other 
exalted personages. The result is that Mass and 
( Mice are performed w ith a catafalque only, and seem 
even in those rare cases in which they are retained 
to have nothing to do with the burial, instead of 
forming, as they .should do. its most essential feature. 
( In the other hand the service at the grave side is apt 
to appear strangely brief and perfunctory unless iin- 
pressiveness be given to it by the discourse of the 
officiating priest. It may lie noted that many local 
customs are still allowed to continue without inter- 
ference in the ritual observed by the grave side. 
Before the Reformation there was an extraordinary 
variety of prayers and responsories commonly recited 
over the grave especially in (iermany. The extreme 
simplicity of the "Hituale Romanum" represents no 
doubt a reaction against what threatened to become 
an abuse. Of the peculiar rites which so long stir \ i\ ed 
locally, the Ritual of Brixen may be taken as an 
illustration. In this when the priest blesses the 
corpse with holy water, he is directed to say: "Rore 
ccelcsti perfundat et perficial aniniam tuam Deus". 
\- the body is lowered into the ground he says: 
"Sume terra quod tuum est, sumat Deus quod 
i i. corpus de terra formatum, spiritus de coelo in- 
spiratus est". Then the priest scatters earth upon 
the body with a shovel three times, saying. "Memento 

homo quia pulvis es el in pulverem reverteris". 

After this the Magnificat is recited and the psalm 
Lauda annua mea Dominum, with various prayers, 
and then with a wooden cross the priest signs the 
grave in three places, at the head, in the middle. 
and at the feet, with the words; "Signum Sal. 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi super te. qui in hac imag- 
ine redemit te, nee permittat introire, [and here he 

plants the wooden cross at the head of the grave] 

angelum percutientem in asternum". It is interest- 
ing to note that alter once more blessing the grave 
with holy water he recites a prayer over the people 
in the vernacular. The clergy and all other | ri 
also sprinkle holy Water on the grave before they 

di pe' 

Tin: Bubial of Little Children. — The "Rituale 




Romanum" provides a separate form of burial for 
infants and children who have died before they have 
reached years of discretion. It directs that a special 
portion of the cemetery should be set aside for them 
and that either the bells should not be tolled or that 
they should be rung in a joyous peal. Further, 
custom prescribes that white and not black should 
be used in token of mourning. The priest is bidden 
to wear a white stole over his surplice and a crown 
of flowers or sweet foliage is to be laid upon the 
child's brow. The processional cross is carried, but 
without its staff. The body may be borne to and 
deposited temporarily in the church, but this is not 
prescribed as the normal arrangement and in any 
ease no provision is made for either Office or Mass. 
One or two psalms of joyous import, e. g. the Laudate 
pueri Dominum (Ps. cxii), are appointed to be said 
while the body is borne to the church or to the ceme- 
tery, and holy water and incense are used to bless 
the remains before they are laid in the ground. Two 
special prayers are included in the ritual, one for use 
in the church, the other by the grave side. The 
former, which is certainly ancient, runs as follows: 
"Almighty and most compassionate God, Who upon 
all little children that have been born again in the 
fountain of Baptism, when they leave this world 
without any merits of their own, straightway be- 
stowest everlasting life, as we believe that Thou hast 
this day done to the soul of this little one, grant we 
beseech Thee, O Lord, by the intercession of Blessed 
Mary ever Virgin and of all Thy saints, that we also 
may serve Thee with pure hearts here below and may 
consort eternally with these blessed little ones in 
paradise, Through Christ our Lord, Amen." On 
the way back to the church the Canticle Benedieite 
is recited, and the prayer "Deus qui miro ordine 
angelorum ministeria hominumque dispensas", which 
is the collect used in the Mass of St. Michael's day, 
is said at the foot of the altar. The cross w-ithout 
the handle which is carried in the procession is con- 
sidered to be symbolical of an incomplete life. Many 
other peculiarities are prevalent locally. Thus in 
Rome in the eighteenth century, as we learn from 
Catalani, the dead child was generally clothed in 
the habit known as St. Philip Neri's. This is black 
in colour but sprinkled all over with gold and silver 
stars. A tiny biretta is placed upon the child's head 
and a little cross of white wax in its hands. Minia- 
ture habits of the different religious orders are also 
commonly used for the same purpose. 

History of our Present Ritual. — With regard 
to the burial of the dead in the early Christian cen- 
turies we know very little. No doubt the first Chris- 
tians followed the national customs of those peoples 
amongst whom they lived, in so far as they were not 
directly idolatrous. The final kiss of farewell, the 
use of crowns of flowers, the intervals appointed for 
recurring funeral celebrations, the manner of laying 
out the body and bearing it to the grave, etc., show 
nothing that is distinctive of the Christian Faith, 
even though later ages found a pious symbolism in 
many of these things. Moreover the use of holy 
water and incense (the latter originally as a sort of 
disinfectant) was also no doubt suggested by similar 
customs among the pagans around them. Perhaps 
we should add that the funeral banquets of the pagans 
were in some sense imitated by the agapas or love- 
feasts of the Christians which it seems to have been 
usual to celebrate in early times (see Marucchi, 
Elements d'arehekaogie chreHienne, I, 129), also that 
the anniversary Masses and "months minds" of the 
Church undoubtedly replaced a corresponding pagan 
usage of sacrifices. (See Dublin Review, July, 1907, 
p. 118.) But of the existence of some distinctively 
religious service we have good evidence at an early 
date. Tertullian refers incidentally to the corpse 
of a woman after death being laid out cum oratiune 

presbgteri. St. Jerome in his account of the death of 
St. Paul the Hermit speaks of the singing of hymns 
and psalms while the body is carried to the grave as 
an observance belonging to ancient Christian tra- 
dition. Again St. Gregory of Nyssa in his detailed 
description of the funeral of St. Macrina, St. Augus- 
tine in his references to his mother St. Monica, and 
many other documents like the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions (Bk. VII) and the "Celestial Hierarchy" of 
Pseudo-Dionysius make it abundantly clear that 
in the fourth and fifth centuries the offering of the 
Holy Sacrifice was the most essential feature in the 
last solemn rites, as it remains to this day. Probably 
the earliest detailed account of funeral ceremonial 
which has been preserved to us is to be found in the 
Spanish Ordinals lately published by Dom Ferotin. 
It seems to be satisfactorily established that the 
ritual here described represents in substance the 
Spanish practice of the latter part of the seventh 
century. We may accordingly quote in some detail 
from "the Order of what the clerics of any city ought 
to do when their bishop falls into a mortal sickness". 
After a reference to Canon iii of the seventh Council 
of Toledo (646) enjoining that a neighbouring bishop 
should if possible be summoned, the directions pro- 
ceed: "At what hour soever the bishop shall die 
W'hether by day or night the bell (Signum) shall at 
once be rung publicly in the cathedral (ecclesia 
seniore) and at the same time the bell shall ring in 
every church within a distance of two miles. 

" Then while some of the clergy in turn recite or 
chant the psalms earnestly and devoutly, the body of 
the bishop deceased is stripped by priests or deacons. 
After washing the body ... it is clothed with his 
usual vestments according to custom, i. e. his tunic, his 
breeches, and his stockings, and after this with cap 
(eapello) and face-cloth (sudario). Thereupon is put 
upon him an alb, and also a stole (orarium) about his 
neck and before his breast as when a priest is wont 
to say Mass. Also a cruet is placed in his hand. Then 
the thumbs of his hands are tied with bands, that is . 
with strips of linen or bandages. His feet are also 
fastened in the same way. After all this he is robed 
in a white chasuble (casulla). Then after spreading 
beneath a very clean white sheet, the body is laid 
upon the bier and all the while the priests, deacons 
and all the clergy keep continually reciting or chant- 
ing and incense is always burned. And in this wise 
he is laid in the choir of the church over which he 
ruled, lights going before and following behind and 
then a complete text of the gospels is laid upon his 
breast without anything to cover it, but the gospel 
itself rests upon a cloth of lambswool (super pallium 
agnavum — this can hardly be the archiepiscopal 
pallium in its technical sense) which is placed over 
his heart. And so it must be that whether he die 
by night or day the recitation of prayers or chanting 
of psalms shall be kept up continuously beside him 
until at the fitting hour of the day Sacrifice may be 
offered to God at the principal altar for his repose. 
Then the body is lifted tip by deacons, with the 
gospel book still lying on his breast, and he is carried 
to the grave, lights going before and following after, 
while all who are of the clergy sing the antiphons and 
responsories which are consecrated to the dead (gum 
solent de mortuis decantare), 

" After this when Mass has again been celebrated 
in that church in which he is to be buried, salt which 
has been exorcised is scattered in the tomb by dea- 
cons, while all other religious persons present sing 
the antiphon, In sinu Abrahse amici tui conloca cum 
Domine. And then when incense has a second time 
been offered over his body, the bishop who has 
come to bury him advances and opening the dead 
man's mouth he puts chrism into it. addressing him 
thus: 'Hoc pietatis sacramentum sit tibi in partici- 
patione omnium beatorum'. And then by the same 




bishop is intoned the antiphon: In pace in idipsum 
dormiam et requiescam. And this one verse is said, 
'Expectans, expectavi Dominum et respexit me'; and 
the chanting is so arranged that the verses are said 
one by one while the first is repeated after each. 
When Gloria lias been said the antiphon is repeated 
but not a second time." Two impressive collects are 
then said and another prayer which is headed 
"Benedictio". After which "the tomb is closed ac- 
cording to custom and it is fastened with a seal". 

Probably this rather elaborate ceremony was a type 
of the funerals celebrated throughout Spain at this 
epoch even in the case of the lower clergy and the 
laity. Of the final prayer we are expressly told that 
it may also be used for the obsequies of a priest. 
Further it is mentioned that when the priest is laid 
out he should be clothed just as he was wont to 
celebrate Mass, in tunic, shoes, breeches, alb, and 

The rite of putting chrism into the bishop's mouth, 
as mentioned above, does not seem to be known else- 
where, but on the other hand, the anointing the 
breast of a dead person with chrism was formerly 

§eneral in the Greek Church, and it seems to have 
een adopted at Rome at an early date. Thus in 
certain directions for burial and for Masses for the 
dead contained in the Penitential of Archbishop 
Theodore of Canterbury (c. 680) we meet the fol- 
lowing: "(1) According to the Church of Rome, it is 
the custom, in the case of monks or religious men, 
to carry them after their death to the church, to 
anoint their breasts with chrism, and there to cele- 
brate Masses for them; then to bear them to the grave 
with chanting, and when they have been laid in the 
tomb, prayer is offered for them; afterwards they are 
covered in with earth or with a slab. (2) On the first, 
tin- third, the ninth, and also the thirtieth day, let 
Mass be celebrated for them, and furthermore, let 
this be observed after a year has passed, if it be 

It seems natural to conjecture that the Span- 
ish custom of putting the chrism into the mouth 
of the dead may have been meant to replace the 
practice which certainly prevailed for a w'hile in 
Rome of administering the Blessed Eucharist either 
at the very moment of death or of leaving it with 
the corpse even when life was extinct. A clear 
example of this is forthcoming in the "Dialogues of 
St. Gregory the Great (II, xxiv,) and see the Appen- 
dix on the subject in Cardinal Rampolla's "Santa 
Melania Giuniore" (p. 254). There is some reason 
to believe that the inscription Christus hie est (Christ 
is here), or its equivalent, occasionally found on 
tomb-stones (see Leblant, Nouveau Recueil, 3) 
bears reference to the Blessed Eucharist placed on 
the tongue of the deceased. But this practice was 
soon forbidden. 

The custom of watching by the dead (the wake) 
is apparently very ancient. In its origin it was 
cither a Christian observance which was attended 
with the chanting of psalms, or if in a measure 
adopted from paganism the singing of psalms was 
introduced to Christianize it. In the Middle Ages 
among the monastic orders the custom no doubt 
was pious and salutary. By appointing relays of 
monks to succeed one another orderly provision was 
made that the corpse should never be left without 
prayer. But among secular persons these nocturnal 
meetings were always and everywhere an occasion 
of grave abuses, especially in the matter of eating 
and drinking. Thus to take a single example we 
read among the Anglo-Saxon canons of yElfric, ad- 
dressed to the clergy: "Ye shall not rejoice on ac- 
count of men deceased nor attend on the corpse 
ye be thereto invited. When ye are thereto 
invited then forbid ye the heathen songs (tha 
haethenan sangas) of the laymen and their loud 

cachinnations; nor eat ye nor drink where the corpse 
lieth therein, lest ye be imitators of the heathenism 
which they there commit" (Thorpe, Ancient Laws 
and Institutes of England, 448). We may reasonably 
suppose that the Office for the Dead, which consists 
only of Vespers, Matins, and Lauds, without Day- 
hours, originally developed out of the practice of 
passing the night in psalmody beside the corpse. 
In the tenth Ordo Romanus which supplies a de- 
scription of the obsequies of the Roman clergy in 
the twelfth century we find the Office said early in 
the morning, but there is no mention of praying be- 
side the corpse all night. In its general features 
this Roman Ordo agrees with the ritual now prac- 
tised, but there are a good many minor divergences. 
For example the Mass is said while the Office is being 
chanted; the Absoute at the close is an elaborate 
function in which four prelates officiate, recalling 
what is now observed in the obsequies of a bishop, 
and the service by the grave side is much more 
lengthy than that which now prevails. In the ear- 
liest Ambrosian ritual (eighth or ninth century) 
which Magistretti (Manuale Ambrosianum, Milan, 
1905, I, 67 sqq.) pronounces to be certainly derived 
from Rome we have the same breaking up of the ob- 
sequies into stages, i. e. at the house of the deceased, 
on the way to the church, at the church, from the 
church to the grave, and at the grave side, with 
which we are still familiar. But it is also clear that 
there was originally something of the nature of a 
wake (vigilice) consisting in the chanting of the whole 
Psalter beside the dead man at his home (Magistretti, 
ib., I, 70). 

A curious development of the Absoute, with its 
reiterated prayers for pardon, is to be found in the 
practice (which seems to have become very general 
in the second half of the eleventh century) of laying 
a form of absolution upon the breast of the deceased. 
This is clearly enjoined in the monastic constitutions 
of Archbishop Lanfranc and we have sundry his- 
torical examples of it. (Cf. Thurston, Life of St. 
Hugh of Lincoln, 219.) Sometimes a rude leaden 
cross with a few words scratched thereupon was 
used for the purpose and many such have been re- 
covered in opening tombs belonging to this period. 
In one remarkable example, that of Bishop Godfrey 
of Chichester (1088), the whole formula of absolution 
may be found in the same indicative form which 
meets us again in the so-called "Pontifical of Egbert ". 
It is noteworthy that in the Greek Church to this 
day a long paper of absolution, now usually a printed 
form, is first read over the deceased and then put 
into his hand and left witli him in the grave. 

The only other point among the many peculiar 
features of medieval ritual which seems to claim 
special notice here is the elaborate development 
given to the offertory in the funeral of illustrious 
personages. Not only on such occasions were very 
generous offerings made in money and in kind, with 
a view, it would seem, of benefiting the soul of the 
deceased by exceptional generosity, but it was usual 
to lead his war-horse up the church fully accoutred 
and to present it to the priest at the altar rails, no 
doubt to be afterwards redeemed by a money pay- 
ment. The accounts of solemn obsequies in early 
times are full of sueli details and in particular of the 
vast numbers of candles burned upon the hearse; 
this word hearse in fact came into use precisely 
from the resemblance which the elaborate frame- 
work erected over the bier and bristling with candles 
bore to a harrow (hirpex, hirpieem). Of the varving 
and protracted services by the grave side, which at 
the close of the Middle Ages wire common in many 
parts of Germany and which in some cases busted 
on until a much later period, something has already 
been said. 

Ritual of the Gkeek Church. — The full burial 




service of the Greek Church is very long and it will 
be sufficient here briefly to call attention to one or 
two points in which it bears a close resemblance to 
the Latin Rite. With the Greeks as with the Latins 
we find a general use of lighted candles held by all 
present in their hands, as also holy water, incense 
and the tolling of bells. With the Greeks as in the 
Western Communion, after a relatively short serv- 
ice at the house of the deceased, the corpse is borne 
in procession to the church anil deposited there 
while the Pannychis, a mournful service of psalmody, 
is recited or sung. In the burial of a bishop the Holy 
Sacrifice or divine liturgy is offered up, and there 
is in any case a solemn absolution pronounced over 
the body before it is borne to the grave. Black vest- 
ments are usually worn by the clergy, and again, 
as with us, the dead man, if an ecclesiastic, is robed 
as he would have been robed in life in assisting at 
the altar. There are, however, a good many features 
peculiar to the Eastern Church. A crown, in prac- 
tice a paper band which represents it, is placed upon 
the dead layman's head. The priest is anointed with 
oil and his face is covered with the aer, the veil with 
which the sacred species are covered during the 
Holy Sacrifice. Also the open Gospel is laid upon 
his breast as in the early Spanish ordinal. The 
Alleluia is sung as part of the service and a symbol- 
ical farewell is taken of the deceased by a last kiss. 
Upon the altar stands a dish with a cake made of 
wheat and honey, emblematic of the grain which 
falling to the ground dies and bringeth forth much 
fruit. Moreover many differences are made in the 
service according as the dead person is layman, monk, 
priest, or bishop, and also according to the ecclesias- 
tical season, for during paschal time white vestments 
are worn and another set of prayers are said. The 
burial rite of the Greeks may be seen in Goar, "Eu- 
chologium Griecorum" (Paris, 1647), 423 sqq.; also 
in the new Russian edition by Al. Dmitrieoski (Kiev, 
1895-1901). For the law of the Church of England 
concerning burial, see Blunt- Phillimore " The Book of 
Church Law" (London, 1899), 177-87, and 512-17, 
text of Burial Laws Amendment Act of 1880. 

Burial Confraternities. — It would take us too 
far to go into this subject at length. Even from 
the period of the catacombs such associations seem 
to have existed among the Christians and they no 
doubt imitated to some extent in their organization 
the pagan collegia for the same purpose. Through- 
out the Middle Ages it may be said that the guilds 
to a very large extent were primarily burial confra- 
ternities; at any rate the seemly carrying out of the 
funeral rites at the death of any of their members 
together with a provision of Masses for his soul form 
an almost invariable feature in the constitutions of 
such guilds. But still more directly to the purpose 
we find certain organizations formed to carry out 
the burial of the dead and the friendless as a work 
of charity. The most celebrated of these was the 
"Misericordia" of Florence, believed to have been 
instituted in 1244 by Pier Bossi, and surviving to 
the present day. It is an organization which asso- 
ciates in this work of mercy the members of all ranks 
of society. Their self-imposed task is not limited 
to escorting the dead to their last resting-place, but 
they discharge the functions of an ambulance corps, 
dealing with accidents as they occur and carrying the 
sick to the hospitals. When on duty the members 
wear a dress which completely envelops and dis- 
guises them. Even the face is hidden by a covering 
in which only two holes are left for the eyes. See 
Cemetery; Crematioii; Requiem. 

Catalani, Commentariiis in Rituale Iiomnnum (175G); Thal- 
hofer, Liturgik, II, Pt. II; [DEM, in Kirehe-nlex., s. v.; Bin- 
■iiimm. lieukuurdiqkeUeu l Mainz, 1838), VI, Pt. 111,302-514; 
MaRTENE, De antiquis Ecelesiir ritibus, II and IV; Ruland, GV- 
sehiehte der kirehliehen l.euhinfeier (Ratisbon, 1902); Al.BER'M, 
De *i I'ultura ecclesiastica (1901); PuoCEtt, La sepulture dans 

realise catholique, in Precis historiques (Brussels, 1SS2); 
Murcier, La sepulture chretienne en France (Paris, 1855); 
Probst, Die Eisequien (Mainz, 1856); Marucchi, Elements 
darcheologie chr, (.(Rome, 1899). I, 129-131; Petrides, in Diet, 
d'arch. et lit. s. v. Absoute. — On the Canon Law of burial, 
see especially Lex, Das kirehliehe llcirrtdinissrecht (Ratisbon, 
1904); also Sagmuller, Kirchenreeht (Freiburg, 1904), Pt. Ill; 
Ferraris, Hiblwtheeu, s. v. sepultura; Von Scherer, Kirchen- 
reeht. II, 601. — On Burial in the Creek Church: Maltzew, 
Itciiraltniss-Ritns (Berlin, 1890). — On Absolution Crosses: 
Chevreux, in Bulletin arcMol. ( Paris. 1904), 391-408; Cochet, 
La Normandie souterraine; Iio m, SipuUwres auutoises (Paris, 
1855 and 1857 ): Dei.isi.e, Hullitin de l<i st/ciete des antiquaires 
de la France (1857), 71 Bqq.; Krai «, Kunsl und Atterthum in 
Lothringen (Strasburg, 1SS9). ti04-l>12. See also the bibliog- 
raphy of the article Cemetery. 

Herbert Thurston. 

Buridan, Jean, French scholastic philosopher of 
the fourteenth century, b. at Bethune, in the dis- 
trict of Artois towards the end of the thirteenth 
century; date of death unknown. He studied at 
the University of Paris under the Nominalist, 
William of Occam, became professor in the faculty 
of arts, procurator of the Pieardy "Nation", and 
(in 1327) rector of the university. In 1345, he was 
one of the ambassadors sent by the university to 
the papal court at Avignon. He is also said to 
have assisted in founding the University of Vienna. 
It is probable, however, that Buridan never went 
to Vienna, for it is certain that he was in Paris in 
1358, and Father Denifle has shown (Chartul. Univ., 
Paris, II, 646) that the University of Vienna was not 
founded until 1365, when Buridan was so old that 
he could hardly have undertaken such a journey. 
His principal works are "Compendium Logics", 
"Summa de Dialectic;! ", and "Commentaries" 
on the works of Aristotle, the most important 
of the last being those on the "Politics". A com- 
plete edition was published by Dullard, Paris, 1500, 
and has frequently been reprinted, e. g. Oxford, 
1637, London, 1641. 

Buridan was not a theologian. In philosophy 
he belonged to the Nominalist, or Terminist school 
of Occam, to which he adhered in spite of reiterated 
condemnation. He adhered, also, to that peculiar 
form of scepticism which appeared in Scholastic 
philosophy at that time, and which arose from the 
growing sense of the inadequacy of reason to solve 
the highest problems of thought. In his "Compen- 
dium Logica?" he developed at length the art of 
finding the middle term of a demonstration, and 
this, in the course of time (it is first mentioned in 
1514), came to be known as "The Bridge of Asses", 
i. e. the bridge by which stupid scholars were enabled 
to pass from the minor or major, to the middle, 
term of syllogism. Still better known is the phrase 
" Buridan's Ass", which refers to the "case" of a 
hungry donkey placed between two loads of hay, 
equal as to quantity and quality and equally dis- 
tant. The animal so placed, argued the dialec- 
tician, could never decide to which load of hay he 
should turn, and, in consequence, would die of 
hunger. The "case" is not found in Buridan's 
writings (though the problem it proposes is to be 
found in Aristotle), and may well have been in- 
vented by an opponent to show the absurdity of 
Buridan's doctrine. 

That doctrine began by denying the distinction 
between the different faculties of the soul. Will 
and intellect, said Buridan, are the same. Hence, 
to say that the will is free in any sense except that 
in which the intellect also is free, is to say that the 
will is freer than itself. The freedom of the will 
is the freedom of the whole soul. Human freedom 
consists, then, in the power of choosing between 
two or more desirable alternatives (libertas opposi- 
tioni.s). When the intellect presents one alternative 
as better (higher) than the other, the will must 
choose the former. When the will presents two 
alternatives as equally desirable, there can be no 




choice. (Here, probably, the opponent introduced 
the example of the ass, to ridicule Buridan's po- 
sition.") The will, however, has still an expedient. 
It can postpone its decision, direct the intellect to 
consider one alternative only, and when the other 
alternative, even though it be better (higher), has 
dropped out of consciousness, the will can come 
to a decision and choose, if, indeed, its act can now 
be called a choice at all. Buridan, therefore, main- 
tains that in a conflict of motives the stronger 
motive always prevails — the will is "determined" 
by the strongest motive. He is not a voluntarist. 
The will, he says, is inferior to the intellect, because 
the former presupposes the action of the latter, 
and depends on it. And it is by means of the 
intellect, and not by means of the will, that man 
lays hold of supreme happiness. 

Stockl, Gesch. der Phil, des Mittelnlters (Mainz, 1865), II, 
1023 sii.).; In., l.ehrh. der Gcsch. der I'hil. (Mainz. 18S8). I. 478; 
tr. Finlay (Dublin, 1903). 4L>7; Tirner, Hist, of Phil. (Boston, 
1903). 408; Ueberweg. Gesch. der Phil. (Berlin, 1905), II. 347; 
tr. Morris (New York, 1890), I, 405. 

William Turner. 

Burigny, Jean- Levbsqdb de, historian, b. at 
Reims, 1692; d. at Paris, 1785. In 1713, with his 
brothers, Champeaux and LeVesque de Pouilly, he 
began to compile a dictionary of universal knowledge, 
a kind of encyclopedia, which comprised twelve 
large manuscript folios, and afforded Burigny ample 
material for his subsequent works. In 1718, at The 
Hague, he worked with Saint-Hyacinthe on "L'Eu- 
ropesavante", in twelve volumes, of which he contrib- 
uted at least one-half. On his return to Paris, he 
devoted his time to historical research and published 
several works which stamped him as a conscientious 
scholar. Burigny. although sharing the ideas of 
the philosophers of his time, was by no means an 
extremist. He was a modest, peace-loving man, 
whose only ambition was to be a scholar, and his 
works show a great amount of learning; some, for 
instance his lives of Grotius and Erasmus, give very 
interesting data ool elsewhere found. Among his 
works arc: "Traits de l'autorite du pape" (Paris, 
1782) which reduces papal authority to a primacy of 
honour, "Theologie paienne" (Paris. 17-"i4); "His- 
toire geiierale de Sicile" (The Hague. 1 745) J "His- 
toire des revolutions de l'empire de Constantinople" 
(The Hague, 1750); "Traite" de Porphyre touchant 
1'abstinence de la chair, avec la vie de Plotin" (tr. 
from Greek; Paris. 1740); "Vie de Bossuet" (Paris, 
1761); "Vie du cardinal Duperron" (Paris, 1768). 

Dacier, Eloge de Buri,,im .Paris 1780:; Wai.ckenaer, 
RecueU ./■ notices historiquet (Paris, 1850); Constant™, in 
Diet, de thiol, r.ilt., II, 1264-65. 

Pierre J. Marique. 

Burkard. Franz, the name of two celebrated 
German jurists. One died suddenly at Ham. 9 De- 
cember, 1539. He began to teach canon law at the 
University of [ngoldstadl in 1519, where he stoutly 
opposed every endeavour to introduce Lutheranism. 
In the trial which sentenced Andreas Seehofer, who 
had taught the new doctrine, to retire to a monastery, 
Franz and his brother Peter, a professor at the same 
institution, were the chief prosecutors. As this action 
was resented by the Lutherans, he defended himself 
before the university with John Eck and Hauer. 
The other d. at Bonn, 6 August, 1.584. For many 
years he served the Bavarian chancellor, Vugust 
lorf , as legal adviser. Later the 
Elector of Cologne, Ernesl or Bavaria, made him his 

private counsellor and chancellor. His stanch de- 
fence of Catholicity merited the prai e of Blessed 
Peter Canisius. To quell the religious war resulting 
from the declaration ol or Protestant 

worship, a volume over his name. "De Autonomic", 
appeared at Munich in 1586. Its real author, the 
private secretary of the king, Andreas F.rstenberger, 
in order to save his name, position, and family, was 

induced by William V of Bavaria to conceal his 
identity behind the name of the deceased Burkard, 
as Rudolph II would not countenance any opposition 
to the Protestants. This book was bitterly assailed 
by Protestants, but its main positions have not been 

Prantl, Geschiehte der Universitdt in Ingoldstadt. etc., I, 
passim; Sohreiber. Geschiehte Bauerns. II, 587; JanNSEN, 
Geschichte des deutschen Yolkes, V, 421-428. 

Thos. M. Schwertner. 

Burke, Edmund, first Vicar Apostolic of Nova Sco- 
tia, b. in the parish of Maryborough, County Kildare, 
Ireland, in 1753; d. at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1820. 
He was compelled by existing political conditions in 
Ireland to pursue his studies in Paris, where his tal- 
ents and character gave promise of his future career. 
Ordained priest, he returned to his native diocese. 
Here trouble had just arisen over the appointment of 
a vicar-general, and Father Burke was blamed by 
some partisans for espousing the cause of his superior. 
The unpleasant conditions led young Burke to follow 
the advice of Dr. Carpenter, Archbishop of Dublin, 
and go to Canada. He arrived in Quebec in the sum- 
mer of 17S6, and in September of that year was made 
professor of philosophy and mathematics in the semi- 
nary of Quebec. His work in the seminary led to his 
appointment as a director of that institution, but he 
craved for missionary work north and west of the 
Great Lakes, where, in scattered villages, there were 
many Catholics who had not seen a missionary since 
the conquest (1759). In 1794 he gained his object and 
was sent into the missionary field with the title of 
Vicar-General and Superior of the Missions of I"pper 
Canada. For seven years he laboured faithfully, en- 
during all the hardships of a pioneer missionary priest ; 
and he suffered, too, from lack of sympathy and sup- 

Eort in his work. He saw clearly and made known to 
is ecclesiastical superiors the loss to religion result- 
ing from race prejudices and misunderstandings. His 
plain statements made in the cause of religion and 
truth brought him enemies and many accusations. 
He met them fearlessly and these trials but prepared 
him for his important work of the future as Vicar- 
| leneral of Nova Scotia, i. e. the ecclesiastical direc- 
tion of most of the English-speaking population of 
Canada. He went to Halifax, Nova Scotia, as Vicar- 
General of Quebec in 1801 , was made Vicar-General of 
Nova Scotia in 1815, and consecrated Bishop of Zion 
in 1818. The work done by this prelate for religion, 
for education, and for the State in Nova Scotia, dur- 
ing the first twenty years of the nineteenth century 
are fully treated in the work (quoted below) of one of 
his successors. The Protestant historian Campbell 
thus closes his biographical sketch of Bishop Burke: 
"The Dominion of Canada in its wide extent has seen 
few, if any, of its prelates who died more respected 
and regretted by all classes; more beloved and idol- 
ized by his own flock; and whose memory as a great, 
enlightened, and liberal-minded prelate is looked up 
tn with so much veneration." His most important 
writings are "The First Principles of Christianity" 
and "The Ministry of the Church" (Dublin, 1817). 

O'Brien (Archbishop of Halifax). Memoirs of Bishop Burke 

(Ottawa, 1894); Casgrain. ifemoire tur Irs Missirms de la 

■ Ecosse, du Cap Breton el de Vile du Prince Edouarddc 

t780 ' ISeO; Reponse nuz "Memoirs of Bishop Burke" par 

O'Brien (Quebec. 1895); Mirdock, History of Nova 

Halifax 1867 219 121 161; Campbell, Nova Scotia 

in its Historical, M<rroutile. <n>j strial Relations (Montreal, 
1873 . Boi amor, Builders aj Nova Scotia, 

Alexander McNeil. 

Burke, M \t-rice. See St. Joseph, Diocese of. 

Burke, Thomas. See Albany, Diocese of. 

Burke (De Burgo), Thomas, Bishop of Ossory, 
b. at Dublin. Ireland, aboul 1709; d. at Kilkenny, 
25 September, 1776. He went to Rome in 1723 and 
there was placed under the care of his namesake 
and kinsman, a Dominican, Father Thomas Burke, 




who prepared him for admission into the order. 
A dispensation was obtained from the Sacred Con- 
gregation, and on 14 June, 1724, he was clothed with 
the Dominican habit before he had attained his 
fifteenth year. Young Burke showed special apti- 
tude for study and with the permission of the master 
general was allowed to begin his course during his 
novitiate. Two years were given to philosophy and 
five to theology. So marked was his progress in 
studies and letters that lie was singled out, even 
though yet a novice, by special marks of affection 
from Benedict XIII. During the reconstruction of 
St. Sixtus' in 1727 and 172S, the pontiff visited the 
Irish Dominicans once a week, taking part in their 
community exercises, becoming familiar with the 
friars and especially with Burke. He was gradually 
promoted to the highest theological honours of the 
order, being charged successively with all the official 
duties in a regular Dominican studium. He held the 
office of regent of studies for six years. In 1742 the 
Master General, Thomas Hipoll. personally conferred 
on him the degree of Master of Theology. The fol- 
lowing year he returned to Dublin where he took up 
the work of the ministry. A general chapter of the 
order held at Bologna in 174S passed an ordinance 
that in all the immediately following provincial chap- 
ters a historiographer should be appointed in every 
province. This order did not reach Ireland from 
Rome in time for the provincial chapter which was 
convened the following year at Dublin, and to which 
assembly Father Burke had been elected by his 
brethren as Definitor. At the subsequent chapter, 
however, of 1753 he was appointed historian of his 
province. The same honour of Definitor was con- 
ferred again in 1757. 

Father Burke while in Rome was commissioned 
by the Irish clergy, through Bishop MacDonough of 
Kilmore, to obtain from the Holy See ten new offices 
of Irish saints. After his return to Ireland, he was 
entrusted with a similar commission by the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, the Most Rev. John Linegar, and the 
Bishops of Ireland for fourteen other feasts of the 
Irish saints. The decrees were given respectively 
8 July, 1741 and 1 July, 1747. Both original docu- 
ments are preserved in the archives of St. Clement's, 
Rome. Father Burke was promoted by Clement 
XIII in 1759, to the See of Ossory which he governed 
for seventeen years. His talents, learning, culture, 
and piety fitted him for the pastoral office, united 
with his noble and fearless character. An accurate 
portrait of Bishop Burke is possessed by the Domini- 
can nuns of Drogheda, Ireland. He is known to pos- 
terity more on account of his learned work "Hibernia 
Dominicana", than by any other claim. The work 
was nominally published at Cologne, but in reality 
it came from the press of Edmund Finn of Kilkenny, 
in 1762. The author gave to it four years of incessant 
labour, and in 1772 he added a "Supplementum" 
which was a vindication of Rinuccini, the nuncio of 
Tope Innocent X, of the charges brought against him 
by the supreme council of Confederate Catholics 
during his residence in Ireland. Question of the oath 
of allegiance and fear of subverting " that fidelity and 
submission which we acknowledge ourselves to owe 
from duty and from gratitude to his Majesty King 
George III" caused seven of the Irish Bishops to con- 
demn the "Hibernia Dominicana" and "Supplemen- 
tum". (For defense of Bishop Burke see Coleman, 
Ir. Eccl. Record.) " Promptuarium dogmatico ca- 
nonico morale", a work of the celebrated Spanish 
Dominican Larrago, enlarged and accommodated 
to its day by Father Burke, was about to be pub- 
lished in 1753 when his appointment as historian 
interrupted it. 

Bprke, Hibernia Dominicana (Cologne. 17621. I; Webb, 
A Compendium of Irish Hiooraphy (Dublin. 1S7S); Anthro- 
pologut Hibrrnica. February I (4 vols.. 1793-94); Coleman, 
Thomat de Burao in Ir, Eccl. Record, 1892; Mohan, Spiciltgium 

Thomas N. Burke, O 

Ossoriensr. (Dublin. 1884), pives the MSS. collected by Bishop 
Burke for a second edition of the Hibernia Dominicana. 

John T. McNicholas. 
Burke, Thomas Nicholas, a celebrated Domini- 
can orator, b. 8 September, 1830, in Galway; d. 
2 July, 1882, at Tallaght, Ireland. His parents, 
though in moderate circumstances, gave him a 
good education. He was placed at first under the 
care of the Patrician Brothers, and was afterwards 
sent to a pri- 
vate school. An 
at tack of typhoid 
fever when he 
was fourteen 
years old, and 
the harrowing 
scenes of the 
famine year 
(1847), had a 
sobering effect on 
the quick-witted 
and studious lad, 
and turned his 
thoughts into 
more serious 
channels. To- 
ward the end of 
that year he 
asked to be re- 
ceived into the 
Order of Preach- 
ers, and was sent 
t o Perugia i n 

Italy, to make his novitiate. On 29 December, he 
was clothed there in the habit of St. Dominic and 
received the name of Thomas. Shortly afterward he 
was sent to Rome to begin his studies in the Convent 
of the Minerva. He passed thence to the Roman con- 
vent of Santa Sabina, where he won such esteem by 
his fervour, regularity, and cheerfulness, that his su- 
periors sent him, while yet a student, as novice-master 
to Woodchester, the novitiate of the resuscitated 
English Province. He was ordained priest 26 March, 
1853, and on 3 August, 1854, defended publicly the 
theses in universd theologid, and took his Dominican 
degree of Lector. Early in the following year Father 
Burke was recalled to Ireland to found the novitiate 
of the Irish Province at Tallaght, near Dublin. In 
1859 he preached his first notable sermon on "Church 
Music " ; it immediately lifted him into fame. Elected 
Prior of Tallaght in 1863, he went to Rome the 
following year as Rector of the Dominican Con- 
vent of San Clemente, and attracted great attention 
in the Eternal City by his preaching. He returned 
to Ireland in 1867, and delivered his oration on 
O'Connell at Glasnevin before fifty thousand people. 
Bishop Leahy took him as his theologian to the 
Vatican Council in 1S70, and the following year 
he was sent as Visitor to the Dominican convents 
in America. His fame had preceded him. and he 
was besieged with invitations to preach and lecture. 
The seats were filled hours before he appeared, and 
his audiences overflowed the churches and halls 
in which he lectured. In New York he delivered 
the discourses in refutation of the English historian 
Froude. In eighteen months he gave four hundred 
lectures, exclusive of sermons, the proceeds amount- 
ing to nearly S400.000. His mission was a triumph, 
but the triumph was dearly won. and when he 
arrived in Ireland on 7 March, 1873, he was spent 
and broken. Yet during the next ten years we 
find him preaching continually in Ireland. England, 
and Scotland. He began the election of the church 

in Tallaght m 1882, ami the following May preached 

a series of sermons in the new Dominican church, 
London. In June he returned to Tallaght in a 
dying condition, and preached his last sermon in 




the Jesuit church, Dublin, in aid of the starving 

children of Donegal. A few days afterwards he 
breathed forth his soul to God, in Whose service 
he had laboured so valiantly. Father Burke pos- 
sessed all the qualities of a great orator: a rich, 
flexible, harmonious voice, great dramatic power, 
and a vivid imagination. He is buried in the 
church of Tallaght, now a memorial to him. Many 
of his lectures and sermons were collected and 
published in various editions in New York, as 
were also the four lectures in reply to Froude (1872) 
the latter with the title "The Case of Ireland Stated". 

Fitzpatrick, Life nf Fr. Tom Burke (London, INS",); Inner 
Life ,,f Fr. Burke, bv a Friar Preacher, an.l. Father Burke, in 
the Publications of the English anil Irish Catholic Truth 

Stanislaus Hooan. 

Burleigh, or Burley (, Walter, 
Friar Minor and medieval philosopher, b. in 1275 and 
d. in 1337. It is impossible to determine with cer- 
tainty that Burleigh was a Franciscan, as some say 
that he was an Augustinian; and Franciscans "can 
do no less than lay a claim to him", as Parkinson 
remarks, "leaving the matter to be disputed by such 
as are disposed to contend". He was preceptor to 
Edward, Prince of Wales, who afterwards ascended 
the throne as Edward III in 1327. At Oxford he 
was the school-fellow of William of Occam, both 
being disciples of Duns Scotus. He taught at Paris 
for some time and was known as the Plain and 
Perspicuous Doctor {Doctor planus et perspicuus). 
Burleigh figured prominently in the dispute concern- 
ing the nature of universals. Following the doctrine 
of Scotus in this regard, he became, on the one hand, 
the adversary of William of Occam, the father of 
nominalism — that is, the doctrine which holds that 
universals are empty words, or nomina, having no 
real existence whatever; and on the other, the oppo- 
nent of the extreme realists who taught that the 
universal, as such, has actual or formal existence 
outside of the mind. In this connexion it should be 
remembered that, as in the question of universals, 
so in others of greater importance in philosophy, 
Scotus can be understood and interpreted only by 
one who has mastered by diligent and well-directed 
study the peculiar terminology of the Subtle Doctor 
and grasped his sometimes abstruse concepts of 
metaphysical principles. 

Scotus was undoubtedly a moderate realist, that 
is, he taught that the universale in actu, to use his 
own words, non est nisi in intellectu, though having a 
foundation in extra-mental reality; and Burleigh 
followed his master. But when the disciples of Sco- 
tus endeavoured to construct on his principles a 
doctrine of exaggerated realism, Burleigh's opposi- 
tion to this mistaken interpretation of Scotus doc- 
trine was vigorous and uncompromising. He then, 
at least in this point, was the adversary of the Scotists 
rather than of Scotus himself. Burleigh's only work 
on theology is a commentary "in Magistrum Senten- 
tiarum". His philosophical writings include (1) 
"De intentione et remissione formarum"; (2) "Ex- 
positio in libros Ethicorum Aristotelis"; (3) "De 
vitis et moribus philosophorum"; (4) "De potentiis 
animae"; (5) "Summa totius logics"; (6) "Com- 
mentaria in libros Posteriorum Aristotelis"; (7) 
"Tractatus de materia et forma et relativis"; (8) "De 
fluxu et refluxu maris anglicani". 

Parkinson, Collect ' noriHea, ad. an. 1337 

(London, 1726). 161; Hchtkr. Xomenclator (Innsbruck, 
I-',-,; in Kirchmlex., II. 1542. 

Stephen M. Donovan. 

Burlington, Diocese of (Burlingtonensis), es- 
tablished 1 t July, 1 853, comprises the whole State 
of Vermont, 1 '. S. A., an area of 9135 square miles. 
The territory now making up the State of Vermont 
was not only discovered but first settled by Catholics. 
Champlain bestowed on the State in 1609 the name 
Vol. Ill— 6 

Louis De Goesbriand 

it tears and the first Mass said within its boundaries 
was offered up in 1666 by a Sulpician priest from 
Montreal, in the chapel of the little fort of St. Anne 
on Isle Lamothe — now the site of a shrine of pilgrim- 
age — where a few soldiers upheld the authority of 
the King of France. In 1608 Bishop Laval of Quebec 
went there and thus 
gave to Vermont the 
honour of the first 
episcopal visitation 
and ministration in 
New England and 
probably in the 
United States. Dur- 
ing the years that 
followed, Jesuit and 
other missionaries 
traversed the State 
and left the evi- 
dences of their zeal 
in the converted In- 
dians and the Catho- 
lic settlers in many 
villages. In 1734 
there were fourteen 
Catholic families 
grouped about a 
chapel at Alburgh. After Canada had been ceded 
to the English in 1760 many New England emigrants 
went to Vermont, but the Bishops of Quebec still con- 
tinued to look after the Catholics there. When the 
Diocese of Boston was created in 1810 the State of 
Vermont was included within its jurisdiction, and the 
venerable Father Matignon of Boston visited Burling- 
ton in 1S15 and found about one hundred Catholic 
Canadians there without a priest or church. Father 
Migneault of Chambly, Canada, was a frequent 
visitor for a number of years, ministering to the scat- 
tered families along the border. Father James Fitton 
of Boston was another pioneer priest. The first 
resident priest in Vermont was the Rev. Jeremiah 
O'Callaghan, a native of Cork, Ireland, whose eccen- 
tric notions on the question of usury got him into 
difficulties with the bishop of his native diocese; he 
was sent to Burlington in 1S30 by Bishop Fenwick 
and remained there until 1854, his influence and 
pastoral zeal radiating far and wide. He built St. 
Peter's church, Burlington, in 1832. He died at 
Holyoke, Massachusetts, 23 February, 1861. In 1837 
the Rev. John D. Daly, another eccentric but learned 
man, commenced to care for the missions in the 
southern part of the State and laboured until 1854, 
when he retired to New York where he died in 1S70. 
Notable also among the priests ministering in the 
State during this early period were Fathers William 
I vers, (leorge Hamilton, Edward McGowan, James 
Walsh, M. Petithomme, P. Drolet, and M. Chevalier. 
In 1843 the Catholics of the State numbered 4940, 
but the building of railroads and the establishment 
of numerous public works soon brought a steady 

In 1853 on the petition of the bishops of the Prov- 
ince of New York, the pope erected Vermont into a 
diocese with Burlington as the titular city. The 
Very Rev. Louis De (iocshriand, then Vicar-Ocneral 
of the Diocese of Cleveland, Ohio, was named the 
first bishop and consecrated in New York by Arch- 
bishop Bedini, 30 October, 1853. He was born 4 Au- 
gust, 1816, at Saint-L T rbain, Finistere, France. He 
studied at Saint-Sulpice, Paris, and was ordained 
priest at St. Louis, U. S. A., 30 July, L840, lb- 
found on his arrival in Vermont five priests, ten 
churches, and about 20,000 Catholics. In January, 
1855, he went to Europe to secure priests in Ireland 
and France and with the aid of those who answered 
his appeal for volunteers, new parishes were organ- 
ized, churches built, schools opened, and the work of 




evangelizing went on vigorously. The first diocesan 
synod was held in Burlington, 4 and 5 October, 1S55, 
at which nine priests attended. On 17 July, 1890, 
Bishop De Goesbriand celebrated the golden jubilee 
of his ordination and in 1S92 he asked for a coadju- 
tor. The choice fell on the Rev. John Stephen Mi- 
dland, then pastor at Bennington, the son of an Irish 
mother and a Canadian lather and born at Bur- 
lington, 24 November, 1843. He made his studies at 
St. Joseph's Seminary, Troy, New York, and was 
ordained priest, 7 June, 1873. He was consecrated 
titular Bishop of Modra and coadjutor of Burlington, 
29 June, 1892. Bishop De Goesbriand retired to live 
in the Orphan Asylum at Burlington and died 3 No- 
vember, 1899, the dean of the American hierarchy. 
Bishop Michaud immediately succeeded to the see. 
Bishop De Goesbriand was one of the prelates who 
attended the Vatican Council in 1S69. 

The religious communities now represented in the 
diocese are the Fathers of Saint Edniond (C. S. E.), 
the Brothers of St. Gabriel, Sisters of Charity of 
Providence, Sisters of the Holy Cross and of the 
Seven Dolours, Sisters of the Holy Ghost, Ladies of 
St. Joseph, Sisters of St. Joseph, Hospital Sisters of 
St. Joseph. Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of the Congre- 
gation ot Notre Dame, of the Presentation, of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, and of the Assumption. There 
arc in the diocese 99 priests, SS secular, 1 1 regular; 9.5 
churches, TO with resident pastors, and 27 missions 
with churches; 20 stations; 275 women in religious 
communities; 15 ecclesiastical students in the diocesan 
seminary; 3 academies for boys, 9 for girls; 21 parish 
schools with 6096 pupils; 2 orphanage schools with 
260 pupils, 220 orphans in the diocesan asylum; 
2 colleges for boys; 2 hospitals; Catholic population 
estimated; children under Catholic care 6175. 
The hospital at Winooski Park is named after Fanny 
Allen, daughter of General Ethan Allen of Revolu- 
tionary fame, and the first woman of New England 
birth to become a nun. (See Allen, Frances.) 

De Goesbriand, Catholic Memoirs of Vermont and New 
Hampshire (Burlington, Vt.. INSie; Mien u-i> in History of 
the Vath. Ch. in the New Ennhirul States (Bo.-ton, 1S99), II; 
Shea, Hist, of Call,, i I, >; I . .S. (New York, 1904); Reuss, 
Biog. Cycl. of the Cath. Hierarchy of U. S. (Milwaukee, 1898); 
Catholic Directory, 1907. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Burma. — Before its annexation by the British 
Burma consisted of the kingdoms of Ava and Pegu. 
In 1548 St. Francis Xavier petitioned Father Rod- 
riguez for missionaries to go to Pegu, but nothing 
is known as to the outcome of his request. In 1699 
the Vicar Apostolic of Siam and the Bishop of Melia- 
pur had a dispute concerning the jurisdiction over 
Pegu, and Cardinal de Tournon, Legaltts a latere, 
decided against the vicar Apostolic. The actual 
work of evangelizing Ava and Pesru did not begin 
until the pontificate of Innocent XIII, who, in 1722, 
sent Father Sigismond de Calchi, a Barnabite, and 
Father Vittoni, of the same order, to Burma. After 
many trials and tribulations they succeeded in ob- 
taining permission to preach with full liberty the 
Gospel of Christ. In 1711 Benedict XIV definitely 
established the mission, appointing Father Galizia 
vicar Apostolic, and placing the Barnabites in charge 
of the work; bul in the wars which distracted those 
regions during the eighteenth century the last two 
member ol the order who had remained in the coun- 
try were killed. The Barnabites having given up 
the mission, Pius \ 111 sent Monsignor Frederic Can, 
a member of the Congregation of I 'ions Schools, and 
titular Bishopol Zama (ls.Iune. 1830). Gregory XVI 
placed the mission under the Oblates of Pinerolo, 
Italy, l>> appointing (5 July, 1842) Monsignor Gio- 
vanni Ceretti, s member of this institute, and titular 
Bishop of Adrianople, as firs! vicar Apostolic. About 
this .late (1845) tin- Catholics of the two kingdom 
numbered 2500. In IMS Monsignor John Balma 

succeeded as vicar Apostolic (5 September, 1848) 
but the war with the British rendered his labours 
ineffectual, and the mission was abandoned about 

The British had in reality begun to assume control 
of Burma in 1824, but it was not until 20 December, 
1852, that the East India Company, after a bloody 
war, annexed the entire kingdom of Pegu, a territory 
as large as England. Many years later the kingdom 
of Ava was also taken by the British, and with the 
conquest of Rangoon the whole of Burma came into 
the possession of Great Britain. The Oblates of 
Pinerolo having withdrawn from the mission, the 
vicariate was placed, in 1855, under the control of 
the Vicar Apostolic of Siam. At this date the king- 
doms of Ava and Pegu contained 11 priests and 5320 

Burma is bounded on the east by China and Siam, 
on the west by Assam and Bengal. Its area is ap- 
proximately 171,430 square miles, while that of 
Great Britain and Ireland is 120,947 square miles. 
Notwithstanding this large extent of territory, Burma 
has a population of only 8,000,000 inhabitants. For 
some ten years the mission remained under the ad- 
ministration of the Vicar Apostolic of Siam; but such 
a condition could not be indefinitely prolonged with- 
out compromising its future. A decree of Propa- 
ganda (27 November, 1S66) accordingly divided 
Burma into three vicariates, named respectively, 
with reference to their geographical positions, North- 
ern, Southern, and Eastern Burma. The boundaries 
then fixed were abrogated (28 June, 1S70) by another 
decree of Propaganda, which constituted these three 
vicariates as they now are. 

Northern Burma. — This vicariate, which has 
been entrusted to the Missions Etrangeres of Paris, 
is bounded on the north by the Chinese province of 
Yun-nan, on the east by the River Salwen, on the 
south by Karenni and Lower Burma, and on the 
west by Manipur, the Garo Hills, and the independent 
territories of Tipperah and Assam. In a population 
of 3,500,000 there are 7248 Catholics, whose spir- 
itual needs are served by 22 European clergy of the 
Missions Etrangeres of Paris and 3 native priests, 
with 47 churches or chapels. The vicariate also 
possesses 18 schools with 754 children, a seminary 
with 22 students, 2 boarding-schools with 160 pupils, 
and 6 orphanages with 315 orphans. This is the most 
considerable of the Burman vicariates, being equal. 
in importance to the other two combined. The resi- 
dence of the vicar Apostolic is at Mandalay. The 
stations having one chapel and a resident missionary 
are Pyinmana, Yamethin. Magyidaw. Chanthagon, 
Myokine, Chaung-u, Nabet, Shwebo, Chanthaywa, 
Monlila, Bhano, and Maymyo. At Mandalay there 
are, besides the cathedral, the Tamil church of St. 
Xavier, a Chinese church, and that of St. John's 
Asylum. The language commonly used in this vi- 
cariate is Burmese, but residents ordinarily employ 
their respective native tongues, which accounts for 
the ( ihinese church at Mandalay. This city of 1SS.000 
inhabitants is a bustling centre of traffic between 
Lower Burma and the Province of Yun-nan; hence 
the large Chinese element in the population. 

Eastern Burma, — This vicariate is entrusted to 
the Milan Seminary of Foreign Missions. Its bound- 
aries, determined by decree of 26 August, 18S9, are: 
On the north, the Chinese Province of Yun-nan; on 
the east, the Mekong, the subsequent course of which 
bounds Cambodia and Arm am ; on the south, Karenni 
and Shan; on the west, the River Salween and part 

oi the course of the Sittang. The vicariate is made 

Up of two quite distinct portions connected almost 
at right angles by a somewhat narrow strip of terri- 
tory. The first of these portions comprises Toungoo 
and the regions lying between the Sittang and the 
Sahvet i) as far as 20 north latitude; from this paral- 




lei of latitude the second portion stretches north to 
the Tropic of Cancer, bordered on the east and south 
by China, Annani, and Siam, and on the west by the 
River Salween. 

The beginnings of the mission go back to 1868, 
when the Milan Seminary of Foreign Missions sent 
thither Monsignor BiHi as prefect Apostolic, accom- 
panied by Sebastian Carbode, Conti, and R.0CC0 
Tornatori. The last named of these is the present 
vicar Apostolic, and has resided forty years in the 
vicariate. There are 10,300 Catholics in this vicariate, 
the population of which is not exactly known, but 
amounts to something like 2,000,000. The vicar 
Apostolic resides in the Leitko Hills and visits 130 
villages in the Karenni district, where thru are 
10,000 Catholics — almost the whole Catholic popula- 
tion of the vicariate. There is a school, with 65 
children, a convent of the Sisters of Nazareth of 
Milan, with 40 girls, and, in some of the villages, the 
beginnings of schools with a few pupils. Toungoo, 
in the south of the vicariate, with 300 Catholics, 
has an English school of 130 children of various races, 
a Native school of 100 children, and a convent oi 
the Sisters of the Reparation of Nazareth of Milan 
with 70 girls. There are 10 priests. In 1902 there 
were 140 conversions from Paganism and from 
Protestantism. The stations provided with priests 
are, besides tin- residence of the vicar Apostolic, 
Toungoo, Northern Karenni, Yedashe, and Karenni. 

Siiithern- Burma. — This vicariate, entrusted to 
the Missions Etrangeres of Paris, comprises all the 
territory included in British (Lower) Burma before 
the annexation of Upper Burma, with the exception, 
however, of tin' province of Arakan (attached in 
Is7" to in' Diocese of Dacca) and the Toungoo 
district (assigned to the Vicariate of Eastern Burma), 
It is, therefore, bounded on the east by the Diocese 
of Dacca, on the north by Eastern Burma, on the 
west by Siam, and on the south by the sea. It ex- 
tends from the nineteenth to the tenth parallel 
of north latitude, and, beginning from Moulmein, 
forms a long and rather narrow strip of land shut in 
between Siam on the one side and the sea on the 

In a population estimated at 4.000,000 as many as 
45,579 Catholics are found distributed among 23 
stations, the most important of which in respect "I 
Catholic population are: Rangoon, with 2336 Catho- 
lics; Moulmein, 1400; Bassein. 1040; Myaung-mya, 
4000; Kanaztogon, 44S2; Mittagon, 3000: Maryland, 
2412; Gyobingauk Tharrawady, 2200. The seat oi 
the vicariate Apostolic is at Rangoon. The clergy 
number 49 European priests and 8 native priests, 
and the vicariate has 231 churches and chapels. The 
schools are conducted by the Brothers of the Chris- 
tian Schools, the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, of 
St. Joseph of the Apparition, and of St. Francis 
Xavier, those known under this last name being 
The vicariate supports 12 Anglo-native 

. with 4501 children, and 65 Buriiian or Tamil 
schools which give instruction to 2200 pupils. The 
Little Sisters of the Poor, 9 in number, take care of 
55 old people at Rangoon, and the Missionaries of 
Mary have an asylum sheltering 100 children, be- 
sides which there are 21 orphanages, containing 790 

children, under the care of the above mentioned re 

ligious communities. This vicariate, therefore, is 
further advanced in Christianity than the other two, 
a condition due to its greater accessibility and the 
British influence, which is more fully developed in 
these regions. In 1845, as has been seen, there were 
only 2500 Catholics in Burma, sixty years later there 
are 59,127— a proof of the activity of the missionaries 
and a pledge for the future. 

Monsignor Alexander Cardot. Bishop of Litnyra, 
Vicar Apostolic of Southern Burma, was born at 
Fresse, Haute-Saone, France, 9 January, 1859, and 

educated in the seminaries of T.uneuil and Vesoul 
and of the Missions Etrangeres. Monsignor Cardot 
begin his labours in the mission field in 1879, and in 
1893 was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Bigandet, 
his predecessor in the vicariate, who consecrated him 
at Rangoon (21 June, 1893) He succeeded to the 
vicariate on the death of Bishop Bigandet, 1!) March, 

Streit, Atlas des Missions (Steyl, L906); Madras Catholic 
Directory (1907 ; R no, li'io; 132-237. 

Albert Battandier. 

Burnett, Peter Hardeman, first American 
Governor of California, V. S. A., b. in Nashville, 
Tennessee, 15 Nov., L807, of Virginian ancestry; d. 
at San Francisco. California, 16 May, 1895. At 
an early age he was taken by his father to Missouri, 
where amid primitive conditions of life he succeeded 
in obtaining an elementary education. At the age 
of nineteen he returned to Tennessee, and soon after 
married Harriet \\ . Rogers, to whom he attributed 
much of the success ol his later career. After his 
marriage he started in business for himself, studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1839. He also 
edited "The Far West", a weekly paper published 
at Liberty, Missouri. About this time he became a 
member of the Church of the Disciples, or Campbel- 
lites, founded by Alexander Campbell, a seceder from 
the Baptists. In 1843, removing with his family to 
Oregon, he took a prominent part in the formation 
of the territorial government and was a member of 
the legislature from is 11 to L848. During this period 
the published debate between Campbell and Bishop 
l'urcell of Cincinnati fell into his hands, and though 
after reading it he still remained a Protestant, his 
confidence in Protestanti mwa con iderably shaken. 
He then began a systematic inve tigation ol the true 
religion, became convinced of the truth of the Catholic 
claims, and in June, is It i, was received into the Church 
at I iregon City by Father De Vos. 

In the year 1848 Burnett went to California, where 
he was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly 

and took a leading part in its proceedings. He was 
appointed judge of the superior tribunal in \ugu t, 
1849 and did good work in the training of the State 
Constitution. In Septembi chosen chief 

justice, and on the thirteenth of November of the same 
year he was elected the first American Governor of 
California, though California was not admitted as a 
State into the Union till September, 1850. He re- 
signed the governorship in 1851 and resumed the 
practice of law until his appo ntmi til in 1857 as a 
Justice of the Supreme Court of California by Gov. 
.1. Xeely Johnson. His term expired iii October, 
1858. lb- was also President of the Pacific Bank 
from 1863 to 1880, after which he retired from active 

business. In 1860 Judge Burnett wrote his fat is 

book "The Path which led a Protestant Lawyer to 

the Catholic Church" (New York, I860), wherein 

his conversion on clear-cut logical principles. 

With regard to this work I >r. Brow nson says "In 
writing his book. Judge Burnett has rendered a 
noble homage to his new faith. . . . Through him, 
California has made a more glorious contribution to 
the Union than all the gold of her mines, for truth 

is more an gold, yea, than fine gold'' 

(Brownson's Review, April, I860 , This was fol- 
lowed by his work on The American 1 heory of 
Government, Considered with Reference to the 
Present Crisis" (2d ed., New York, L861). During 
the period of his retirement he published •■Recol- 

and Opinions of an • Md Pioneer" (New 
York, I860), which "is especially valuable Ln con- 
nexion with the early political and constitutional 

of the Pacific coast" (Nation. XXX, 

389), and "Reasons Why We Should Believe 
in Cod, Love God and Obey God" (New York, 




The Ave Maria (Notre Dame, 1-29 Oct., 1S9S); Catholit 
News, files (New York, 5 June, 1890); The Pilot, files (Boston, 

I June. 1895); Brownson's Review (New York, April, 1863). 

Edward P. Spillane. 

Burns, James, publisher and author, b. near 
Montrose, Forfarshire, Scotland, 1808; d. in London, 

II April, 1S71. During the last half of the nineteenth 
century his work in the cause of Catholic literature 
and Catholic church music contributed much to 
the rapid advancement of the Church in Great 
Britain and to the many conversions that were made 
throughout that period. His father was a Presby- 
terian minister and sent him to a college in Glasgow 
with the idea that he should follow the same calling. 
But feeling no inclination for it, he left the school 
in 1832 and went to London where he found employ- 
ment with a publishing firm. He acquired a thor- 
ough knowledge of this trade and then set up for 
himself in a modest way. He soon won success, 
and the ministers of the Established Church adopted 
him as an active auxiliary in their literary campaign 
of tracts and polemic publications. He then be- 
came a "Puseyite", or high-churchman. From his 
press were issued many interesting and instructive 
books of a high literary tone in the series he called 
"The Englishman's Library" and "The Fireside 
Library". The Oxford Movement under Newman 
of course drew him within its range, with the result 
that, in spite of the great worldly sacrifice it meant, 
he followed the example of many of his friends and 
became a convert in 1847. 

The change was one of the sensations of the time 
and involved for him the making of a new business 
life and fortune. The Anglican publications of the 
old house were sold off and he set to work, and suc- 
ceeded, in a comparatively brief time, in building up 
an equally enviable reputation as an enterprising and 
proline publisher of good and wholesome Catholic 
literature. To his "Popular Library" Cardinal 
Wiseman contributed "Fabiola" and Cardinal New- 
man, "Callista". Other volumes from a host of 
well-known writers, prayer books, and books of 
devotion soon made the name of the firm of Burns 
& Oates a household word throughout the English- 
speaking world. Mr. Burns also wrote constantly 
on church music and edited and republished many 
compositions of the best masters. He continued 
his busy life in spite of a painful internal malady 
which ended in cancer, from which he died. His 
widow, who was also a convert, survived him twenty- 
two years, dying a member of the Ursuline com- 
munity at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, U. S. A., Jan- 
uary, 1893. Of his five daughters, four entered 
the Ursuline Order and the other became a Sister 
of Charity. His only son was ordained a priest, 
serving for a long time as chaplain at Nazareth 
House, Hammersmith, London. 

Catholic Family Annual (New York. 1SS4); London Tablet 
■m.l Weekly Register, tiles (15 April. 1871). 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Burnt Offering. See Sacrifice. 

Burse (fiipoa, "hide", "skin"; whence "bag" or 
"purse"), a receptacle in which, for reasons of con- 
venience and reverence, the folded corporal is carried 
to and from the altar. In Roman form the burse is 
ordinarily made of two juxtaposed pieces of card- 
board about twenty-five centimetres (or ten inches) 
square, bound together at three edges, leaving the 
fourth open to receive the corporal. One outer side 
of die burse is of the same material and colour as the 
vestments with which it is used; the rest is lined with 
linen or silk. The use of t lie burse is relatively recent. 
When tli" corpora) reached its present small dimen- 
sions, it was carried to the altar, sometimes in the 
missal, sometimes in a special receptacle, a box or bag, 
which finally took the present form of burse. Just 
when this custom began cannot be determined. The 

"Chronicon vetus rerum Moguntinarum " (1140- 
1251) mentions a precious corporal-case; this may 
have been, however, only a box for the continual 
safe-keeping of the corporal. St. Charles Borromeo 
describes a sacculus corporalis distinct from the case 
in which corporals were preserved (Acta Mediolan., 
1683, I, 524). From the fourteenth to the seven- 
teenth centuries the use of the burse spread, and in 
1692 it was universally illicit to celebrate Mass with- 
out one (Decreta S. R. O, 1866, ad 2 m ). 

Gihr, The Sacrifice of the Mass (St. Louis. 1902), 2C4. 265; 
Gavantus-Mer.vti, Thesaurus sac. rituum (Venice, 1762), I, 90. 

John B. Peterson. 

Bursfeld, The Abbey of. — In the Middle Ages one 
of the most celebrated Benedictine monasteries in 
Germany was the Abbey of Bursfeld, situated di- 
rectly west of Gottingen, on the River Weser, in what 
is now the Prussian Province of Hanover. It was 
founded in 1093 by Duke Henry of Nordheim and his 
wife Gertrude, who richly endowed it. Henry IV of 
Germany granted it numerous privileges and im- 
munities. Its first abbot, Almericus, came from 
the neighbouring Abbey of Corvey, bringing thence 
a band of monks. Following the Benedictine 
tradition, Almericus opened a school in connexion 
with the abbey, which soon became famous, and 
under the next four abbots its fame continued to 
increase. But in 1331, under the worthless Abbot 
Henry Lasar, monastic discipline began to relax; 
the school was neglected, and the rich possessions 
were dissipated. From 1331 to 1424 no records of 
the abbey were kept. When, in 1424. the aged 
Albert of Bodenstein became Abbot of Bursfeld, 
church ami school had fallen almost into ruins, 
the monastery itself was in a dilapidated condition, 
and but one old monk remained there. Albert 
would gladly have restored Bursfeld to its former 
splendour, but was too old to undertake the gigantic 
task. He resigned the abbacy in 1430. 

During the fifteenth century a strong desire for 
monastic and other ecclesiastical reforms made itself 
felt throughout the Catholic world. One of the first 
Benedictine reformers was the pious and zealous 
John Dederoth, of Munden or Nordheim. Having 
effected notable reforms at Cms, where he had been 
abbot since 1430, Dederoth was induced by Duke 
Otto of Brunswick, in 1433. to undertake the reform 
of Bursfeld. Obtaining four exemplary religious 
from the monastery of St. Matthias, he assigned 
two of them to the monastery of Clus, to maintain 
his reformed discipline there, while the other two 
went with him to Bursfeld. Being still Abbot of 
Clus, he was able to recruit from that community 
for Bursfeld. Dederoth succeeded beyond expecta- 
tion in the restoration of Bursfeld anil began the 
reform of Reinhausen, near Gottingen, but died 
6 February, 1439, before his efforts in that quarter 
had borne fruit. 

The Bursfeld Union. — Although the monas- 
teries reformed by him never united into a con- 
gregation, still Dederoth's reforms may be looked 
upon as the foundation of the renowned Bursfeld 
Union, or Congregation. Dederoth, indeed, intended 
to unite the reformed Benedictine monasteries of 
Northern Germany by a stricter uniformity of dis- 
cipline, but the execution of his plan was left to 
his successor, the celebrated John of Hagen (not 
to be confounded with the Carthusian John of 
Hagen. otherwise called Johannes de Indagine). In 
1445 John of Hagan obtained permission from the 
Council of Basle to restore the Divine Ofliee to 
the original form of the old Benedictine Breviary 
and to introduce liturgical and disciplinary uni- 
formity in t lie monasteries that followed the re- 
form of Bursfeld. A year later (11 March, 1446) 
Louis d'AUemand, as Cardinal Legate authorised 
by the Council of Basle, a) 'proved the Bursfeld 




Union, which then consisted of the six abbeys: 
Bursfeld, Clus, Reinhausen, Cismar in Schlcswig- 
Holstein, St. Jacob near Mainz, and Huyeburg near 
Magdeburg. The cardinal likewise decreed tl 
Abbot of Bursfeld should always ex officio be one of 
the three presidents of the congregation, and that 
he should have power to convoke annual chapters. 
The first annual chapter of the Bursfeld Congrega- 
tion convened in the monastery of Sts. Peter and 
Paul at Erfurt in 144(5. In 1 4 ."> 1 , while on his journey 
of reform through Germany, the Cardinal Legate, 
Nicholas of Cusa, met John of Hagen at "Wurzburg, 
where the Benedictine monasteries of the Mainz- 
Bamberg province held their triennial provincial 
chapter. The legate appointed the Abbot of Burs- 
feld visitor for this province, and in a bull, dated 
7 June,, the Bursfeld Congregation was approved, 
and favoured with new privileges. Finally, on 
6 March, 1458, Pope Pius II approved the statutes 
ni the 1 1 >n gregation and gave it all the privileges 
which Eugene IV had given to the Italian Bene- 
dictine Congregation of St. Justina since the year 
1431. In 1401 this approbation was reiterated, 
and various new privileges granted to the congre- 
gation. Favoured by bishops, cardinals, and popes. 
11 as by temporal rulers, especially the Dukes 
of Brunswick, the Bursfeld Congregation exercised 
a wholesome influence to promote true reform in 
the Benedictine monasteries of Germany during 
the second half of the fifteenth, and the first half of 
the sixteenth, century. At the death of Abbot 
John of Hagen thirty-six monasteries had already 
joined the Bursfeld Congregation, and new ones 
were being added every year. During its most 
flourishing period, shortly before the Protestant 
revolt, at least 136 abbeys, scattered through all 
oi Germany, belonged to the Bursfeld Union. 
The religious revolution, and especially the con- 
sequent risings of the peasants in Germany, greatly 
retarded the progress of the Bursfeld Reform. In 
1579, Andrew Luderitz. the last Abbot of Bursfeld, 
wis driven from his monastery by the Lutheran 
Duke Julius of Brunswick, and, after an existence 
of almost five hundred years, Bursfeld ceased to be 
a Catholic monastery. The possessions of the abbey 
were confiscated, and the abbot was replaced by an 
adherent of Luther. About forty other Benedictine 
abbeys belonging to the Bursfeld Congregation 
were wrested from the Church, their possessions 
confiscated by Lutheran princes, and their churches 
demolished or turned to Protestant uses. Though 
greatly impeded in its work of reform, the Bursfel 1 
Congregation continued to exist until the compulsory 
secularization of all its monasteries at the end 
eighteenth, and the beginning of the nineteenth, 
century. Its last president was Bernard Bierbaum, 
Abbot of Werden in the Rhine Province, who died 
in 1798. Bursfeld (Bursfelde) is at present a small 
village with about 200 inhabitants, for whom a 
Lutheran minister holds services in the old abbey 

Trithfmhs, Chronicon Hiraatigienae (St. Gall, 1090), II. 
350; I.m i km u>, Antigvitata Bursfeldenees (LeipziR and 
Wolfenbuttel,. 1703); Evklt, /</■ At ■■:• der /• 
Benedin [Monster, 1865); Biedeni 

..,. Order (Wi imar, - 
Brookhoff, /'" Kloeter der hi. kath. Kirche tODerbau en . 
Hhmhithkr, Die Orden und Kongregationen (Paderborn, 
1896 . I. 141: I.iNNt.iumN, Die Reform 

BenedictinrrkliKier im IS. JaJtrh. durrh die Bury;. Id. r Con- 
gregation in Studien u. M utheilungen aui dem Benedii 
Orden, XX-XX1I; Bkhxieke, tee onginea de la congregation 
de Bursfeld in Revue Benidietme, XVI. 

Michael Ott. 

Burton, George A. See Clifton, Diocese op. 

Bury St. Edmund's, The Abbey of. — The first re- 
ligious foundation there was established by Sigebert, 
King of the Fast Angles, who resigned his crown to 
found a monastery about 637. It became celebrated 

when the relics of the martyred King Edmund were 
brought there in 903, after which time the town, 
till then called Beodericsworth, became known as 
St. Edmund's Town or St. Edmund's Bury. During 
the reign of Canute (1016-35) the secular canons 
were replaced by Benedictines. In 1095 there was a 
solemn transla- 
tion of the saint's 
relics to the new 
church built by 
Abbot Baldwin. 
The shritii' grew 
in fame, wealth, 
and magnificence 
till the monastery 
was considered 
second only to 
( ilastonbury, but 
in 1405 a terrible 
fire caused irrep- 
arable loss to 
the church, from 
which it never 
recovered. The 
abbot had a Beat 
in Parliament and 
■ I full ju- 
risdiction over 
the town a a d 
There was ac- 
commodation lor 
eighty monks. 
but more than 
two hundred persons resided in the Abbey. At the 
dissolution, the revenues were valued at £2,360, 
equivalent to more than £20,000 in present money. 
It was in the abbey church that the memorable 
meeting of barons took place in the year 1214, when 
Cardinal Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, stand- 
ing at the high altar, read out the proposed Charter 
of Liberties, which in the form of Magna Charts was 
signed by King John in 1215. The abbey was 
finally dissolved by Henry VIII in 1539, when the 
abbey church ami the monastic buildings were in 
large measure destroyed, the gateway, an ancient 

The Norman Tuwkr 

Abbey Hill at Present Day 

bridge, and other scattered ruins alone now remaining. 
The fate of the saint's nlies has never been decided, 
According to one tradition, they were abstracted by 
Prime Louis of France in 1217. Relics purporting 
to be those of the saint were long preserved at Tou- 
louse, until in 1901, Cardinal Vaughan, Archbishop 

il Westminster, obtained leave to translate them to 
England. Doubts having been thrown on the au- 
thenticity of the relics, a commission of investigation 

Was appointed by the Holy See, but no report has 
been published. Among the famous monks of the 
Abbey were Abbot Sampson and his chronicler 




Jooelin of Brakelond (d. 1211); John Boston de 
Bury, author and bibliographer (d. 1430); John 
Lydgate, poet (d. 1446), and Byfield who was burnt 
for heresy in 1530. 

Thompson. Records of St. Edmund's; Dugdale, Monastiton 
(London. 1821). Ill, 9S-176; Jocelini de Brakelonda, De oestix Smiixonis AUiulis (Camden Society. 1X40); Tymms, 
Handbook of Bury St. Edmund s (Sth ed., 1905). See also 
Careyle, Past and Present (1S43). 

Edwin Burton. 

Bus, Cesar de, Venerable, a priest, and founder 
of two religious congregations, b. 3 February, 1544, at 
Cavaillon, Comtat Venaissin (now France); d. 15 April, 
1607, at Avignon. At eighteen he joined the king's 
army and took part in the war against the Hugue- 
nots. After the war he devoted some time to 
poetry and painting, but soon made up his mind 
to join the fleet which was then besieging La Ro- 
chelle. Owing to a serious sickness this design 
could not be carried out. Up to this time de Bus 
had led a pious and virtuous life, which, however, 
during a sojourn of three years in Paris was changed 
for one of pleasure and dissipation. From Paris 
he went back to Cavaillon. Upon the death of 
his brother, a canon of Salon, he succeeded in ob- 
taining the vacated benefice, which he sought for 
the gratification of his worldly ambitions. Shortly 
after this, however, he returned to a better life, 
resumed his studies, and in 1582 was ordained to 
the priesthood. He distinguished himself by his 
works of charity and his zeal in preaching and 
catechizing, and conceived the idea of instituting 
a congregation of priests who should devote them- 
selves to the preaching of Christian doctrine. In 
1592, the " Pri'tres seculiers de la doctrine chr<5tienne", 
or "Doctrinaires", were founded in the town of 
L'Isle and in the following year came to Avignon. 
This congregation was approved by Pope Clement 
VIII, 23 December, 1597. Besides the Doctri- 
naires, de Bus founded an order of women called 
"Filles de la doctrine chretienne" and later Ursu- 
lines. Pope Pius VII declared him Venerable in 
1821. Five volumes of his "Instructions familieres" 
were published (Paris, 1666). 

De Beaivus, Vie d,i J: Cesar de Bus (Paris. 1645); Du- 
mas, Vie du /'.,/. Bus (Paris, 1703): Helyot. Histoire des 
ordres religieui. revised ed. I.v Bai.khe in Migne, Encycbo- 
p(dit, ,,1,',/ue i l'.iu-. IMS), XXI; Brischar in KircherUei., 
Ill, 1873, ^. v. lh;ti ino! i< r; Baillet, Les vies des saints 
(Paris. 1739), III. 617; HeimbOCHER, Die Orden und Kon- 
gregalionen der kathol. Kirche (Paderborn, 1897), II, 338. 

C. A. DuBRAY. 

Busche, Hermann von dem. See Humanists. 

Busee (Bus/EUS or Buys), Pierre, a Jesuit 
theologian, b. at Nimwegen in 1540; d. at Vienna 
in 1587. When twenty-one years old he entered 
the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Cologne, 
where, fix years later (1567), he became master of 
novices. In addition to this office he was appointed 
to give religious instruction to the higher classes 
in the Jesuit college at Cologne. He then undertook 
to complete the lame catechism of Canisius by 
adding to it the full text of the Scriptural and 
patristic references cited by the author. St. Peter 
Canisius himself encouraged this undertaking. The 
first volume appeared at Cologne in 1569, under the 
title: "Authoritates Bacrse Scripturse <t sanctorum 
Patrum, qute in summa doctrrnae christians doe- 
toris Petri Canisii citantur". The following year, 
1570, the work was completed, and was received 
at once with much favour. It consists of four 
volumes; for some unknown reason the last volume 
is lacking in the fine edition of the catechism, with 
notes by Busee, which was issued in 1571 by the 
celebrated house of Manutius, of Venice, the de- 
scendants of Aldus .Manutius. In 1577 a new 
edition, revised and augmented by another Jes- 
uit, Jean Base, was published at Cologne in one 
folio volume, under another title: "Opus catechisti- 

cum . . . D. Petri Canisii theologi S. J. prreclarig 
divinae Scriptural testimoniis, sanctorumque Patrum 
sententiis sedulo illustratum opera D. Petri Busaei 
Noviomagi, ejusd. Soc. theologi, nunc vero primum 
accessione nova, locupletatum atque restitution) ". 
SLx years before this Father Bus6e had left Cologne 
and gone to Vienna, where he lectured on the Holy 
Scriptures in the university and taught Hebrew at 
the college of the Jesuits. In 1584 Bus6e went to 
Rome at the command of the General of the Society, 
Father Acquaviva, who had appointed him a member 
of a commission to draw up a system or plan of 
studies {Ratio SludioTum) for the entire Society. On 
his return to Vienna Bus6e was made Rector of 
the College of Nobles and died while holding this 

De Backer and Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de la c. de J., 
II, eol. 439-442; Braunsberger, Entstehung und erste Ent- 
uicklun,/ der Katechismen des S. Petrus Canisius (Freiburg im 
Breisgau, 1893); Bruckeb in Diet, de theol. cath., II, col. 
1265, 1206. 


Busembaum, Hermann, moral theologian, b. at 
Notteln, Westphalia, 1600; d. at Munster, 31 January, 
1668. He entered the Society of Jesus in his nine- 
teenth year. After completing his studies he taught 
the classics, philosophy, and moral and dogmatic 
theology, in various houses of the order. He was 
rector of the colleges of Hildesheim and Munster, 
socius to the provincial, and again rector at Munster, 
where he died. His prudence, keenness of intellect, 
firmness of will, large-heartedness, and tact combined 
to form a rare character. These natural gifts were 
heightened by a singular innocence of life and con- 
stant communion with God. Hence we are not sur- 
prised to learn that he was eminently successful as a 
director of souls. He was chosen by Christoph 
Bernhard von Galen, the Prince-Bishop of Munster, 
as his confessor and became his most trusted adviser; 
and much of the growth and enduring spiritual 
activity of that diocese is due to these two men. 
Towards the end of his life Busembaum was attacked 
by a lingering and extremely painful sickness. He 
died peacefully and with sentiments of great piety. 
He was a holy man; but it is as a great theologian 
that he is especially remembered. In 1645 as South- 
well says, or according to De Backer in 1650, appeared 
his principal work: "Medulla theologise moralis 
facili ac perspicua, methodo resolvens casus con- 
scientise ex variis probatisque auctoribus concinnata ". 
This work is a classic; its conciseness, clearness, 
method, depth, vastness of theological lore com- 
pressed into so small a volume, sanity of judgment, 
and practical utility proclaimed its author to be a 
man gifted in a superlative degree with the moral 
instinct and the powers of a great teacher. Busem- 
baum's name became in a short while one of the im- 
portant ones in moral theology. In his preface to the 
first edition he acknowledges his indebtedness to two 
Jesuits, Hermann N (inning and Friedrich Spe, whose 
manuscripts he had before him while composing his 
own work, and he claims for them a share in what- 
ever good his "Medulla" was to effect. The author 
lived to see the fortieth edition of his little book. l"p 
to tin- year 1S45, over two hundred editions had ap- 
peared, which gives us an average of more than one 
edition for every year of its existence. The book 
was printed in all the great centres of the Catholic 
world, Minister, Cologne, Frankfort, Ingolstadt, 
Lisbon, Lyons, Venice, Padua, ami Rome; it was used 
as a textbook in numberless seminaries for over two 
centuries. This success is certainly phenomenal. 

Nor was Busembaum less fortunate in his commen- 
tators. Three of the greatest moralists of their re- 
spective periods, La Croix, St. AJphonsus Liguori, 

anil, in our own days. Ballerini, took the "Medulla" 
as their text and commented on it in their masterly 
volumes. St. Alphonsus wished to put into the hands 




of the students of his congregation the book that 
would help them most to master in a limited time 
and with order the difficult science of moral theology. 
During several years he had read very many authors, 
but his choice finally fell on Busembaum. 

The foregoing statements give full assurance of 
Busembaum's orthodoxy and authority. For it is 
incredible that the Church would have tolerated in 
the schools in which her future priests were being 
trained lor the sacred ministry a book that taught 
a morality which was not her own. The attacks 
made on Busembaum have been singularly futile. 
He was accused of teaching doctrine that is subversive 
of authority and of the security of kings. This charge 
was founded on the following proposition: "Ad 
defensionem vita? et integritatis membrorum licet 
filio et religioso et subdito se tueri, si opus sit, cum 
occisione, contra ipsum parentem, abbatem, princi- 
pem, nisi forte propter mortem hujus secutura essent 
nimis magna incommoda, ut bella " (Lib. Ill, Pt. I. 
tr. iv, dub. 3, " De homicidio"). Busembaum lays 
down this principle: According to the natural law it 
is permitted to repel by force an unjust aggressor, 
and, if it be necessary for the saving of one's life, to 
kill him. In such cases, however, the person at- 
tacked should have the intention of defending him- 
self, and should not inflict greater harm or use more 
force than is necessary for self-defence. Then accord- 
ing to his method Busembaum applies the principle 
to various cases; and among them is the one to which 
the adversaries object. So that the proposition which 
caused the trouble is merely an application of a 
principle of the natural law to an individual case. 
This proposition is taken almost verbatim from St. 
Antoninus. It is essentially the same as the doctrine 
of St. Thomas, who says: "And therefore as it is per- 
mitted tu resist robbers so also is it permitted to 
resist evil rulers in similar circumstances, unless per- 
chance to avoid scandal, should it be feared that any 
serious disturbance might result" (II— II, Q. lxix, 
St. Alphonsus refers to this proposition of 
Busembaum in a letter to his editor, Redmondini, 
10 March, 1758, and remarks "the proposition is not 
at all condemnable". The truth of the matter is 
that our author is here following in the footsteps "f 
very eminent theologians and the doctrine is not 
singular. Another objection is that Busembaum 
defends the principle, the end sanctions tin- means: 
use of the objection being that when the end 
is lawful, means in themselves unlawful are justified; 
that is, if the end is good, one may do something 
that is against the natural law to attain that end. 
Now the truth is, that Busembaum teaches the oppo- 
site: "Prareptum naturalc ncgativum, prohibens 
rem intrinsece malam non licet violare ne quidem ob 
metum mortis". (A negative precept of the natural 
law which prohibits a thing intrinsically evil can 
never be lawfully transgressed not even under the 
influence of the fear of death. Lib. I. tr. ii, c. iv. dub. 
2, n. 1.) So that it is not lawful to do a thing which 
is wrong in itself, even to escape death. The incrimi- 
nated passage occurs under the question which 
Busembaum puts: "Quid lieeat reo circa fugam 
poena?" (lib. IV. c. iii, d. 7, a. 2). He answers: 
"It is lawful for the accused even when really guilty 
■i. before and after the sentence of death or of 
some punishment equal to death, v. g. life imprison- 
ment, has been passed. The reason is because man's 
right to the preservation of his life is so great that no 
human power can oblige him not to preserve it. if 
there be well-grounded hope of his doing BO; unless 
indeed the public weal demand otherwise. Hence 
tin? accused may escape . . . unless indeed charity 
urge him not to do so. when the harm to the guards 
is greater than that which would come to himself. 
nay he flee so as not to be cap- 
tured . . . but he must use no violence by wounding 

or striking the ministers of justice. (2) He may also, 
at least before the tribunal of conscience, dei 
the guards — excluding violence and injury — by giving 
them, for instance, food or drink to induce sleep, or 
by bringing it about that they will be absent; he may 
snap his chains, or break open the prison; because 
when the end is lawful, the means are also lawful." 
Here therefore we have the explicit exclusion of un- 
lawful means, and the sense of the phrase is only this: 
when the end is lawful then is the use of means in 
themselves indifferent, i. e. not unlawful, permitted. 
We must here remark thai then- is in the "Medulla" 
a very small number of .solutions taken from and de- 
fended by other authors, which were afterwards 
rejected by Alexander Yll and Innocent XI. But 
these solutions are not peculiar to Busembaum. 
Nor should we be surprised that an author who 
solves almost numberless practical eases should err 
at times in his application of laws and principles to 
particular, intricate instances. The real wonder is 
that the mistaken applications in Busembaum's 
great work are so very few. 

Hcrter, Xnmcnclator, II, 259: THOEI.EN, Mrnologium 

(Roermond, 1901 i. 73, Sommuiv i„ Bibl. de In e. de J. 

i Pans. 1891), II. 44.5; Frit/ in Kirchenlex., s. v. Busembaum; 
DOHR, JesuitcnfaMn (Freibure im Br., 1 MW 1:? ",24; livmi- 
maxx. Der Zieeek heiligl die Mittel I Freiburg im Hi-.. 1903), 13, 
22. 121: Letters of St. Alphonsus Maria de Liguori iNpvv Y.,rk, 
1S96), Pt. II, Special Correspondence, I. let. xxxvi. 

Timothy B. Bakrett. 

Busiris, a titular see taking ils title from one of 
the many Egyptian cities of the same name. This 
particular Busiris was situated in the middle of the 
Delta, on the Pathmitish, or Damietta J '.ranch of 
the Nile. The ancient Egyptian name, Pa-osiri, 
means "House of Osiris ". the god being supposed to 
be buried there; hence the Coptic Pousiri, (deck 
llovcnpis and Bowreipis, Arabic Abuslr. It now 
exists as a village under the last of these names and 
is to be distinguished from another similarly named 
town on the coast of Lydia. Busiris was the chief 
town of the Busirite n&mos (Hierocles, Synecd 
72.">. 7) and became a see of .Egypt us Secunda. Its 
bishop, Herirucon, is mentioned at Nicsea (325) by 
Melctius. as one of his partisans. About this time 
there was united to the title of Busiris that of Kynos, 
from t he important city of Lower Kynos (Athanas., 
" \|iol. c. Arianos", lxxviii. in P. (';.. XXV, 376) 
Its bishop, Athanasius, defended Dioscorus at the 
Latrocinium of Ephesus in 149, but apologized pub- 
licly at Chalccdon (Liberatus, Breviarium, xivi. 
from the seventh century on. tin- ee i mentioned 
in the lists of the Greek patriarchate (Georgius 

Cyprius, 7.'i(i). though its titulars belong really to 

the Jacobite patriarchate. Thus, in 712. its bisnop, 

James, takes a part in the election of the I'at natch 

Michael I (Hcnaudot, "Hist. Patriarch. Alexandrin. ", 

2H7); a little later, under the same patriarch, its 
bishop, Peter, is mentioned (ibid.. 227); we hear also 
of Severus, under Philothi i 979 1003) and of 
Chail, or Michael, and Molina in the thirteenth cen- 
tury (ibid., 158, 569). 

I.i.Qi-iKx, Or. Christ.. II. 569, 570; Gams, Series episcop., 
461. For the ruins at Abuslr, see Navilli 
Mem. of the Egyptian Exploration fund (London, 1S90). 27. 

L. Petit. 

Buskins (caliejre), ceremonial stockings of silk, 
sometimes interwoven with gold threads, and even 
heavily embroidered, worn by the celebrant of a 
pontifical Ma-- i trieinally worn by priests, they 
were reserved about the eighth century for the ex- 
clusive use of bishops, a privilege recently extended 

to lesser prelates. In colour they correspond to the 
chasuble, but are never worn with black. 

('mm, am. Cerem. Episcop Comm I ! sr.n), I, 

197-199; Berxahd. U Pont I 

Macalibter, Ecclesiastical Vestments (London, 1896), 104-105. 
John B. Peterson. 



Buss, Franz Joseph, Ritter von, jurist, b. 23 
March, 1803, at Zell in Baden; d. 31 January, 1878, 
at Freiburg im Breisgau. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Freiburg where he took the doctor's degree 
in philosophy, law, and medicine. After a short 
stay at the Universities of Bonn and Gottingen he 
returned to Freiburg, passed a brilliant examination 
and was appointed attorney for that city. He be- 
came ordinary professor at the university in 1836, 
where he soon obtained a large following among 
the students, because in the face of strong opposition 
he treated fearlessly vexed social and ecclesiastical 
questions. To meet his many opponents Buss often 
lectured four, even five, times a day. Throughout 
his life he warmly advocated the interests of the 
people, whom he habitually reached through the 
press and his public discourses. Besides a modern 
language club of which he was the founder and 
president, he gave much of his time to creating at 
Freiburg a centre for the comparative study of 
European legislation and jurisprudence. A large 
collection of valuable material was already in his 
hands, and his extensive knowledge of law and of 
the principal languages of Europe seemed to promise 
success. He soon found, however, that the means 
of international correspondence were inadequate to 
the enterprise. Some of the material collected ap- 
peared in book form (1S35-46), the sole fruit of this 
great scheme. 

In 1837 Buss was elected to the Lower House of 
Baden and addressed himself at once to such subjects 
as the social question, the liberty of the Church, a 
uniform customs system, and closer commercial union 
between the States of Germany. Unfortunately, 
Buss met from the beginning a hostile majority, deaf 
to all his propositions and bent on his defeat. He 
was reproached in open Parliament with the errors 
and false steps into which the liberalism and restless 
activity of his youth had betrayed him. Unable 
to make the least impression on the assembly he 
resigned his seat. Elected again in 1846, Buss 
opposed vigorously the "Deutschkatholicismus" of 
Ronge. This brought out his opponents in full force. 
Extensive petitions in his favour compelled the 
Government to dissolve the Parliament; but the new 
election brought no improvement. Buss was still 
the only champion of the Church in the Lower House, 
whilst in the upper the whole weight of the op- 
position fell on Baron von Andlau and his colleague, 

Buss now directed his irrepressible activities to 
more profitable work. The "Methodology of Canon 
Law" (1842), the "Influence of Christianity on Law 
and State" (1844), the "Difference between Catholic 
and Protestant Universities in Germany" (1846), 
the "German Union and the Love for Prussia", the 
"Re-establishment of Canon Law", and the "De- 
fence of the Jesuits" (1853) appeared in rapid 
succession, each to do the work of the hour. But 
these publications did not absorb all his energy. 
He introduced the Sisters of Charity into the Grand 
Duchy of Baden; transformed his own house into 
an ecclesiastical college; during the famine of the 
winter of 1846 he fed thousands of starving people 
in the Black Forest; and he organized the Catholics 
politically and formed them into societies. In 1848 
l'>nss had the honour of presiding over the first 
general assembly of the German Catholic associations 
in .Mainz. He represented Ahaus-Steinfurt in (lie 
German Parliament at Frankfort. There, as in tin' 
Erfurt Union Parliament, where he was the leader 
of the Greater-Germany Party, he favoured Austria 
as against Prussia. When the opposition to the 
Church in Baden developed into open hostility. Buss 
was at the side of the archbishop, Hermann von Vi- 
cari. He now very opportunely published (1855) his 
"Life of St. Thomas of Canterbury", and dedicated 

it to the persecuted archbishop. He was elected for 
the third time to the Baden Landtag when the Con- 
cordat between Baden and the Holy See was in jeop- 
ardy. He at once organized a popular deputation to 
the sovereign, comprising representatives from all the 
parishes of Baden. But the old opposition prevented 
the demonstration, invalidated his election, and 
ejected him from the Landtag, and finally, at the 
next election, his constituents forsook him. Buss 
now, more than ever, turned his face towards Austria. 
During the Austro-Italian war he was so active and 
successful at the head of an association for the relief 
of the German prisoners that in acknowledgment 
of his services the emperor conferred on him the 
Order of the Iron Crown. He also organized at 
Vienna a great manifestation in favour of the tem- 
poral power of the pope, for which he was decorated 
by Pius IX with the Order of Gregory the Great. 

Under the strain of excessive work and some 
bitter disappointments, Buss broke down completely 
in 1866. A grave attack of melancholy unbalanced 
his mind. After long treatment he recovered, but 
events had meanwhile advanced so rapidly that he 
no longer recognized the old Fatherland. His long 
cherished hopes for the hegemony of Austria were 
blasted. He rejoiced at the victories of the German 
armies in the Franco-Prussian war, but remained 
averse to the new German Empire. Elected a fourth 
time to the Lower House of Baden, Buss main- 
tained his former reputation. In 1874 he was sent 
to the Reichstag by a very large vote and took his 
seat with the Centre Party. In 1877, after the death 
of his youngest child, he withdrew from public life 
and died soon after. In spite of failures Buss 
achieved a great success in keeping Catholics alive 
to current events and their bearing on the Church. 
He set Catholic Germany a stimulating example by 
organizing and binding together no less than four 
hundred Catholic associations, while to the Catholics 
of Baden he gave what they most needed, a con- 
sciousness of their strength, and the determination 
to fight for their civic and religious rights. 

Goyau, L'Allemagne religiexuse (Paris, 1905), II, 269 sqq.; 
Hagele in Kirchcnler., II, 1556-61. 

Charles B. Schrantz. 

Bustamante, Carlos Maria, Mexican statesman 
and historian, b. at Oaxaca, Mexico, 4 November, 
1774; d. in Mexico, 29 September, 1848. Although 
constantly concerned in the politics of Mexico, and 
occupying several very responsible positions during 
the most trying times of the Mexican Republic until 
the close of the war with the United States, Busta- 
mante found time and leisure to secure a prominent 
position in the historical literature of his country. 
In 1796 he took up the study of law, participated in 
the attempts to secure independence from Spain, 
and, when that was finally achieved, opposed the 
designs of Iturbide to transform the newborn republic 
into a hereditary monarchy. Repeatedly impri- 
soned and banished, he was nevertheless appointed 
to important positions in the Government. The 
American war was a source of deep grief to him, and 
he felt so keenly the disastrous results of it for his 
country that he survived its close only about one 
year. His historical sketch of that war is a sad record 
of the decay and disintegration which afflicted Mexico 
at that time. He writes with the greatest frankness, 
and unsparingly, about the conduct of the war on 
the Mexican side. His autobiography, published in 
1833, is also valuable as a fragment of contemporary 

Bustamante distinguished himself by publishing 
historical works on colonial times, till then in manu- 
script and partly forgotten. Above all, his publica- 
tion of the " [listeria general de las cosas de Nueva 
Espafla", by Pray Bernardino de Sahagun of the 
second half of the sixteenth century, was a service 




to historical research. It is open to grave criticism, 
being defective and sometimes slovenly, but it 
should not be forgotten that it is the first of its kind 
and was published during a most troubled period 
of the editor's life. It must be condemned as un- 
reliable in many respects, and yet it has opened the 
road to more exhaustive, and hence more valuable, 
investigations. In addition to the work of Sahagun, 
Bustamante printed the chronicle of Gomara, the 
work of Veytia on Tezcuco, the dissertations of < lama 
on two large Mexican sculptures, and others. To 
the history by Sahagun he added one of the r< lactones 
of Ixtlilxoch'itl, selected by him for the passionate 
spirit which it displays against the Spaniards. Bus- 
tamante's anti-Spanish feelings influence even his 
scientific publications and detract from their value. 

Any modern history of Mexico touches on the life 
and writings of Bustamante. In addition to the 
autobiography mentioned (Lo que se dice, y lo que 
se hace. 1833), and the light shed by his other works, 
the "Diccionario universal de Historia y Geografia" 
(Mexico, 1853), contains an exhaustive account of 
the man. Alamdn has written about him in terms 
of great eulogy, putting in relief especially his private 
character and the virtues of his domestic life. 

Alaman, Historia de Mexico (Mexico, 1848); Idem, Diser- 
tacionee sobre la Historia de la RepHblica Afexicana (Mexico, 
1848); Diccionario hispano-americano. ■ 

Ad. F. Bandelier. 

Buston (or Busten). Thomas Stephen, Jesuit 
missionary and author, b. 1549, in the Dion-, of 
Salisbury' England; d. at Goa, 1619. He entered 
the novitiate of the Society of Jesus on 11 October, 
1570, and in the following year sailed for India, 
landing at Goa on 24 October, 1578. He settled in 
the island of Salsette, on the west coast of the penin- 
sula, and in 1584 he became superior of the Jesuits 
in that district, retaining the office until his death 
thirty-five years later. Buston wrote several works 
to further the instruction and conversion to Christi- 
anity of the natives; his writings are the earlii i 
known to have been printed in Hindustan. Boston's 
published works are: "Arte da lingoa canarina", a 
grammar of the language spoken in Canara. a district 
on the Malabar coast. It is written in Portuguese, 
the language used by Europeans on that coast. 
Father DiogO de Ribeiro had the work printed, 
with his own additions, at Goa, in 1640. "Doutrina 
ehrista em lingua bramana'' (1632); "Di 
sobre a vida de Jesus Christo" (Rachol, 1649 ; 
"I'urana". a collection of poems written in the 
Indian language, illustrating the chief mysteries of 
Christianity. Buston, at the time of his death, 
was held in general repute as an apostle and a 

Sommervogel, Bibliographic dcs eerivains dp la compagnie 
de Jisus, 11,469,470; Jocbek, Allgemeinet Oelehrten-LexKOn, 1. 
D. O. Hunter-Blair. 

Bute, John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, Third 
Marquess of, b. at Mountstuart, Bute, 12 Septem 
ber, 1 s 1 7 ; • ) . : 1 1 Dumfries House, Ayrshire, 9 October, 
1900, was the only child of the second Marquess by 
his second wife Lady Sophia Hastings, and sui 
to the family honours when only six month- old. 
His mother died in 1859, and after some disputes 

between his guardians he was sent lo Harrow and 
subsequently to Christ Church. Oxford. Here he 
came under the influence of the advanced section of 
the Anglican Church, whose tenets his keen and 
logical intellect quickly saw to lie inconsistent with 
non-communion with "the Catholic Church. Mute's 
letters to one of his very few intimate friends during 
his Oxford career show with what conscientious care 
he worked out the religious question for himself. 
On the 8th of December, 1868, lie was received into 
the Church by Monsignor Capel at a convent in South- 
Walk, and a little later was confirmed by Pius IX, 

in Rome. He was present in Rome during part 
of the sittings of the Vatican Council, travelled 
afterwards in the East, and then returned home to 
settle down on his extensive estates in Scotland and 

In April, 1S72, he married the Hon. Gwendolen 
Howard, eldest daughter of the first Lord Howard of 
Glossop, and had by her three sons and a daughter. 
A scholar and somewhat of a recluse by temperament, 
Bute had a high sense of public duty, and admirably 
fulfilled his functions as a great landowner and em- 
ployer of labour. The first peer in modern times to 
undertake municipal office, he served both as Mayor 
of Cardiff and (twice) as Provost of Rothesay, in 
his titular island. His munificence was in proportion 
to his vast wealth (derived chiefly from his property 
in Cardiff), and innumerable poor Catholic missions 
throughout Britain, as well as private individuals, 
could testify to his lavish, though not indiscriminate 
generosity. A patron of learning throughout his 
career, he expended large sums in the assistance of 
impecunious scholars and in the publication of costly 
and erudite works. He was for several years Lord 
Rector of St. Andrews University, to which, as well 
as to Glasgow University, he was a munificent 
benefactor. Bute was a Knight of the Thistle, and 
also a Knight Grand Cross of St. Gregory and of the 
Holy Sepulchre. His personal habits were simple; 
but as a lover of art, with means to gratify his taste, 
he surrounded himself in his various splendid homes 
with much that was artistic and beautiful. His last 
years were clouded by a long and trying illness, 
patiently borne; and he died as he hail lived, a devout 
and bumble Catholic, a few w r eeks after his fifty- 
third birthday. 

Bute's chief published works are: "The Roman 
Breviary translated into English" (2 vols., 1879); 
"Ancient Language of the Natives of Teneriffe" 

(1891); "The Alleged Haunting of B House" 

(1899); "The Altus of St. Columba" (1882); "Early 
Days of Sir William Wallace" (1876); "David, Duke 
of Rothesay" (1894); "Form of Prayers, Christmas 
Services, etc." (1875, 1896); many articles in the 
"Scottish Review"; "Address at St. Andrews 
University" (published in Knight's "Rectorial 
Addresses"). D. O. Hunter-Blair. 

Buteux, Jacques, French missionary in Canada b. 
at Abbeville, in Picardy. 11 April, 16(10; slain by the 
Iroquois savages, 10 May. 1652. He entered the 
Society of Jesus in October, 1620, studied at La 
I leehe (1622-25). was an instructor at Caen (1625- 
29), and after his course of theology at La Fleche 
(1629-33) became prefect at the College of Clermont. 
In 1631 he went to Canada and was sent to the new 
settlement of Three Rivers, where he remained for 
eighteen years, ministering with extraordinary zeal 
to the Montagnais and Algonquin tribes. Though of 
frail and delicate physique, his soul was fired with an 
ardent desire for suffering, which nothing could 
satisfy. It was this trait in his character which most 
distinguished him from the other heroic men who had 
! their lives to the same work. In truth, no 
peril, however great, ever blanched his cheek or 
stayed his hand when there was question of serving 
Goa or saving a soul. He was endowed with a very 
special grace for instilling sentiments of piety into 

the hearts of the Indians, and those under his care 

were recognized by a tenderness of devotion and a 

spirit of faith which wen- lasting and altogether 

remarkable. Buteux himself has drawn a vivid 
picture of one of his apostolic journeys through a 
Canadian wilderness at the end of winter, of travers- 
ing almost pathless forests, crossing mountains, 
lakes, and rivers, wading knee deep in melting snow, 

and being unable on account of all these difficulties 
to carry enough food for more than "warding off 




death, rather than supporting life". His death 
occurred on one of his journeys to the Attikamegues, 
a Montagnais tribe dwelling on the upper St. Maurice 
River. A troop of Iroquois lying in ambush riddled 
his right arm and breast with bullets, while the blows 
of their tomahawks completed the sacrifice. Mother 
Mary of the Incarnation writes that "his death was 
an incredible loss to the mission". Father Buteux 
has left, besides other documents, an interesting 
account of the captivity of Father Isaac Jogues. _ 

Rochemon*teix, Les Jesuites et la NouveUe-France au A 1 //« 
sircle (Paris. 1890), I. 204, 205; Thwaites. Jesuit Relations. 
VI. 320; IX, 307; XXXVII, 9, 19-07; LXXII. 114. 115; 
Sommekvogel, Bibliographic des ierirains de la eompagnie de 
Jesus. 11,471; VII, 1953. 

Edward P. Spillane. 

Butler, Alb an, historian, b. 10 October, 1710, at Ap- 
plet ree, Northamptonshire, England; d. at St-Omer, 
France, 15 May, 1763. He shares with the venerable 
Bishop Challoner the reputation of being one of the two 
most prominent Catholic students during the first half 
of the dreary eighteenth century, when the prospects 
of English Catho- 
lics were at their 
lowest. After the 
death of his father 
in 1712, he was 
sent to the cele- 
brated "Dame 
Alice's School", 
a t Ferny halgh, 
in Lancashire. 
From thence 
while still young 
he was transferred 
to the English 
College at Douai, 
where he went 
through the full 
course, and was 
ordained priest in 
1735. He had al- 
ready gained a 
reputation for ex- 
traordinary dili- 
gence and regu- 
larity, and was asked to remain at the college as 
professor, first of philosophy, later on of theology. 
During his years at Douai, he devoted himself to 
what became the great work of his life, "The Lives 
of the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints". 
His mastery of ancient and modern languages fitted 
him specially for a task which involved such wide 
reading, while his unremitting industry and steady 
perseverance enabled him to overcome all obstacles. 
He also assisted Dr. Challoner, by preparing matter 
for the latter's "Memoirs of Missionary Priests", the 
standard work on the martyrs of the reign of Eliza- 
beth and later. Butler's notes are still preserved at 
Oscott College. 

In 17 15 Alban Butler was chosen to accompany the 
Earl of Shrewsbury and his two brothers, James and 
Thomas Talbot, both afterwards bishops, on a tour 
through Europe. On his return he acted as mission 
priest in various parts of the Midland District, to 
which he belonged by origin. Though ever seeking 
leisure for study, we are told that he was precise in 
the discharge of all his duties, and his time was 
always at the disposal of the poor or others wiio had 
a claim upon him. We next find him acting as 
chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk, whose nephew (and 
heir presumptive), the Hon. Edward Howard, he 
accompanied to Paris as tutor. During his residence 
there, Butler at length completed his work on the 
" Lives of the Saints", on which he had been engaged 
nearly thirty years. It contains biographies of more 
than 1,600 saints arranged in order of date; and is 
a monument of work and research. It was published 

Alban Butler 

anonymously, in London, in 1756-59, nominally in 
four, really in seven octavo volumes. This was the 
only edition which appeared during the author's 
lifetime; but there have been many others since, and 
the work has been translated into Italian and French. 
In 1766 the presidency of the English College at 
St-Omer, in France, falling vacant by the elevation 
of Thomas Talbot to the episcopate, Alban Butler 
was appointed to succeed his former pupil, no doubt 
that he might be placed where he would have greater 
facilities for study. The college had formerly 
belonged to the Jesuits, but had been handed over 
to the secular clergy by the French Government 
when the Society of Jesus was banished from France. 
The Douai authorities accepted the college in order 
to save it from being confiscated, with the intention 
of restoring it to its owners should circumstances ever 
permit. The Jesuits, however, resented their action, 
and under these circumstances Alban Butler hesi- 
tated about accepting the position offered him; but 
we are told by his nephew and biographer, Charles 
Butler, that having taken counsel of the Bishops of 
Amiens and Boulogne, he was advised that he could 
accept the post with a safe conscience. A few years 
later the general suppression of the Society of Jesus 
throughout the world put an end to any doubt on 
the matter. Butler found, however, that his hopes of 
leading a studious life were doomed to disappoint- 
ment, for his reputation by this time was such that 
no less than four bishops of neighbouring dioceses, 
Arras, Boulogne, St-Omer, and Ypres, continually 
sought his advice, and invested him with faculties 
as vicar-general. Thus during the concluding years 
of his life he had to devote himself to active work 
more than at any previous time. He was buried in 
the parish church of St-Denis almost opposite to 
the English College at St-Omer. Since the Revo- 
lution, all traces of his tomb have disappeared. His 
works include: "Letters to a Gentleman on Bower's 
Lives of the Popes" (1754); "Lives of the Saints" 
(1756-59; many times republished); "Life of Mary of 
the Holy Cross" (1767). After his death Bishop 
Challoner published "The Movable Feasts and Fasts"; 
and Charles Butler edited: "Travels" (1791), "Medi- 
tations" (1791) and, "Life of Sir To bie Matthews" 

Butler, Life; Cooper in Diet. Nat. Biog.; Gillow, Bibl. 
Diet. Eng. Cath.; Kirk, Biog. Collections, MS. 

Bernard Ward. 

Butler, Charles, one of the most prominent 
figures among the English Catholics of his dav, b. in 
London, 1750; d. 2 June, 1832. He belonged to an 
ancient. Northamptonshire family, and was a nephew 
of the Rev. Alban Butler, the author of "The Lives 
of the Saints". After spending two or three years 
at a private school at Hammersmith, he was sent 
to the preparatory house at Equerchin, dependent 
on the English College at Douai. then to the college 
itself, where he went through the full course. On 
his return to England he gave himself to the study 
of law. Owing to his religion, lie was unable to 
become a banister; so he followed the example of 
a large class of Catholics of that day. who became 
conveyancers and practised in chambers. He 
studied successively under .Mr. Duane and Mr. Maire, 
both conveyancers of eminence, and Catholics. In 
1775 he began to practise, and continued for over 
forty years. From the first he was very successful. 
and for more than half the period named he was 
acknowledged as the first conveyancer of the day. 
Among his pupils were some distinguished men, 
notably Sir Thomas Denman, afterwards attorney- 
general. Butler was not, however, content with 
his position. The fact that he could not be called 
to the Bar was a continual mortification to him, and 
it was chiefly this which led him to take an active 
part in the efforts of Catholics to obtain the repeal 




of the Penal Laws. He was elected secretary to the 
committee of Laymen appointed for this end, and he 
put his heart and soul into the work. This brought 
him into the dissensions which unhappily existed 
at that time between laymen and the bishops. From 
the first Butler sided with the former, and the 
"Blue Books", which were the official publications 
of the committee, were almost entirely written by 
him. Notwithstanding the internal dissensions 
among the Catholic body, the bill for their partial 
relief was passed through Parliament in 1791, and 
Butler, the first to profit by the enactment, was 
called to the Bar that year. The disputes connected 
with the Catholic Committee brought Butler into 
direct conflict with Milner, then a simple priest. 
Early in the nineteenth century, when the Veto 
Question arose, Milner, by this time a bishop, be- 
came the strong opponent of Butler, against whom 
he wrote and spoke for many years. In the end, by 
the aid of O'Connell, Catholic Emancipation was 
passed in 1829, without the concession of any kind 
of veto. 

With such an active life, both professional and 
political, we may wonder how Charles Butler 
could have found time for any literary pursuits; but 
by a habit of early rising, a systematic division of 
his time, and unceasing industry, he contrived, as 
he himself tells us, to provide himself with an abun- 
dance of literary hours. His writings were many, 
and their variety indicate an extraordinary versa- 
tility of talent. He could write with facility on such 
different subjects as law, history, music, social ques- 
tions, and Holy Scripture. Among his own pro- 
fession his work on Coke-Littleton, on which he 
collaborated with Mr. Hargrave, is best known; 
among the general Catholic public his "Historical 
Memoirs of English, Scottish and Irish Catholics" 
was most read. This work brought him again into 
conflict with Bishop Milner, who replied with his 
''Supplementary Memoirs". 

diaries Butler was married in 1776 to Mary, 
daughter of John Eyston, of Hendred, Berks, by 
whom he had one son. who died young, and two 
daughters. In private life he was a devout Catholic; 
c'.cii Milner admitted that he might with truth be 
called an ascet ic. livery Catholic work of importance 
numbered him among its chief subscribers. He sur- 
vived his opponent. Dr. Milner, and lived to see 
Catholic emancipation. One of the consolations of 
his declining years was his elevation to the dignity 
of King's Counsel after the passing of the Act, an 
occasion on which he received a special message of 
congratulation from the king. 

There are two miniatures of him in possession of 
bis grandson, Judge Stonor,one of which is the origi- 
nal of the engraving in the first edition of the "His- 
torica] Memoirs": were is also an oil painting of him 
.is ,i boy at Douai, and a bust at Lincoln's Inn. His 
chief works are: " Bargrave's Coke on Littleton" 
(eight editions. 1775-1831); "On Impressing Sea- 
men" (1777): "Horse Biblicse" (1797 1802); "Life of 
Alban Butler" (1800); "Hone Juridicse Subsecivas" 
(1804); Lives of Fenelon (1811 I and Bossuet (1812); 
"Trappist Abbots and Thomas a Kempia" (1814); 
"Symbols of Faith of the Roman Catholic, Greek, 
and Protestant Churches" (1816); "The French 
Church" (1817); "Church Mum." (1818); "His- 
torical Memoirs of English, Scottish, and Irish 
Catholics" (three editions, 1819 22l; "Reminis- 
cences" (1822); "Continuation of Alban Butler's 
Saints' Lives" (1823); "Life of Erasmus" (1825); 
"Book of the Roman Catholic Church" (1825); 
vindication of preceding (1826 : appendix to same 
: "Life of Grotius" (1826); "The Coronation 
<>ath" (1827); "Reply to Answers" to same (1828); 
"Memoirs of d'Aguesseau and Account of Roman 
and Canon Law" (1830). 

RrTI.F.R, RrminisrrnrrK: t'nnmt in Diet. Nat Biog.; < '.It - 
low, Bibl. Dirt. Eng. Cath.; Amherst, (nth. Emnn>, Svvpbem. Memoirs; Busenbeth, Life <>' w 

WARD, Catholic London a I '< ntury A<jn; t 'nth. Manazini' I s;ej ; 
Stonor in Law Review (1S36). 

Bernard Ward. 
Butler, Mary Joseph, first Irish Abbess of the 
Irish Benedictine Abbey of Our Lady of Grace, at 
Ypres, Flanders, b. at Callan, County Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, in Dec, 1641; d. at Ypres, 22 Dec., 1723. Sent 
to be educated under the care of her aunt, Lady Ab- 
bess Knatchbull of the English Benedictine Dames at 
Ghent, she petitioned, when twelve years old, to be re- 
ceived into the order, a request granted two years 
later. She made her religious profession 4 Nov., 1657 
at the English Benedictine convent at Boulogne, at 
the age of sixteen. In 1665 the mother-house of 
Ghent made another foundation, at Ypres, with I lame 
Beaumont as abbess, but as the house did not thrive 
under her auspices, n was decided, upon her death in 
1682, to convert the house at Ypres into a national 
foundation for the Irish Benedictine nuns of the va- 
rious houses founded from Ghent. Dame Butler ac- 
cordingly was sent to Ypres in 1683. and. on the death 
of the second abbess, in 1686, was elected Abbess of 
the Irish Dames of Ypres, 29 August. Soon after her 
election she was called upon to take a leading part 
in a new Benedictine foundation in Dublin, set on 
foot by King James II. By letters-patent or charter, 
which is dated in the sixth year of his reign, and still 
preserved in the convent of Ypres, King James con- 
fers upon this his "first and chief Royal Monastery 
of Cratia Dei", an annuity of one hundred pounds 
sterling to be paid forever out of his exchequer, and 
appoints his "well-beloved Dame Mary Butler 
abbess. Her brother was King James's Chief Cup- 
bearer for Ireland, a title hereditary in the Butler 
family, as their name implies. Having overcome 
many difficulties Abbess Butler set out for Dublin in 
the year 1688, and in passing through London was 
presented with her nuns in the Benedictine habit to 
the Queen at Whitehall. Towards the end of the 
year she arrived in the Irish eapital. and took up her 
abode in a house in Great Ship Street. Here the 
Divine Office and regular observance were at once 
begun and a school opened. About thirty young 
girls of the first families were entrusted to the nuns 
for their education and no less than eighteen of them 
expressed a wish to become religious. But the good 
work was rudely interrupted by the entry of the 
usurper William's forces into Dublin, after the battle 
of theBoyne (lor 11 July, 1690). The convent was 
sacked by his soldiery, and the nuns forced to seek 
refuge in a neighbouring house, but the church plate 

and other treasures wire saved by the presence of 
mind of a lay sister, Placida Holmes, who disguised 
herself in secular clothes, ami mingled with the 
plunderers, (hi the closing of I he Dublin convent, 
the Duke of Ormonde assured his cousin. Abbess 
Butler, of llis special protection, should she consent 

to remain in Ireland, bul she decided to return to 
Ypres. upon which the duke procured for her. from 
the Prince of Orange, a pas-port (still preserved at 
Ypres) permitting hei and her nuns to leave the 

country without molestation. 

• in her arrival al Ypres lie resin I conventual 

life in extreme poverty "I'll only a feu l:i\ 

to assist her. So greal indeed was their destitution 
that the bishop strongly urged her to sell the house 
and retire whithersoever lie plea ed, inn he would 

not abandon the work, and her faith was rewarded, 
for at length in t he year I TOO. she had the happiness 

of professing several new subjects (among them two 
Irish ladies from the French Court) who assisted her 
in keeping up the choir and regular observance 

continued to govern her flock with much « 

and discretion until the year 17_M. when she died in 
the sixty-sixth year of her religious profession, and 




the thirty-sixth year of her abbatial dignity. King 
James II, and more especially his Queen, Mary of 
Modena, were great benefactors and friends of Abbess 
Butler, and of the Irish convent of Ypres, which she 
saved from extinction and which has survived ever 
since. It enjoys the distinction of being the only 
religious house in all the Low Countries which re- 
mained standing during the storms of the French 
Revolution and of being the only Irish Abbey of the 
Benedictine Order. 

Nolan, Hist, of Royal Irish Abbey of Ypres (from MSS. in 
Convent archives). 

Patrick Nolan. 

Buttress, a pilaster, pier, or body of masonry 
projecting beyond the main face of the wall and 
intended to strengthen the wall at particular points 
and also to counterbalance the thrust of a roof or its 
vaulting. The term "counterfort" is used when 
the projection is on the inside. A flying buttress is 
an arch, resting at one end on a detached pier and 
it carries the thrust of the nave vault over the aisles 
or cloister. Thomas H. Poole. 

Buxton, Christopher, Venerable, priest and 
martyr, b. in Derbyshire; d. at Canterbury, 1 October, 
158S. He was a scholar of Ven. Nicholas Garlick at 
the Grammar-School, Tideswell, in the Peak District, 
studied for the priesthood at Reims and Rome, and 
was ordained in 1586. He left Rome the next year, 
and soon after his arrival in England was apprehended 
and condemned to death for his priesthood. He suf- 
fered at Oaten Hill, Canterbury, together with Vener- 
ables Robert Wilcox and Edward Campion. Being 
so young, it was thought that his constancy might be 
shaken by the sight of the barbarous butchery of his 
companions, and his life was offered him if he would 
conform to the new religion, but he courageously 
answered that he would not purchase a corruptible 
life at such a price, and that if he had a hundred lives 
he would willingly surrender them all in defence of 
his faith. While in the Marshalsea Prison he wrote a 
"Rituale", the MS. of which is now preserved as a 
relic at Olney, Bucks. He sent this MS. to a priest, 
as a last token of his friendship, the day before he was 
taken from the prison to suffer martyrdom. 

Challoner, Memoirs; Foley, Records; Roman Diary (Lon- 
don, 1880); Morris, Catholics of York. 

Bede Camm. 

Buxtorf, Family op. See Hebrew Language. 

Buys, Pierre. See Btjsee. 

Byblos, a titular see of Phoenicia. Byblos is the 
Greek name of Gebal "The mountain", one of the 
oldest cities in Phoenicia Prima, quoted in an Egyp- 
tian inscription as early as 1550 B. c. Its inhabitants 
were skilled in stone and wood-working (III Kings, 
v, 18) and in shipbuilding (Ezech., xxvii, 9). It 
was governed by kings, the last of whom was de- 
throned by Pompey. It is celebrated chiefly for its 
temple of Adonis, or Thammouz, whose voluptuous 
worship spread thence over Greece and Italy. It 
was the native place of Philo, a Greek historian and 
grammarian. As a Christian see it was suffragan 
to Tyre and according to one tradition, its first 
bishop was John Mark, the companion of St. Paul 
and St. Barnabas. Five other bishops are known 
before 553 (Lequien, Or. Chr., II, 821). The city 
was destroyed by an earthquake in 551 (Malalas, 
Chronogr., XVIII, P. G., XCVII, 704) and was in 
ruins as late as 570 (Pseudo-Antoninus, ed. Geyer, 
159). The Crusaders took it in 1104; it then had 
a Greek bishop, but he was obliged to yield his see 
to a Latin successor, and from 1130 to 1500 about 
twenty Latin bishops arc known (Lequien, Or. Chr., 
III. 1177; Eubel, Hier. Cath., I, 139; II, 119). Many 
Latin bishops are mentioned in " Revue Benedic- 
tine", 1904, 98, sqq.; 1907, 63, so,. The modern 
Arabic name is Gebail. It is a mere village with 

about 1,000 inhabitants, almost all Christians (650 
Maronites). There are thirteen churches; three of 
them are very beautiful and trace their origin to the 
Crusades. There is also at Byblos a castle of the 
same time, likewise some ruins of temples of Adonis 
and Isis. Gebail is yet a diocese for the Orthodox 
Greeks. For the Catholic or Melchite Greeks, the 
title of Byblos is united with Beirut, and for the 
Maronites with that of Batroun (Botrys). 

R.ENAN, Mission rte Phenicie (Paris, 1864), 153-218; Le 
Mens littcraire et pittoresque (Paris, July, 1906); Ret, Etude 
sur leg monuments de V architecture des Croises en Syrie (Paris, 
1871), 217-219; Rouvier, La necropole de Gebal-Byblos in 
Revue biblique, VIII, 553-565. 

S. Vailhe. 

Bye-Altar. — An altar that is subordinate to the 
central or high altar. The term is generally applied 
to altars that are situated in the bay or bays of the 
nave, transepts, etc. Thomas H. Poole. 

Byllis, a titular see of Epirus Nova (Albania) , whose 
title is often added to that of Apollonia among the 
suffragans of Dyrrachium (Durazzo). It was situated 
west of Avlona, on the coast, near the modern village 
Gradica, or Gradiste, a Slav name substituted in later 
episcopal "Notitise" for the old Illyrian name Byllis 
(Not. episc. Ill, 620; X, 702). Hierocles (653, 4) 
knows only of Byllis. Felix, Bishop of Apollonia and 
Byllis, was present at me Council of Ephesus, in 431. 
At Chalcedon in 451, Eusebius subscribes simply as 
Bishop of Apollonia; on the other hand, Philoeh'aris 
subscribes as Bishop of Byllis only in the letter of the 
bishops of Epirus Nova to the Emperor Leo, (458). 

Lequien, Oriens Christ., II, 24S; Farlati, lllyricum sacrum, 
VII, 395; Gams, Series episcop., 394. 

L. Petit. 

Byrd, William, English composer, b. in London in 
1542 or 1543; d. 4 July, 1623. He was the son of a 
musician, and studied music principally under Thomas 
Tallis. He became organist at Lincoln Cathedral in 
1563, chorister in the Chapel Royal in 1570, and in 
1575 received the title of Organist of the Chapel 
Royal without being obliged to perform the functions 
of that office. Byrd was the most distinguished con- 
trapuntist and the most prolific composer of his time 
in England. Fetis calls him the English Palestrina. 
He was the first Englishman to write madrigals, a 
form which originated in Italy in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and received its highest development in the 
sixteenth century at the hands of Arcadelt and other 
masters. An organist and performer of the first 
order upon the virginals, Byrd wrote for the latter 
instrument an enormous number of compositions, 
many of which are played to-daj r . His chief signifi- 
cance lies, however, in his compositions for the 
church, of which he produced a great many. In 1607 
he published a collection of gradualia for the whole 
ecclesiastical year, among which is to be found a 
three-part setting of the words of the multitude in 
the Passion according to St. John. A modern edition 
of this setting was published in 1899. In 1611 
"Psalms, Songs and Sonnets, .Some Solemn, Others 
Joyful, Framed to the Life of the Words, Fit for or Viols, etc." appeared. Probably in the 
same year was issued " Parthenia", a collection of 
virginal music, in which Byrd collaborated with 
J. Bull and Orlando Gibbons. Three masses, for three, 
four, and five voices, respectively, belong to the com- 
poser's best period. The one for five voices was re- 
printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1841, 
and in 1899 the same work was issued by Breitkopf 
and llartel. Two of his motets, "Domine, ne iras- 
caris" and "Civitas Sanctis tui", with English texts, 
are in the repertoire of most Anglican cathedrals. 
In spite of the harrowing religious conditions under 
which he lived, in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and 
James I, Byrd remained faithful to his principles and 
duties as a Catholic, as is shown in his life and by 




his works. In his last will and testament he prays 
"that he may live and dye a true and perfect mem- 
ber of the Holy Catholike Churche withoute which 

I beleeve there is noe salvacon for me". 

The Music Story Series: English Music, 1604 to 1904 (Lon- 
don and New York. 1906); Kittkr, Music in England (New 
York, 1S33); Grove, Dictionary oj Music. 

Joseph Otten. 

Byrne, Andrew, Bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas, 
T". S. A., b. at Navan, Co. Meath, Ireland, 5 Decem- 
ber, ISO-'; d. at Helena. Arkansas. ID June, 1862. 
He was an ecclesiastical student when, in 1820, 
Bishop England sought volunteers for the mission 
of the newly created Diocese of Charleston (South 
Carolina), and he accompanied the bishop to the 
United States. He was ordained at Charleston, 

II November, 1827, and after active missionary 
work in South and North Carolina was for several 
years vicar-general of the diocese. In 1836 he re- 
moved to New York City, where he served at St. 
Patrick's, St. James's and the church of the Nativity, 
and finally altered, in 1S43. the famous Carroll Hall, 
which might be termed the cradle of the public school 
system of New York, into St. Andrew's church. 
While pastor there in 1844, the new Diocese of Little 
Rock, comprising the State of Arkansas ami all of 
the Indian rerritory, was created, and Father Byrne 
w.i- named its first bishop. He'was consecrated in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City. It) .March, 
184 1. at the same time that the Rev. John Mct'loskey 
(afterwards Cardinal) was consecrated coadjutor of 
New York, and the Rev. William Quarter, Bishop of 
Chicago. There were then in Arkansas only about 
700 Catholics, with one priest and two churches. 
Shortly before Bishop Bryne died, he claimed that 
the Dumber of Catholics had increased largely, with 
nine or more priests, eleven churches, thirty stations. 
and twelve schools and academies. He visited 
Ireland several times to obtain colabourers and 

ints in the cause of religion and education. 
He introduced the Sisters of Mercy from Dublin and 
at the time of his death had almost completed 
arrangements for the starting of a college at Fort 
Smith by the Christian Brothers. He was one of 
the prelates attending the Sixth Provincial Council 
of Baltimore in May, 1846, and the First Provincial 
Council of New Orleans in 1856. At the Second Bal- 
timore Council, in 1833, he acted as Bishop England's 

Catholic Almanac (Baltimore. 18641; SnEA, The Catholic 
Church m S. Y. fit,, (New York. 1878); Clarke. Lives of 
the Deceased Bishops (New York. 1872); Baylet. Brief Sketch 
of the Early History of the Catholic Church on the island of 
\eu lor* (New York, 1870). 

Thomas F. Mef.han. 

Byrne, Richard, brevet brigadier general, United 
State-; Army, b. in Co. Cavan, Ireland, 1832; d. at 
Washington, 10 June, 1S64. He emigrated from 
his native land to New York in 1844 and live years 
later enlisted in the regular army of the United 
States, joining the Second Cavalry, a regiment then 
inded by Colonel E. V. Sumner. In this 
regiment young Byrne distinguished himself in the 
Indian campaigns in Florida and Oregon, At the 
breaking out of the Civil War he was, on the recom- 
mendation of his old commander, Colonel Sumner, 
commissioned First Lieutenant in the Fifth Cavalry, 
one of the new regiments authorized by Congress. 
During the campaigns of L861 and 1862 he remained 
witli the regiment of regulars and was then appointed 

by Governor Andrew. Colonel of the Twenty-Eighth 
Massachusetts Volunteers, an Irish regiment of which 
he took command, l80ctober, 1862, In the Novem- 
ber following, this regiment was attached to the 
famous Meagher's Irish Brigade and with it partici- 
pated with special gallantry in all the fierce conflicts 
in which the Army of the Potomac was subsequently 
engaged. At its head Colonel Byrne charged up the 

fatal slope of Maryo's Heights at Fredericksburg, and 
after it, like the other regiments of the brigade, had 
been almost wiped out in the sanguinary conflicts at 
Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, he was sent back to 
Massachusetts to recruit its ranks during the winter 
and spring of 1863 and 1S64. When the campaign 
reopened in May he returned to the front and as the 
senior officer took command of the Irish Brigade. 
Two weeks after assuming command, on 3 June, 
1864, he fell, mortally wounded, while leading the 
brigade at the attack on the entrenchments at Cold 
Harbor, Virginia. He lived long enough to be con- 
veyed to Washington, where his wife reached him 
before he died. His commission as brigadier general 
had just been made out by President Lincoln, but he 
was dead before it could be officially presented to 
him. His remains were sent to New York and 
buried in Calvary Cemetery. 

Conyngham, The Irish Brigade and its Campaigns (Boston, 
1869); The Emerald, files (New York. 8 January, 1870). 

Thomas P. Meehan. 

Byrne, William, missionary and educator, b. in 
County Wicklow, Ireland, in 17S0; d. at Bardstown, 
Kentucky, U. S. A., 5 June, 1833. He was one of a 
large family for whom he was obliged by the death of 
his father to become breadwinner. He desired to be 
a priest, but circumstances denied him more than a 
common elementary education, imparted to him by a 
pious uncle. Many of his near relatives were among 
the ill-starred patriots of the Rebellion of 1798, and 
the cruel and bloody scenes of that year enacted near 
his home made a vivid impression on his youthful 
mind. In his twenty-fifth year came the opportunity 
to emigrate to the United States, where, shortly after 
his arrival, he went to (ieorgetown College and ap- 
plied for admission into the Society of Jesus. His 
advanced age and lack of classical education, how- 
ever, convinced him, after some months' stay there, 
that he could not reasonably hope to attain in the 
Society, for many years at least, his ambition for 
ordination to the priesthood. He therefore left 
Georgetown, and by advice of Archbishop Carroll 
went to Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg. 
Here the Rev. John Dubois, the president, received 
him with sympathy, pointed out a course of study, 
and, finding him an excellent disciplinarian, made 
him prefect of the institution. He was neatly t hirty 
years of age when he began to study Latin, but his 
zeal and perseverance conquered all obstacles. 

In order to advance more rapidly in his studies, he 
entered St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, but the sur- 
roundings were not congenial, and he remained there 
only a short time. He had been ordained a sub- 
deacon, and Bishop Flaget accepted his offer of serv- 
ice for the Diocese of Bard-town. Kentucky. He 
made further studies at St. Thomas's Seminary there, 
and was then ordained priest by Bishop David, 18 
September, 1810, with his friend George A. M. Elder, 
whom he had met at Emmitsburg. They were the 
first priests ordained at Bardstown, and by Bishop 
David, who was consecrated IS August, LSI'.). 
Shortly after his ordination Father Byrne was ap 
pointed to the care of St. Mary's and St. Charles's 
missions, visiting also the small congregation of 
Louisville, sixty miles distant, ami labouring at all 
times with most indefatigable industry. The igno- 
rance of the people and the necessity of establishing 
some institution for elementary instruction appealed 
to him strongly, and in the spring of 1821 he opened 
St. Mary's College, near Bardstown, in an old stone 
building that stood on a farm he had purchased with 
money begged from those who sympathized with his 
project. He had about fifty boys to begin with, one 
of them being Martin John Spalding, later t he fatuous 
Archbishop of Baltimore, who even then was so 
precocious in the display of his abilities that at the 
age of fifteen he was appointed to teach mathe- 




matics to his fellow students. Father Byrne, with 
indomitable energy, at first filled every office in 
the school, and attended to his missionary duties as 
well. His college had become very popular in Ken- 
tucky when it was destroyed by fire. This set-back 
seemed only to give him new energy, and he soon 
had the college rebuilt. A second fire ruined a large 
part of the new structure, but, nothing daunted, he 
went on and again placed the institution on a firm 

It is estimated that from 1821 to 1833, during 
which time St. Mary's College was under his imme- 
diate direction, at least twelve hundred students 
received instruction there, and carried the benefit of 
their education to all parts of Kentucky, some of 
them establishing private schools on their return to 
their respective neighbourhoods. Father Byrne, 
after twelve years' management of the college, made 
a gift of it to the Society of Jesus, believing that, as 
he had established its success, his old friends, the 
Jesuits, were better qualified than he was to conduct 
the school. He thought of founding a new school at 
Nashville, where one was much needed, and, in spite 
of his advanced years, wrote to Bishop Flaget that 
all he required in leaving St. Mary's to embark on 
this new enterprise was his horse and ten dollars to 
pay his travelling expenses. Before he could carry 
out the plan, however, he fell a martyr to charity. 
An epidemic of cholera broke out in the neighbour- 
hood and, having gone to administer the last sacra- 
ments to a poor negro woman who was dying of the 
disease, he became infected himself, and died on the 
following day among the Fathers of the Society of 
Jesus with whom at (ieorgetown he had begun his 
remarkable religious life. 

Spalding, Miscllnnm (Baltimore, 1S66), 729-35: Webb, 
Centenary of Cathtilinlii in Kentucky (Louisville, 1S84); Shea, 
History of the Call,,, lie Church in the V. S. (New York, 1892), 
IV, 600; Messsenn>r of the Sacred Heart Magazine (New York, 
Dec, 1S91); Irish Celts (Detroit, 1884). 

Thomas F. Meehan. 
Byzantine Architecture, a mixed style, i. e. a 
style composed of Graeco-Roman and Oriental ele- 
ments which, in earlier centuries, cannot be clearly 
separated. The form of church used most in the 
west, a nave supported on columns and an atrium 
(see Basilica), appears in many examples of the 
fifth century in Byzantium as well as in Rome; the 
sixth century saw such churches erected in other 
regions outside of Rome, at Ravenna, in Istria and in 
Africa. In the West this style of building occasion- 
ally presents (in S. Lorenzo and S. Agnese at Rome) 
peculiarities which are ascribed by some authorities 
to Oriental origin — galleries over the side aisles, 
spirally channelled columns, and imposts between 
capitals and arches. Vaulted basilicas are to be 
found at an early date in Asia Minor, Syria, Africa, 
and also at Constantinople. But the early Etruscans 
and Romans were skilful in the art of constructing 
vaults, even before that time; for instance, the 
basilica of Constantine. The domical style, with 
barrel-vaulted side aisles and transepts is a favourite 
with the Orientals: many of the oldest basilicas of 
Asia Minor, as well as the Church of St. Irene, Con- 
stantinople (eighth century), carried one or more 
domes. This type leads naturally to the structure in 
a centralized — circular, octagonal, cruciform — plan. 
That the Orient had, and still has, a peculiar prefer- 
ence for such a type is well known; nevertheless, 
Italy also possessed ecclesiastical buildings so planned, 
of which the oldest examples belong to the fourth 
nnd fifth centuries (Sta. Costanza, a circular build- 
ing; and the baptist, i\ of the Later an, an octagonal 
building). In ancient Roman times tombs and baths 
had this SOrl Oi plan. The essential type of all these 

buildings cannot, therefore, be regarded as purely 
Oriental, or even specifically Byzantine. There are 
similar objections in the case of subordinate archi- 

*- Ife^Uir 

tectural details. Thus the apse, sometimes three- 
sided, sometimes polygonal, the narthex (a narrow 
antechamber, or vestibule), instead of the large 
rectangular atrium, the invariable facing of the 
church to the east, the sharp-cut acanthus leaf of the 
capitals, and similar characteristics of the Eastern 
churches cannot be def- 
initely ascribed to the 
East alone or even to 
Byzantium, nor do they 
form a new architec- 
tural style. Some au- 
thorities, it is true, not 
only go so far as to 
characterize the archi- 
tecture of Ravenna (ex- 
emplified in the two 
churches S. Apollinare 
and S. Vitale) as Byz- 
antine, but even 
elude, without further 
consideration, examples 
which in other respects 
recall the favourite East- 
ern style, viz. the central portions of S. Lorenzo at 
Milan and of the round church of S. Stefano Rotondo 
at Rome. Only this much is certain: that in those 
early centuries local diversities are found everywhere; 
and that, even although Italy may have received the 
most manifold influences from the East, and particu- 
larly from Byzantium, still, on the other hand, the 
language, laws, and customs of Rome prevailed in 
Byzantium, or at least were strongly represented 

In the church, now the mosque, of St. Sophia 
(Hagia Sophia — "Divine Wisdom"), built by Justin- 
ian, all the principal forms of the early Christian 
churches are represented. A rotunda is enclosed in a 
square, and covered with a dome which is supported 
in the direction of the long axis of the building by 
half-domes over semicircular apses. In this manner 
a basilica, 236 feet long and 9S feet wide, and pro- 
vided with domes, is developed out of a great central 
chamber. This basilica is still more extended by the 
addition of smaller apses penetrating the larger apses. 
Then the domical church is developed to the form of 
a long rectangle by means of two side aisles, which, 
however, are deprived of their significance by the 
intrusion of massive piers. In front of all this, on the 
entrance side, are placed a wide atrium with colon- 
naded passages and two vestibules (the exonarthex 
is practically obliterated). The stupendous main 
dome, which is hemispherical on the interior, flatter, 
or saucer-shaped, on the exterior, and pierced with 
forty large windows over the cornice at its spring, 
lias 'its lateral thrust taken up by these half domes 
and, north and south, by arched buttresses; the 
vertical thrust is received by four piers 7o feet high. 
The ancient system of column and entablature has 
here only a subordinate significance, supporting the 
galleries which open upon the nave. Light flows in 
through the numerous windows of the upper and 
lower stories and of the domes. Bui above all, the 
dome, with its great span carried on piers, arches, 
and pendentives, constitutes one of the greatest 
achievements of architecture. (These pendentives 
are the triangular surfaces by means of which a 
circular dome can be supported on the summits of 
four arches arranged on a square plan.) In other 
respects the baptistery of Sta. Costanza at Home, for 
example, with its cylindrical drum under the dome, 
has the advantage that the windows are placed in the 
drum instead of the dome. 

The architects of St. Sophia were Asiatics: An- 
themius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. In other 
great basilicas, as here, local influences had great 
power in determining the character of the archi- 




tecture, e. g. the churches of the Nativity, of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and of the Ascension, built in 
Palestine after the time of Constantino. This is still 
more evident in the costly decorations of these 
churches. The Oriental love of splendour is shown 
in the piling up of domes and still more in facing the 
walls with slabs of marble, 
in mosaics (either opus see- 
tile, small pieces, or opus 
Alexandrinum, large slabs 
cut in suitable shapes), in 
gold and colour decorations, 
and in the many-coloured 
marbles of the columns and 
other architectural details. 
Nothing, however, seems to 
betray the essentially Ori- 
ental character of Byzantine 
architecture so much as the 
absence of work in the higher 
forms of sculpture, and the 
transformation of high into 
low decoration by means 
r of interwoven traceries, in 
L which the chiselled orna- 
ments became flatter, more 
linear, and lacelike. Besides the vestibules which 
originally surrounded St. Sophia, the columns with 
their capitals recall the antique. These columns al- 
most invariably supported arches instead of the archi- 
trave and were, for that reason, re-enforced by a block 
of stone (impost block) placed on the to) > and shaped to 
conform to the arch, as may frequently be seen at Ra- 
venna. Gradually, however, the capital itself was cut 
to the broader form of a truncated square pyramid, as 
in St. Sophia. The capitals are at times quite bare, 
when they serve at the same time as imposts or inter- 
mediate supporting blocks, at other times they are 
marked with monograms or covered with a network of 
■•arving, the latter transforming them into basketlike 
capitals, flat ornamentations of flowers and animals 
are also found, or leaves arbitrarily arranged. Much 
of this reminds one of the Romanesque style, but 
the details are done more carefully. The fortresslike 
character of the church buildings, the sharp expression 
of the constructive forms, the squatty appearance of 
the domes, the bare grouping of many parts instead 
of their organic connexion — these are all more in 
accordance with the coarser work of the later period 
than with the elegance of the Greek. Two other 
types of Justinian's time are presented by the reno- 
vated church of the Apostles and the church of 
Sts. Sergius and Bacchus. Both churches are in the 

capital. The latter somewhat resembles S. Vitale 
in Ravenna. It is a dome-crowned octagon with an 
exterior aisle. The former church (now destroyed) 
was built on the plan of a Greek Cross (with four 
equal arms) with a dome over the crossing and one 
over each arm. 

During the period of the Macedonian emperors, 

Basil 1 (867 886) and Leo VI (886 912), an upward 
trend in polities, literature, and art set in. The 
Greek basilica, which is a lengthened structure, bar- 
rel-vaulted and provided with one or more domes, 

is also widely represented in this period, while the 
western form of basilica, with the W len ceiling, 

is completely discarded. A type appearing more 
frequently is the domical church plan or the Greek- 
cross plan. The Koimesis, or Dormitio, in Xieaa 

(ninth century I has a clear ba Mica plan. This is also 
true of the church of the Holy Mother of < iod (Hagia 
Theotokos) al Constantinople, dating from the tenth 

century, and of the churches of Mt. Athos. The 
church at Skripu in Bceotia, of the same period, lias 
indeed three naves each ending in an apse, but the 
dome crowns the middle of the building as in the 
Greek-cross type. The exteriors of these churches. 

which are usually rather small, are treated with 
greater care and are artistically elaborated with 
alternations of stone and brick, smaller domes over 
the vestibules, a decidedly richer system of domes, and 
the elevation of these domes by means of drums. 
The interiors are decorated most gorgeously. It 
seems that they could not do enough in this respect. 
This can still be seen in the church of St. Luke in Pho- 
cis, at Daphni, in the Nea Moni at Chio, and others. 
In this period the perfected art of the capital becomes 
the model for the empire as well as for regions be- 
yond its borders: Syria. Armenia, Russia, Venice, 
Middle and Southern Italy, and Sicily. For the 
West, it is onlv necessary to mention the church of 
St. Mark at Venice (978-1096). 

After its occupation by the Crusaders (1204), Con- 
stantinople partly lost its character and at the same 
time the far-reaching influence of its intercourse 
with Western nations. There still remained four cen- 
tres of Byzantine art: the capital itself. .\It. Athos, 
Hellas, and Trebizond. The architecture of Mt. 

\tlios presents the most faithful reflection of the 
Byzantine style. The model of the church of the 
monastery of Laura, belonging to the previous period, 
is more or less faithfully reproduced. A dome, sup- 
ported on four sides by barrel vaults, stands directly 
over the middle of the transept, which is terminated 
at either end by a round apse. A narthex, or rather 
two lead into the lengthened main hall. The real 
architectural ornaments are forced into the back- 
ground by the frescoes which take the place of the 
CO tly mosaics and which practically cover all avail- 
able wall surface. The architecture of this period 
remained stationary. It continued unchanged in the 
countries of the Greek Kite after the fall of Con- 
stantinople (1 153). 

Fur the bibliography of Byzantine architecture and Hyzan- 

1 1 j i . • : 1 1 t re km ui!\ //. /■ ,' l^iz.'ntith' I. iti ralurr (2mi 

ed., Munich, 1897). in the appendix; Mii.i.kt, L'arl byzantin 
m Mnioi, Hist, dt l>"i Paris, 1905), I; Texier and Pullan, 
Byzantin* Vrchitecl ■ I *: It: Frothingham, Byzantine 

i ■ Italy in Am. J Ircha logy (1894); Siiiy- 

qowsk] Orient md Rom 1 '■■p,-!^, 1901 ), In., Klrinasum (Leip- 
zig, 1903); Hrehier, Eglisee byzantinea (Paris, 1906). 


Byzantine Art signifies the art of the Eastern 
Roman Empire and of its capital Byzantium, or 
Constantinople. The term denotes more especially 
those qualities which distinguish this art from that 
of other countries, or which have caused it to exert 
an influence upon the art of regions outside of the 
I in Empire. Christian .-ut was dependent for 

the representation of its new conceptions upon the 
forms which I he time and place of its origin hap- 
pened to offer, in ihe beginning, whether al Home, 
Ravenna, or Byzantium (Constantinople), it was 
equally influenced by classical art and by Eastern 
inclination to allegory. If is a distinguishing char- 
acteristic of Constantinople, however, thai it was able 
to maintain a more uniform classical tradition in the 
face of manifold < (riental influences. These two ele- 
ments, from the lime of Constantine, developed in 
the Byzantine art more and more of an individual 
character, though account must also be taken of the 
friendly intercourse with Western Europe during sev- 
eral hundred yeai Bi inning with the seventh cen- 
tury, the contrast between the art of the Eastern 

Umpire and thai of 'lie Western grew more marked, 
and Byzantine art underwent a change. It rose 
to great splend ■ ler the Macedonian emperors 

(867 1056), I hen declined up to 1453, and has since 
existed in the East in a petrified form, so to speak, 
up io t he present time 
The Byzantine Qi estion. In regard to the first 

period ol Byzantine art. which closed either I 
the reign of Justinian or at the end of the sixth cen- 
tury, scholars differ greatly. Some, like Schnaase, 

Strygowski, and Woermann, date Byzantine art 




proper from the time of Constantine's establishment 
of his capital. They base this opinion upon certain 
differences between the art remains of the first 
period of the Eastern Roman Empire and those of 
the Western Roman Empire, which differences they 
maintain are essential. Other scholars, such as 
Springer, Kraus, and Kuhn, hold these peculiarities to 
be unessential, since they find them here and there 
in Western countries as well, a fact which the former 
critics ascribe to Oriental influence. Breliier disa- 
grees with both views. He distinguishes between 
Oriental art and that specifically Byzantine; that is, 
between the art of Byzantium, or Constantinople, and 
that of her dependent provinces, Asia Minor, Syria, 
Persia, and Egypt. This is a fairly good solution of 
the "Byzantine question". But as it is difficult to 
distinguish in detail the combinations of old classic 
and Christian with Oriental art, we can only group 
together the principal characteristics of the new style 
and its materials, with a few examples. 

Characteristics. — The introduction of Eastern 
court ceremonial by Constantine was accompanied 
in the domain of art by the appearance of extraor- 
dinary gorgeousness and pomp, expressed, however, 
with stiffness and formality. The power and pride 
of the new empire offered the means for great under- 
takings and gave the impulse to them. The Procon- 
nesian marble, found in the vicinity of the capital, 
and the stone obtained from other rich quarries 
provided the material, and, long before this era, the 
art of working in stone had reached a high state of 
development, especially in Asia Minor. Moreover, 
the East had been from ancient times the home of the 
minor arts. In Constantinople there flourished, 
along with the art of decorative sculpture, the arts 
of stone-carving, of working in metal and ivory, 
of ornamental bronze work, of enamelling, of weaving, 
and the art of miniature-painting. From classical 
and ancient Christian art Byzantine genius derived 
a correct combination of the ideal with truth to nature, 
harmonious unity along with precision in details, as 
well as the fondness for mosaics, frescoes, and pic- 
tures on panels, in opposition to the dislike of non- 
Christian and sectarian Orientals to pictorial repre- 
sentation. The iconoclasm of the eighth and ninth 
centuries wrought great destruction in the domain of 
art, but these outbreaks were successfully suppressed. 

Examples. — In regard to the influence of the 
Byzantine style on architecture see Byzantine 
Architecture. As to the other arts a few examples 
may here be given. The church of St. Sophia was 
adorned in the sixth century with a splendour 
worthy of Solomon. The interior was sumptuously 
decorated with mosaics upon a golden background. 
These mosaics, it is true, with the exception of an 
"Adoration of Christ by the Emperor", were de- 
stroyed, but they were replaced later by others. 
Some of the walls were ornamented with designs of 
grape-vines with golden leaves. Pictures of animals 
decorated the walls of the portico. A silver choir- 
screen rose above pillars, in the capitals of which 
medallions of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, saints, and 
prophets win' carved. This is the so-called iconos- 
tasis. The altar was of gold inlaid with precious 
stones; the altar-cloth was (if brocaded silk in which 
were woven pictures of Christ, the prophets, and the 
apostles. The ambo, according to description, was 
brilliant with gold, silver, precious stones, and ivory. 
At Parenzo, in Istria, and at Bauit, in Egypt, superb 
mosaic pictorial ornamentation dating from the 
sixth century is still preserved. A gold cross deco- 
rated with pictures in hammered work was presented 
by Justin II to the church of St. Peter and is still 
pre erved at the Vatican. A number of ivory book- 
covers are also still in existence. The illuminated 
manuscripts of Rossano and Sinope date from the 
sixth century. 

Influence. — As regards the influence exerted 
by Byzantine art in the sixth century there can be 
no doubt that the architecture of Ravenna, though 
affected by other Eastern influences, strongly re- 
minds us, in its splendid mosaics, of Constantinople. 
The Proconnesian capitals and other products of 
decorative art spread even more easily. Like 
Ravenna, Southern Italy and Gaul came under the 
influence of the East and Constantinople. Even 
more specifically Byzantine is African art. In Rome 
the traces of Byzantine art are more difficult to dis- 
cover than other Oriental influences. In the East 
itself pictorial art met with opposition, and decorative 
art came to the forefront. In general, however, after 
the rise of the Macedonian dynasty the Byzantine 
style gained the supremacy in all branches of art as 
well as in architecture. The Byzantine style spread 
in the East as well as in Northern Italy and Sicily. 
The numerous 
mosaic pictures, 
which are to be 
found every- 
where, still strove 
to imitate classi- 
cal models; their 
symbolism r e- 
minds us of the 
general symbolic 
tendency of early 
Christianity, and 
their form gradu- 
ally becomes 
more stiff and 
fixed. (Painter's 
Book of Mount 
Athos.) Purely 
Oriental, how- 
ever, was the 
dislike constant- 
ly increasing for 
sculpture in the 
round, and the 
preference for the 
flat ornamenta- 
tion in architec- 
ture. To the 
same Oriental in- 
fluence may be 
attributed the taste for costly and many-coloured 
stones and woven fabrics, for goldsmith-work, and 
enamel. For example, in the treasury of San Marco 
may be seen Byzantine reliquaries, ivory triptychs, 
chalices, costly fabrics, and specimens of pictorial 
art. Some are large and some small, but taken 
altogether they show how a church of the eleventh 
century was transformed into a veritable treasure- 
house. The same taste and the same characteristics 
of the art of Byzantium (Constantinople) have ever 
since maintained their supremacy in the East. For 
further bibliography see Byzantine Architecture. 

Kondakoff, Hist, de lart byzantin rcnaW' n prmrivalement 
dans les miniatures (tr. Pans. LSNl'.-Wl \ /.. s 
buzantins (Paris, lMIL'l; MoMMl H. Hist, des arts anpliquft 
d V Industrie. I, s.vv. Les icoires; l.'orfivrerie; Tfxikh-Pm i an. 
Byzantine Architecture (London, 1843-64); Lethahy-Swain- 
bon. The Church of St. Sophia (London, New York. Isi'-L; 
Frothdjqham, Byxmtuu Artists in Italy in Am. Journal of 

ArchiroloQV I lS!)4-!l."i ': M\.Phhiso\, The Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre in Kt : II ■ /■'• L892 . VII; Westwood. Fictile 

Ivories in Ou South Kensington Museum (London, 1886); 
Schultz-Barnsi i i VI, ..,is and the Dependent Monastery of 
St. Xicolatrin-lhe-fields war Skripou (London. [90] I; \ 
La palad'oro di S, Mara.. Eng. and Fr. irs. (Venice 
Cahieb and Martin, Milanucs d'archeologic [Paris, 1847-56.) 
G. Gietmann. 

Byzantine Empire. — The ancient Roman Empire 
having been divided into two parts, an Eastern and 
a Western, the Eastern remained subject to succes- 
sors of Constantine, whose capital was at Byzantium 
or Constantinople. The term Byzantine is therefore, 

(Hotel de Cluny, Paris) 




employed to designate this Eastern survival of the 
ancient Roman Empire. The subject will be here 
treated under the following divisions: I. Byzantine 

Civilization; II. Dynastic History. The latter divi- 
sion of the article will be subdivided into six heads in 
chronological order. 

I. Byzantine Civilization.— Al the distance of 
many centuries and thousands of miles, the civiliza- 
tion of the Byzantine Empire presents an appearance 
of unity. Examined a i closer range, however, firstly 
the geographical content of the empire resolves itself 
into various local and national di- 
visions, and secondly the growth 
ol the people in civilization re- 
veals several clearly distinguish- 
able periods. Taking root on 
Eastern soil, flanked on all sides 
by the most widely dissimilar 
peoples < Irientals, Finnic-Ugri- 
ans, and Slavs — some of them 
dangerous neighbours just be- 
yond the border, others settled 
on Byzantine territory, the em- 
pire was loosely connected on 
the "est with the other half of 
the old Roman Empire. And 
so the development of Byzan- 
tine civilization resulted from 
three influences: the first Alex- 
andrian-Hellenic, a native prod- 
uct; the second Roman; the 
third Oriental. The first period 
of the empire, which embnaces 
the dynasties of Theodosius, Leo 
I, Justinian, and Tiberius, is po- 
litically still under Roman influ- 
ence. In the second period the 
dynasty of Heraelius, in conflict 
with Islam, succeeds in creating a 
St. Helena, Mother distinctively Byzantine State. 
of Constantino .,., ., ■ , * . / ., . c ., c , 
no <,i * m, from fhe third period, that of the Sy- 
MS., l\ Century, rian (Isaurian) emperors and of 
in Bibliotheqoe I c onoclasm, is marked by the 
attempt to avoid the struggle 
with Islam by completely orientalizing the land. 
The fourth period exhibits a happy equilibrium. The 
Armenian dynasty, which was Macedonian by origin, 
was able to extend its sway east and we t, and there 
were indications that the zenith of Byzantine power 
lose at hand. In the fifth period the centrifugal 
. which had long been at work, produced their 
inevitable effect; the aristocracy of birth, which had 
been forming in all parts of the empire, and gaining 
political imluence, at last achieved its linn establish- 
ment on the throne' with the dynasties of the Com- 
neni and Angeli. The sixth period is that of decline; 
the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders hail 
disrupted the empire into several new political units; 
even after the restoration, the empire of the Palaeologl 
is only one member of this group of states. The 
* ipansion of the power of the Osmanli Turks pre- 
pares tie- annihilation of the Byzantine Kmpire. 

Geographically and ethnographically, the Roman 
Empire was never a unit. In the western section, 
comprising Italy and the adjacent islands, Spain, and 
Africa, the Latin language and Latin culture were 
predominant. Of these territories, only Africa, Sicily, 
and certain part- of Italy were ever under Byzantine 
'1 for any length of time. To the south-east. 
the Coptic and Syriac, and, if the name i- permitted, 

the Palestinian nation assumed growing importance 
and finally, under the leadership of the Arabs, broke 
the bonds that held it to tie- empire. In the East 
proper (Asia Minor ami Armenia) lay the heart of 
the empire. In the south-east of Asia Minor and on 
the southern spurs of the Armenian mountains the 
population was Syrian. The Armenian settlements 
III— 7 

extended from their native mountains far into Asia 
Minor, and even into Europe. Armenian colonies are 
found on Mount Ida in Asia Minor, in Thrace, and 
Macedonia. The coast lands of Asia Minor are 
thoroughly Greek. The European part of the empire 
was the scene of an ethnographic evolution. From 
ancient times the mountains of Epirus and Illyria 
had been inhabited by Albanians; from the beginning 
of the fifteenth century they spread over what is 
now Greece, down towards southern Italy and Sicily. 
Since the days of the Roman power, the Rumanians, 
or Wallachians, had established themselves on both 
sides as well of the Balkan as of the Findus moun- 
tains. This people was divided into two parts by 
the invasion of the Finnic-Ugrian Bulgars, and 
the expansion of the Slavs. They lived as wan- 
dering shepherds, in summer on the mountains, in 
winter on the plains. In the fifth century the Slavs 
began to spread over the Balkan Peninsula. At the 
beginning of the eighth century Cynuria, in the east- 
ern part of the Peloponnesus, was called a "Slavic 
land". A reaction, however, which set in towards 
the end of the eighth century, resulted in the total 
extermination of the Slavs in southern Thessaly and 
central Greece, and left but few in the Peloponnesus. 
On the other hand, the northern part of the Balkan 
Peninsula remained open to Slavic inroads. Here 
the Bulgars gradually became incorporated with the 
Slavs, and spread from rhrmus far to the west, and 
into southern Macedonia. The valleys of the Vardar 
and the Morava offered the Serbs tempting means of 
access to the Byzantine Empire. After the Greeks 
ami Armenians, the Slavs have exercised most in- 
fluence on the inner configuration of the empire. 
The Greeks of the islands best preserved their na- 
tional characteristics. Moreover, they settled in 
compact groups in the capital of the empire, and 
on all the coast lands, even to those of the Black Sea. 
They gained ground by hellenizing the Slavs, and by 
emigrating to Sicily and lower Italy. 

In point of civilization, the Greeks were the pre- 
dominant race in the empire. From the second half 
of the sixth century, Latin had ceased to be the lan- 
guage of the Government. The legislation eventually 
became thoroughly Greek, both in language and 
spirit. Beside the Greeks, only the Armenians had 
developed a civilization of their own. The Slavs, it 
is true, had acquired a significant influence over the 
internal and external affairs of the empire, but had 
not established a Slavic civilization on Byzantine 
soil, and the dream of a Roman Empire under Slavic 
rule remained a mere fantasy. 

In the breaking of the empire on ethnographic 
lines of cleavage, it was an important fact that at 
least the Greeks were more solidly united than in 
former centuries. The dialects of ancient Greece had 
for the most part disappeared, and the Koini of the 
Hellenic period formed a point of departure for new- 
dialects, as well as the basis of a literary language 
which was preserved with incredible tenacity and 
gained the ascendancy in literature as well as in 
official usage. Another movement, in the sixth 
Century, was directed towards a general and literary 
revival of the language, and, this having gradually 
spent itself without any lasting results, the dialects, 
unfortunately, became the occasion of a further 
split in the nation. As the later literary language, 
with its classic tendencies, was stiff and unwieldy, 
as well as unsuited to meet all the exigencies of a 
colloquial language, it perforce helped to widen the 
breach between the literary ami the humbler classes, 

the latter having already begun to use the new dia- 
lects. The social schism which had rent the nation, 
since the establishment of a distinctively Byzantine 
landed interest and the rise of a provincial nobility, 
was aggravated by the prevalence of the literary 
language among the governing classes, civil and 




ecclesiastical. Even the western invasion could not 
close this breach; on the contrary, while it confirmed 
the influence of the popular tongue as such, it left 
the social structure of the nation untouched. The 
linguistic division of the Greek nation thus begun 
has persisted down to the present time. 

The Middle Ages never created a great centralized 
economic system. The lack of a highly organized 
apparatus of transportation for goods in large quan- 
tities made each district a separate economic unit. 
This difficulty was not overcome even by a coastline 
naturally favourable for navigation, since the carry- 
ing capacity of medieval vessels was too small to make 
them important factors in the problem of freight- 
transportation as we now apprehend it. Even less 
effectual were the means of conveyance employed on 
the roads of the empire. These roads, it is true, were 
a splendid legacy from the old Roman Empire, and 
were not yet in the dilapidated state to which they 
were later reduced under the Turkish domination. 
Even to-day, for example, there are remains of the Via 
Egnatia, connecting Constantinople with the Adriatic 
Sea through Thessalonica, and of the great military 
roads through Asia Minor, from Chalcedon, past Nico- 
media, Ancyra. and (Aesarea, to Armenia, as well as of 
that from Nicaa through Dorylceum and Iconium, to 

Reliquary, Constant™ e the Cheat Depicted at Foot 
(Preserved at St. Peter's, Rome) 

Tarsus and Antioch. These roads were of supreme 
importance for the transportation of troops and the 
conveyance of dispatches; but for the interchange of 
goods of any bulk, they were out of the question. 
The inland commerce of Byzantium, like most medie- 
val commerce, was confined generally to such commod- 
ities, of not excessive weight, as could be packed into 
a small space, and would represent great values, both 
intrinsically and on account of their importation 
from a distance — such as gems, jewellery, rich textiles 
and fui aromatic pices, and drugs. But food- 
stuffs, such as cereals', fresh vegetables, wine, oil, 
dried meat, as well as dried fish and fruits, could be 
conveyed any distance only by water. Indeed, a 
grave problem presented itself in the provisioning of 
the capital, the population of which approached, 
probably, that of a great modern city. It is now 
Known licit Alexandria at first supplied Constanti- 
nople will, grain, under State supervision. After 

the loss of Egypt, Thrace and the lands of Pontus 
Irawn upon for supplies. Of the establishment 
of an economic centre, however, for all parts of the 
empire, of a centralized system of trade routes 
radiating from Constantinople, there was no concep- 
tion. Moreover, Byzantine commerce, strange to 
say, shows a marked tendency to develop in a sense 

opposite to this ideal. At first there was great com- 
mercial activity; the Byzantines offered to India, 
Persia, and Central and Eastern Asia a channel of 
communication with the West. Various districts of 
the empire strove to promote the export of industrial 
articles, Syria and Egypt, in particular, upholding 
their ancient positions as industrial sections of im- 
portance, their activity expressing itself chiefly in 
weaving and dyeing and the manufacture of metals 
and glass. The Slavonic invasion, moreover, had 
not entirely extinguished the industrial talents of 
the Greeks. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
weaving, embroidery, and the fabrication of carpets 
were of considerable importance at Thebes and Patra 3 . 
In the capital itself, with government aid in the form 
of a monopoly, a new industrial enterprise was organ- 
ized which confined itself chiefly to shipbuilding and 
the manufacture of arms in the imperial arsenals, 
but also took up the preparation of silk fabrics. The 
Byzantines themselves, in the earlier periods, carried 
these wares to the West. There they enjoyed a 
commercial supremacy for which their only rivals 
were the Arabs and which is most clearly evidenced 
by the universal currency of the Byzantine gold 
solidus. Gradually, however, a change came about: 
the empire lost its maritime character and at last 
became almost exclusively territorial, as appears in 
the decline of the imperial navy. At the time of 
the Arabian conflicts it was the navy that did the 
best work; at a later period, however, it was counted 
inferior to the land forces. Similarly there was a 
transformation in the mental attitude and the occu- 
pations of the people. The Greek merchant allowed 
himself to be crowded out in his own country by his 
Italian rival. The population even of an island so 
well adapted for maritime pursuits as Crete seemed, 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, veritably 
afraid of the water. What wrought this change is 
still an unsolved problem. Here too, possibly, the 
provincial aristocracy showed its effects, through 
the extension of its power over the inhabitants of the 
country districts and its increasing influence on the 
imperial Government. 

The decline of the Byzantine Empire is strikingly 
exhibited in the depreciation of currency during the 
reigns of the Comneni. At that period the gold 
solidus lost its high currency value and its commercial 
pre-eminence. It is noteworthy that at the same time 
we perceive the beginnings of large finance (Geld- 
ivirtschaft). For at an earlier period the Byzantine 
Empire, like the states of Western Europe, appears 
to have followed the system of barter, or exchange 
of commodities in kind. Nevertheless, as ground- 
rents were already paid in money during the Com- 
neni period, some uncertainty remains as to whether 
the beginnings of finance, and of capital as a distinct 
power in the civilized world, should be sought in 
Byzantium or rather in the highly developed fiscal 
system of the Roman Curia and the mercantile 
activity of Italian seaports. 

It will be seen from all this that the development 
of the Byzantine Empire was by no means uniform, 
in point either of time or of place. Why is it then 
that the word Byzantine conveys a definite and self- 
consistent idea? Was there not something which 
through all those centuries remained characteristic 
of Byzantines in contrast with the neighbouring 
peoples? To this it must be replied that such was 
certainly the case, and that the difference lay, first 
of all, in the more advanced civilization of Byzan- 
tium. Many small but significant details are recorded 
— as early as the sixth century Constantinople had a 
system of street-lighting; sports, equestrian games 
or polo-playing, and above all races in the circus 
attained a high national and political importance; 
Byzantine princesses married to Venetians intro- 
duced the use of table forks in the West. More 




striking are the facts that as early as the eighth and 
ninth centuries, the Byzantines, in their wars with 
the Arabs, used gunpowder — the so-called Greek 
fire — and that a German emperor like Otto III pre- 
ferred to be a Roman of Byzantium rather than a 
German. This Byzantine civilization, it is true, 
suffered from a 
serious and incur- 
able disease, a 
worm gnawing at 
its core: the utter 
absence of origi- 
nality. But here, 
again, we should 
1 iware of unwar- 
ranted generaliza- 
tion. A change 
in this respect is 
to be noted from 
age to age; in the 
first centuries, be- 
fore ili 1, complete 
severing of 'he po- 
litical nnd ecclesi- 
astical ties uniting 
them with the 
Eastern nations, 
the Greek mind still retained its gift of receptivity, 
and an ir1 traditions, in combination with 

Persian. Syrian, and other Oriental motives, produced 
the original plan of the true Byzantine church, a 
type which left its impression on architecture, 
sculpture, painting, and the minor arts. Ami yet, 
so complete was the isolation of the empire, separated 
from other nations by the character of its govern- 
ment, the strictness of its court etiquette, the refine- 
ment of its material civilization, and, not least, by 
the peculiar development of the national Church, 
that a kind of numbness crept over both the language 
and the intellectual life of the people. The nations 
of the West were indeed barbarians in comparison 
with the cultured Byzantines, but the West had 
something for the lack of which no learning, no tech- 
nical skill could compensate — the creative force of 
an imagination in harmony with the laws of nature. 

As to the share which Byzantine ecclesiastical de- 
velopment had in this isolation, it must be conceded 
that the constitution of the Eastern Church was 
rather imperial than universal. Its administration 
was seriously influenced by the politics of the empire; 
the boundaries of the empire bounded the Church's 
aspirations and activities. In the West, the oblitera- 
tion of those boundaries by the Germanic peoples and 
the outburst of vigorous missionary activity on all 
sides furthered very notably tin' idea of a universal 
Church, embracing all nations, and unfettered by po- 
litical or territorial limits. In the East the develop- 
ment w:is quite different. Here, indeed, missionary 
work met with considerable success. 1 f'tn the Syr- 
ian and Egyptian Church sprang the Ethiopian, the 
Indian, the Mesopotamian, and the Armenian 

Churches. Constantinople sent apostle': to the Sla- 
vonic and Finnic-Ugrian races. Still, these Oriental 

Churches show, from the very beginning, a peculiar 
national structure. Whether this was a legacy from 
the ancient Eastern religions, or whether it was the 

reaction against Greek civilization which had been 

imposed upon the people of the ( irient from the time 
of Alexander the Great, the adoption of Christianity 
Men) hand in hand with nationalism. < Apposed to this 
nationalism in many important respects was the Creek 
imperial church. Precisely beca only an 

imperial Church, it had not yet grasped the concept 
of a universal Church. As tic imperial Church, con- 
stituting a department of the state-administration, 
its opposition to the national Churches among the 
Oriental peoples was always very emphatic. Thus 

it is that the dogmatic disputes of these Churches are, 
above all, expressions of politico-national struggles. 
In the course of these contests Egypt, and Syria, 
and finally Armenia also were lost to the Greek 
Church. The Byzantine imperial Church at last 
found itself almost exclusively confined to the Greek 
nation and its subjects. In the end it became, in 
its own turn, a national Church, and definitively 
severed all bonds of rite and dogma linking it with 
the West. The schism between the Eastern and 
Western Churches thus reveals a fundamental oppo- 
sition of viewpoints: the mutually antagonistic ideas 
o| the universal Church and of independent national 
Churches —an antagonism which both caused the 
schism and constitutes the insurmountable impedi- 
ment to reunion. 

II. Dynastic History. — (1) Roman Period; (a) 
Dynasties of Theodosius I and Leo I; A, D. 305-518. 

Bauto, a Frank 



Theodosius I 



Marcianus Pulcheria Theodosius II Eudocia-Athenaia 

Leo I 



Zeno Ariadne 

Leo II 

A glance at the above genealogies shows that the 
law governing the succession in the Roman Empire 
persisted in the Byzantine. On one hand, a certain 
law of descent is observed: the fact of belonging to 
the reigning house, whether by birth or marriage L r i\ es 
a strong claim to the throne. On the other hand, the 
people is not entirely excluded as a political factor. 
The popular co-operation in the government was not 
regulated by set forms. Tic high civil and military 
officials took part in the enthronement of a new mon- 
arch, often by means of a palace or military revolu- 
tion. Legally, the people participated in the govern- 
ment only through the Church. From the time of 
Marcianus, the Byzantine emperors were crowned 
by the Patriarchs of Constantinople. 

Of the emperors of this period, Arcadius (S05-408) 
and Theodosius II (408-50) received the throne by 
right of inheritance. The old senator Marcianus 
(450-57) came to the throne through his marriage 
with the sister of Theodosius II. Pulcheria, who for 
years previously had been an inmate of a convent. 
The Thracian Leo I, the Great (457-74), owed his 
power to Aspar the Alan, M agister Miliium per Orien- 
tem, who, as an Arian, was debarred from the imperial 
dignity, and who therefore installed the orthodox Leo. 
Leo, it is true, soon became refractory, and in 171 
Aspar was executed by imperial command. On Leo's 
death the throne was transmitted through his daugh- 
ter Ariadne, "ho had been united in marriage to the 

leader of the Isaurian body-guard, and had a son by 
him, Leo II. The sudden death of Leo, however, after 
he had raised his father to the rank of coregent, 
placed the reins of power in the hands of Zeno 
(17! 'tli, who was obliged to defend his authority 
against repeated insurrections. All these movements 
were instigated by his mother-in-law, Verina. who 
first proclaimed her brother Basiliscus emperor, and 
later Leontius, the leader of the Thracian army. 
Victory, however, rested with Zeno, at whose death 
Ariadne once more decided the succession by bestow- 
ing her hand on Anastasius Silentiarius (491-518), 
who hud risen through the grades of the civil service. 




This brief resume 1 shows the important part played 
by women in the imperial history of Byzantium. 
Nor was female influence restricted to the imperial 
family. The development of Roman law exhibits 
a growing realization of woman's importance in the 
family and society. Theodora, whose greatness is 
not eclipsed by that of her celebrated consort, Jus- 
tinian, is a typical example of the solicitude of a 
■woman of high station for the interests of the low- 
liest and the most unworthy of her sisters — from 
whose ranks perhaps she herself had risen. Byzan- 
tine civilization produced a succession of typical 
women of middle class who are a proof, first, of the 
high esteem in which women were held in social life 
and, secondly, of the sacredness of family life, which 
even now distinguishes the Greek people. To this 
same tendency is probably to be ascribed the suppres- 
sion by Anastasius of the bloody exhibitions of the cir- 
cus called venationes. We must not forget, however, 
that under the successor of Anastasius, Justin, the 
so-called circus factions kept bears for spectacles in the 
circus, and the Empress Theodora was the daughter 
of a bear-baiter. Still the fact remains that cultured 
circles at that time began to deplore this gruesome 
amusement, and that the venationes, and with them 
the political significance of the circus, disappeared 
in the course of Byzantine history. 

One may be amazed at the assertion that the By- 
zantine was humane, and refined in feeling, even to 
the point of sensitiveness. Too many bloody crimes 
stain the pages of Byzantine history — not as extraor- 
dinary occurrences, but as regularly established in- 
stitutions. Blinding, mutilation, and death by tor- 
ture had their place in the Byzantine penal system. 
In the Middle Ages such horrors were not, it is true, 
unknown in Western Europe, and yet the fierce cru- 
saders thought the Byzantines exquisitely cruel. In 
reading the history of this people, one has to accustom 
oneself to a Januslike national character — genuine 
Christian self-sacrifice, unworldliness, and spirituality, 
side by side with avarice, cunning, and the refinement 
of cruelty. It is, indeed, easy to detect this idiosyn- 
crasy in both the ancient and the modern Greeks. 
Greek cruelty, however, may have been aggravated 
by the circumstances that savage races not only re- 
mained as foes on the frontier, but often became in- 
corporated in the body politic, only veiling their bar- 
baric origin under a thin cloak of Hellenism. The 
whole of Byzantine history is the record of struggles 
between a civilized state and wild, or half-civilized, 
neighbouring tribes. Again and again was the By- 
zantine Empire ete facto reduced to the limits of the 
capital city, which Anastasius had transformed into 
an unrivalled fortress; and often, too, was the victory 
over its foes gained by troops before whose ferocity 
its own citizens trembled. 

Twice in the period just considered Byzantium w T as 
on the point of falling into the hands of the Goths: 
first, when, under the Emperor Arcadius, shortly 
after Alaric the Visigoth had pillaged Greece, the 
German Gainas, being in control of Constantinople, 
simultaneously stirred up the East Goths and the 
Gruthungi, who had settled in Phrygia; a second 
time, when the East Goths, before their withdrawal 
to Italy, threatened Constantinople. These deliver- 
ances may not have been entirely fortunate. There 
are differences in natural endowments among races; 
the history of the Goths in Spain, Southern France, 
and Italy shows that they should not be classed with 
the savage Huns ami Isaurians, and a strong admix- 
ture of Germanic blood would perhaps have so bene- 
fited the Greek nation as to have averted its moral 

and political paralysis. But this was not to I \- 

pected of the Ilunnie and Isaurian races, the latter 
including, probably, tribes of Kurds in the Taurus 
ranges in tiie south-easl of \-i a Minor. It can only 
be considered fortunate that success so long crowned 

the efforts to ward off the Huns, who, from 412 to 451 , 
when their power was broken at Chalons, had been a 
serious menace to the imperial frontiers. More dan- 
gerous still were the Isaurians, inhabitants of impe- 
rial territory, and the principal source from which the 
guards of the capital were recruited. The Emperor 
Zeno was an Isaurian, as was likewise his adversary, 
Illus, Magister Ofjxciorum, who, in league with Verina, 
mother of the empress, plotted his downfall; and 
while these intrigues were in progress the citizens of 
Constantinople were already taking sides against the 
Isaurian body-guard, having recourse even to a gen- 
eral massacre to free themselves from their hated op- 
pressors. But it was the Emperor Anastasius who 
first succeeded in removing these praetorians from 
the capital, and in subjugating the inhabitants of 
the Isaurian mountains (493) after a six years' war. 

The same period is marked by the beginning of 
the Slavic and Bulgar migrations. The fact has al- 
ready been mentioned that these races gradually 
possessed themselves of the whole Balkan Peninsula, 
the Slavs meanwhile absorbing the Finnic-Ugrian 
Bulgars. The admixture of Greek blood, which was 
denied the Germanic races, was reserved for the Slavs. 
To how great a degree this mingling of races took 
place, will never be exactly ascertained. On the 
other hand, the extent of Slavic influence on the in- 
terior developments of the Byzantine Empire, es- 
pecially on that of the landed interests, is one of the 
great unsolved questions of Byzantine history. 

In all these struggles, the Byzantine polity shows 
itself the genuine heir of the ancient Roman Empire. 
The same is true of the contest over the eastern 
boundary, the centuries of strife with the Persians. 
In this contest the Byzantine Greeks now found 
allies. The Persians had never given up their native 
fire-worship, Mazdeism. Whenever a border nation 
was converted to Christianity, it joined the Byzan- 
tine alliance. The Persians, realizing this, sought 
to neutralize the Greek influence by favouring the 
various sects in turn. To this motive is to be at- 
tributed the favour they showed to the Nestorians, 
who at last became the recognized representatives 
of Christianity in the Persian Empire. To meet this 
policy of their adversaries, the Greeks for a long time 
favoured the Syrian Monophysites, bitter enemies of 
the Nestorians. Upon this motive, the Emperor 
Zeno closed the Nestorian school at Edessa, in 489, 
and it was a part of the same policy that induced the 
successors of Constantine the Great to support the 
leaders of the Christian clerical party, the Mamiko- 
nians, in opposition to the Mazdeistic nobility. Theo- 
dosius II resumed this policy after his grandfather, 
Theodosius the Great, had, by a treaty with Persia 
(387), sacrificed the greater part of Armenia. Only 
Karin in the valley of the Western Euphrates, thence 
forth called Theodosiopolis, then remained a Roman 
possession. Theodosius II initiated a different policy. 
He encouraged, as far as lay in his power, the diffusion 
of Christianity in Armenia, invited Mesrob and Sa- 
hak, the founders of Armenian Cnristian literature 
into Roman territory, and gave them pecuniary as- 
sistance for the prosecution of the work they had un- 
dertaken, of translating Holy Scripture into Arme- 
nian. Anastasius followed the same shrewd policy. 
On the one hand, he carried on a relentless war 
with the Persians (502-06) and, on the other hand, 
lost no opportunity of encouraging the Monophysite 
sect which was then predominant in Egypt. Syria. 
and Armenia. It is true that he met with great 
difficulties from the irreconcilable factions, as had 
those of his predecessors who had followed the policy 
of religious indifference in dealing with the sects. 
The Eastern Churches in these centuries were torn 
by theological controversies so fierce as to have 

been with good reason compared with the sixteenth- 
century disputes of Western Christendom. All the 




warring elements of the period — national, local, 
economic, social, even personal— group themselves 
around the prevalent theological questions, so that 
it is practically impossible to say, in any given case, 
whether the dominant motives of the parties to the 
quarrel were spiritual or temporal. In all this hurly- 
burly of beliefs and parties three historical points 
have to be kept clearly before the mind, in order to 
understand the further development of the empire: 
first, the decline of Alexandrian power; secondly, the 
determination of the mutual relations of Rome and 
Constantinople; thirdly, the triumph of the civil over 
the ecclesiastical authority. 

Thcodosius I was called the Great because he was 
the first emperor to act against heathenism, and also 
because he contributed to the victory of the fol- 
lowers of Athanasius over the Arians. This victory 
redounded to the advantage of the Patriarch of Alex- 
andria. Strange as it seems at the present day, every- 
thing pointed to the supremacy of the orthodox 
Patriarch of Egypt, whose proud title (Papa, et pa- 
triarcha Alexandria;, etc.) is now the only reminder 
that its bearer was once in a fair way to become 
the spiritual rival of Constantinople. Such, how- 
ever, was the case, and the common object of 
preventing this formed a bond between Rome and 
Constantinople. It was some time, it is true, before 
the two powers recognized .this community of in- 
terests. St. John Chrysostom, as Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, had already felt the superior power of 
his Alexandrian colleague. At the Synod of the Oak, 
held on the Asiatic shore opposite the capital, Chrys- 
ostom was deposed — through the collusion of the 
palace with the intrigues of Theophilus, Patriarch 
of Alexandria, although the people soon compelled 
his recall to the patriarchal sec, and it was only as 
the result of fresh complications that he was perma- 
nently removed (404). Nestorius, one of his suc- 
cessors, fared even worse. At that time Alexandria 
was ruled by Cyril, nephew of Theophilus, and the 
equal of his uncle and predecessor both in intellec- 
tual and in political talents. Nestorius had declared 
himself against the new and. as he asserted, idolatrous, 
expression "Mother of Clod" (Theotokos), thereby 
opposing the sentiments and wishes of the humbler 
people. Cyril determined to use this opportunity to 
promote the further exaltation of Alexandria at the 
expense of Constantinople. \t the Third (Ecumen- 
ical Council of Ephesus (431), Cyril received the 
hearty support of Pope Celesttne's representatives. 
Moreover, the Syrians, who were opponents of Alex- 
andria, did not champion Nestorius energetically. 
The Patriarch of Constantinople proved the weaker, 
and ended his life in exile. It now seemed as though 

Alexandria had gained her object. At the Second 
Council of EphesUS (the "Robber Council'' of 440) 
Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria, led already been 
hailed by a bishop of Asia Minor as "(Ecumenical 
Vrchbishop ", when the energetic policy of Pope 

Leo I, the ( treat, and the death of the Emperor Thco- 
dosius II brought about a change in the trend of af- 
fairs. Marcian, the new emperor, came to an under- 
standing with Leo; a reconciliation bad already been 
effected with Home through the drawing up of a con- 
fession of faith, which was presented to the Synod of 

Chalcedon, the great fourth (Ecumenical Coun- 
cil (4.">1). Viewed from the standpoint of old Rome 
the result was most successful; Dioscorus of Alex- 
andria was deposed and exiled, and the danger of an 
all-powerful Alexandrian patriarch was averted. 

The Patriarch of New Rome Constantinople — could 
.also be satisfied. The solution of the question was 
less advantageous to the Byzantine Empire. When 
the ( ireeks entered into communion with the Western 
Church, tie reaction of the Egyptians, Syrians, and 
Other Oriental peoples was all the more pronounced. 
"Anti-Chalcedonians" was the term appropriated 

by everyone in Asia who took sides against the 
Greek imperial Church, and the outcome of the whole 
affair demonstrated once more the impossibility of 
a compromise between the ideal of a universal, and 
that of a national Church. 

The second point, the rivalry between Constanti- 
nople and Rome, can be discussed more briefly. 
Naturally, Rome had the advantage in every respect. 
But, for the division of the empire the whole question 
would never have arisen. But Theodosius I, as early 
as the Second (Ecumenical Council of Constantinople 
(381), had the decision made that New Rome should 
take precedence immediately after old Rome. This 
was the first expression of the theory that Con- 
stantinople should be supreme among the Churches 
of the East. The first to attempt to translate this 
thought into action was John Chrysostom. As he 
undertook the campaign against Alexandria, so he 
was also able to bring the still independent Church 
of Asia Minor under the authority of Constanti- 
nople. On a missionary journey he made the See 
of Ephesus, founded by St. John the Apostle, a 
suffragan of his patriarchate. We can now under- 
stand why the war against the Alexandrians was 
prosecuted with such bitterness. The defeat of 
Alexandria at the Council of Chalcedon established 
the supremacy of Constantinople. To be sure, this 
supremacy was only theoretical, as it is a matter 
of history that from this time forward the Oriental 
Churches assumed a hostile attitude towards the 
Byzantine imperial Church. As for Rome, protests 
had already been made at Chalcedon against the 
twenty-first canon of the Eighth General Council, 
which set forth the spiritual precedence of Con- 
stantinople. This protest was maintained until the 
capture of Constantinople by the crusaders put an 
end to the pretentions of the Greek Church. Pope 
Innocent III (121.5) confirmed the grant to the Pa- 
triarch of Constantinople of the place of honour 
after Rome. 

We now come to the third point: the contest 
between ecclesiastical and civil authority. In this 
particular, also, the defeat of Alexandria was sig- 
nal. Since the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon 
it had been decided that in the East (it was other- 
wise in the West) the old Roman custom, by which 
the emperor had the final decision in ecclesiastical 
matters, should continue. That was the end of the 
matter at Byzantium, and we need not be surprised 
to find that before long dogmatic disputes were de- 
cided by arbitrary imperial decrees, that laymen, 
princes, and men who had held high state offices 
were promoted to ecclesiastical offices, and that 
spiritual affairs were treated as a department of 
the Government. But it must not be supposed 
that the Byzantine Church was then-fore silenced. 
The popular will found a means of asserting itself 
most emphatically, concurrently with the official ad- 
ministration of ecclesiastical affairs. The monks in 
particular showed the greatest fearlessness in op- 
posing their ecclesiastical superiors as well as the 
civil authority. 

(1) (b) Dynasties of Justinian and Tiberius; 518- 

Justin I 

Justinian I Theodora . 



co-Emperor: Tiberius II 

Mauritius Constant ina 

The above table once more contains the names of 




two renowned and influential Byzantine empresses. 
As the world once held its breath at the quarrel 
between Eudoxia, the wanton wife of the Emperor 
Arcadius, and the great patriarch, John Chrysostom, 
and at the rivalry of the sisters-in-law, Pulcheria and 
Athenais-Eudoeia, the latter the daughter of an 
Athenian philosopher, so Theodora, the dancer of 
the Byzantine circus, and her niece Sophia succeeded 
in obtaining extraordinary influence by reason of 
their genius, wit, and political cleverness. Theodora 
died of cancer (548), seventeen years before her hus- 
band. No serious discord ever marred this singular 
union, from which, however, there was no issue. 
The death of this remarkable woman proved an 
irreparable loss to her consort, who grieved pro- 
foundly for her during the remainder of his life. 
Her niece, Sophia, who approached her in ambition 
and political cunning, though not in intellect, had a 
less fortunate ending. Her life was darkened by a 
bitter disappointment. With the help of Tiberius, 
commander of the palace guard, a Thracian famed 
for his personal attractions, she placed on the throne 
her husband, Justin II (565-7S), who suffered from 
temporary attacks of insanity. Soon Sophia and Ti- 
berius became the real rulers of the empire. In 
574 the empress succeeded in inducing her husband 
to adopt Tiberius as Caesar and coregent. The death 
of Justin (57S), however, did not bring about the 
hoped-for consummation of her relations with 
Tiberius. Tiberius II (578-82) had a wife in his 
native village, and now for the first time presented 
her in the capital. After his accession to the throne, 
he revered the Empress Sophia as a mother, and 
even when the disappointed woman began to place 
obstacles in his path, he was forbearing, and treated 
her with respect while keeping her a prisoner. 

The dynasty of Justin originated in Illyria. At 
the death of the Emperor Anastasius, Justin I (518- 
27), like his successor Tiberius, commander of the 
palace guard, by shrewdly availing himself of his 
opportunities succeeded in seizing the reins of power. 
Even during the reign of Justin, Justinian, his 
nephew, and heir-presumptive to the throne, played 
an important role in affairs. He was by nature 
peculiar and slow. Unlike his uncle, he had received 
an excellent education. He might justly be called a 
scholar; at the same time he was a man of boundless 
activity. As absolute monarch, like Philip II of 
Spain, he developed an almost, incredible capacity 
for work. He endeavoured to master all the depart- 
ments of civil life, to gather in his hands all the 
reins of government. The number of rescripts drawn 
up by Justinian is enormous. They deal with all 
subjects, though towards the end by preference witli 
dogmatic questions, as the emperor fancied that he 
could put an end to religious quarrels by means of 
bureaucratic regulations. He certainly took his vo- 
cation seriously. On sleepless nights he was fre- 
quently seen pacing his apartments absorbed in 
thought. His whole concept of life was serious to the 
point of being pedantic. We might therefore wonder 
that such a man should choose as his consort a 
woman of the demi-monde. No doubt Procopius, "a 
chamberlain removed from the atmosphere of the 
court, unheeded anil venomous in his sullen old age", 
is not veracious in all his statements concerning the 
previous life of Theodora. It is certain, however, 
that a daughter was born to her before Bhe became 

tinted with the crown prince, and it is equally 
certain that before she married the pedantic mon- 
arch, she had. led a dissolute life. However she 
filled her m-,\ r61e admirably. Her subsequent con- 
duct was faultless, her influence great, but not ob- 
trusive. Her extravagance ami vindictiveness — for 
she had enemies, among them John the Cappa- 
docian, the great financial minister so indispen- 
sable to Justinian — may well have cost the em- 

peror many an uneasy hour, but there was never 
any lasting breach. 

Theodora, after captivating the Crown-Prince 
Justinian by her genius and witty conversation, 
proved herself worthy of her position at the critical 
moment. It was in the year 532, five years after 
Justinian's accession. Once more the people of 
Constantinople, through its circus factions, sought 
to oppose the despotic rule then beginning. It re- 
sulted in the frightful uprising which had taken its 
name from the well-known watchword of the circus 
parties: Xika — "Conquer". In the palace every- 
thing was given up for lost, and Belisarius himself, 
the heroic chief of the mercenaries, advised flight. 
At this crisis Theodora saved the empire for her 
husband by her words : "The purple is a good winding- 
sheet". The Government was firm; the opposing 
party weakened, the circus factions were shorn of 
their political influence, and the despotic govern- 
ment of Justinian remained assured for the future. 

It is well known what the reign of Justinian (527- 
65) meant for the external and internal develop- 
ment of the empire. The boundaries of the empire 
were extended, Africa was reconquered for a century 
and a half, all Italy for some decades. The Byzantine 
power was established, for a time, even in some 
cities of the Spanish coast. Less successful were his 
Eastern wars. I'nder Justin and the aged Kavadh, 
war with Persia had again broken out. On the ac- 
cession of the great Chosroes I, Nushirvan (531-79), 
in spite of the peace of 532, which Justinian hoped 
would secure for him liberty of action in the West, 
Chosroes allowed him no respite. Syria suffered ter- 
ribly from pillaging incursions, Lazistan (the ancient 
Colchis) was taken by the Persians, and a road there- 
by opened to the Black Sea. Only after the Greeks 
resumed the war more vigorously (549) did they 
succeed in recapturing Lazistan, and in 562 peace 
was concluded. 

Nevertheless the Persian War was transmitted as 
an unwelcome legacy to the successors of Justinian 
In 571 strife broke out anew in Christian Armenia, 
owing to the activity of the Mazdeistic Persians. 
While the Romans gained many brilliant victories, 
their opponents also obtained a few important suc- 
cesses. Suddenly affairs took an unexpected turn. 
Hormizdas, the son and successor of Chosroes I 
(579-90), lost both life and crown in an uprising. 
His son, Chosroes II, Parvez (590-628), took refuge 
with the Romans. Mauritius, who was then em- 
peror (582-602), received the fugitive and by the 
campaign of 591 re-established him on the throne 
of his fathers. Thus the relations of the empire with 
the Persians seemed at last peaceful. Soon, however, 
Mauritius himself was deposed and murdered on 
the occasion of a military sedition. The centurion 
Phocas (602-10) seized the helm of the Byzantine 
state. Chosroes. ostensibly to avenge his friend, the 
murdered emperor, forthwith resumed the offensive. 
The administration of Phocas proved thoroughly in- 
efficient. The empire seemed to swerve out of its 
old grooves; the energetic action of some patriots, 
however, under the leadership of nobles high in the 
Government, and the call of Heraclius, saved the 
situation, and after a fearful conflict with tin- DO 
of the East, lasting over a hundred years, Byzantium 
rose again to renewed splendour. 

It is a noteworthy tact that Lombard and Syrian 
chroniclers call the Emperor Mauritius the first 
"Greek" emperor. The transformation of the 

Roman State, with Latin as the official language, 

into a Greek Stab- had become manifest. 1 hiring the 
reign of Mauritius the rest of Justinian's conquests in 
Italy and Africa were placed under the civil admin- 
istration of military governors or exarchs. This is 
symptomatic. The separation of civil ami military 
power, which hail been inaugurated in the happier 




and more peaceful days at the end of the third cen- 
tury, had outlived its usefulness. During the period 
of the Arabian conflicts under the Heraclean dynasty, 
the old Roman system of combining civil and military 
power was established in a neii form, ["he a immander 
of a thema (regiment i was charged with the supervision 
of the civil authorities in his military district. The 
old diocesan and provincial division di appeared, and 
military departments became administrative districts. 
It is manifest that Justinian's p< toration 

ended in a miserable failure. The time for a Roman 
Empire in the old sense of the term, with the old 
administrative system, was past. It is unfortunate 

that the rivers ol bl 1 which brought destruction 

upon tw irmanic states, the robber Vandals and 

the noble East Goths, and the enormous financial 

ce of the eastern half of the empire had no 

bcitcr outcome. If, despite all this, the name of 

Justinian is inscribed in brilliant letters in the annals 
of the world's history, it is owing to other achieve- 
ments: his coi I his enterprise 
as a builder. It n i 1 -' fortune of this emperor to 
be contemporary with th iment which, 
rising in Persi i, gained the ascendancy in Syria and 
\-ia Minorai. I iO ostantinople 
and the West, li was the merit of Justinian that 
he fun . often enormous, 
for the irations. His 
fame will endure 
so long as Saint 
al Con- 
pie en- 
■ dso long 
as hundreds of 
pilgrims annually 
\ in the churches 
of Ravenna. This 
is nut the place 
to enumerate the 
a re hitect u ral 
ai hievements of 
Justinian, ecclesi- 
astical and secu- 
lar, bridges, forts, 
and palaces Nor 

shall we dwell 
upon his measures 
against the lasl 
vestiges of hea- 
thenism, or his 
ion of the 
Universi ty of 
Athens (529). On the other hand, there isone phase 

of his activity as a ruler to which reference must be 

made here, and which was the necessary counterpart 

of his policy., i conquest in the West and issued in as 

; failure. The Emperors Zeno and Anastasins 

had sought remedies foi the difficulties raised by the 
Council of Chalcedon. Ii was Zeno who commissioned 

itinople the 
perhaps, who took the title of CEcumenical Pa- 
triarch — to draft the formula of union known as the 
"Henoticon"! 182). This formula cleverly evaded the 
don decisions, and made ii possible for the Mon- 
ophysites to return to the rch. But the 

gain on one side proved a loss on the other. Under ex- 
isting conditions, it did not matter much that Home 

: .in demanded the i i 
of the name o) Vcacius from the diptychs. It was 
much more u and Europe, 

as well as the chief Greek i I hostility to 

the Henoticon. The Greeks, moreover, were at- 
tached to their national Church, and they regarded 
the decrees of Chalcedon as an expression of their 

A creed. The Emperor Anastasins was a 
Monophysiti bj conviction, and his religious policy 
irritated the \\ • •'. At last when he installed in the 



Basket Capital, or S. 
, Ravenna 


patriarchal See of Constantinople Timotheus, an un- 
compromising Monophysite, and at the Synod of Tyre 
had the decrees of Chalcedon condemned, and the 
Henoticon solemnly confirmed, a tumult arose at the 
capital, and later in the Danubian provinces, headed 

by Yitalian. a Mu-sian. Anastasins died (518), and, 
under Justin I, Yitalian, who had received from Ana- 
stasins the appointment as maqister militum per Thra- 
ciam, remained all-powerful. He acted throughout as 
the enemy of the Monophysites and the champion of 
Chalcedonian orthodoxy. He urged the union with 
lb •. which must render the breach with the East- 
ern Churches final. This union was consummated in 
"if'.); the conditions were the removal of the name of 
Acacius from the diptychs, and the banishment of 
over fifty bishops of Asia Minor and Syria who were 
opposed to the Chalcedonian decrees. A year later 
the government of Justin rid itself of the too powerful 
Yitalian by having him assassinated. The union with 
home, however, was not disturbed. When, in the 
year ")25, Pope John I appeared in Constantinople on 
a mission from the Ostrogoth King Theodoric, he 
celebrated High Mass in Latin and took precedence 
before the oecumenical patriarch. We know that at 
the time Justinian was the actual ruler; it may be 
conjectured what motive inspired him to allow this. 
His plan for the conquest of the West made it de- 
sirable for him to win the papacy over to his side, and 
consummate the ecclesiastical union with the Latins. 
These views he held throughout his reign. Theo- 
dora, however, thought otherwise. She became the 
protectress ol the Monophysites. Egypt owed to her 
its years of respite; under her protection Syria ven- 
tured to re-establish its Anti-Clialcedonian Church; 
she encouraged the Monophysite missions in Arabia, 
Nubia, and Abyssinia. The empress did not even 
hesitate to receive the heads of the Monophysite 
opposition party in her palace, and when, in 536, 
Anthimus. Patriarch of Constantinople, was, at the 

■ of Pope Agape tus, deposed lor his Asiatic 
propensities, she received the fugitive into the 
women's apartments, where he was discovered at the 
death of the empress (548). He had spent twelve 
years within the walls of the imperial palace under 
the protection of the Augusta. There are reasons to 
suspect that Justinian did not altogether disapprove 
of his consort's policy. It was but a half-way at- 
tempt to win over the Monophysites. Could they, 
indeed, ever be won over? — The spectacle of this 
emperor wearing out his life in the vain effort to re- 
store the unity ol the ei n j lire, in faith, law, and custom, 
is like the development of a tragedy; his endeavours 
only tended to widen the breach between those na- 
tions which most needed each other's support those 
of the Balkan Peninsula and of Asia Minor, Syria, 
and Egypt. With all his dogmatic experiments the 
emperor did not succeed in reconciling the parties 
or devising a feasible method of bringing the parts 
of the empire to co-operate with one another. His 
successors had no better success. Even the concilia- 
tory measures of John the faster. Patriarch of the 
capital (582 95), were of no avail. The conquest 
of tlve Last by the Arabs, in the seventh century. 
brought a cessation of this movement towards the 
iliation of the Last into separate nations — a 
ion which, to be sure, involved for most of the 
Syrian and Egyptian Christians the loss ol I heir faith. 

(2) Founding of the Real Byzantine State; BIO 717. 

Eudocia Ileraclius M it ma 

Heraclius Constantinus Heracl 

( onstans 11 (also called Constantine III) 

( onstantine IV, Pogonatus 

Justinian II, Khinotmetus 




Salvation from the Arab peril came through the 
energetic dynasty of Heraclius. As appears from 
the above table, the dynasty flourished for five gen- 
erations. Three of the rulers were characterized by 
extraordinary will power and striking intellectual 
ability: Heraclius (610-41), Constans (642-68), and 
Constantine, called Pogonatus, or the Bearded (668- 
85). The year 685 marks the beginning of the dy- 
nastic decline. Justinian II (685-95, and 705-11) 
had inherited the excellent qualities of his ancestors, 
but grotesquely distorted; he had the instincts of a 
sultan, with a touch of Ciesarian madness. Whence 
it came about that in 695 he was deposed. His 
nose was cut off — whence the name Rhinotmetus — and 
he was banished to Cherson. There he formed an alli- 
ance with the Khan of the Khazars. whose brother- 
in-law he became, and tied in a fishing boat over 
the Black Sea to the mouths of the Danube. The 
Bulgarians had dwelt in this region since about 679. 
In 705, aided by an army of Slavs and Bulgarians, 
Rhinotmetus returned to Constantinople, and the 
Bulgarian prince received the name of Caesar as a re- 
ward for the help he had rendered. For the next six 
years the emperor's vengeance was wreaked on all 
who had been his adversaries. At last, while hasten- 
ing to Cherson, where Philippicus Bardanes, an Ar- 
menian officer, had been proclaimed emperor, Rhi- 
notmetus was slain near Damatrys in Asia Minor. 

The first dethronement of Justinian, in 695, had 
been accomplished by an officer named Leontius, 
who reigned from then until 698, and it was in this 
period that the Arabs succeeded in gaining possession 
of almost all Roman Africa, including Carthage. The 
Byzantine fleet which had been sent to oppose this 
invasion revolted, while off the coast of Crete, and 
raised the admiral, Apsimarus, to the purple under 
the title of Tiberius III (698-705). The reign of 
Tiberius was not unsuccessful, but in 705 Justinian 
returned, and both Tiberius and Leontius (who had 
meantime been living in a monastery) were be- 
headed. Philippicus the Armenian, following upon 
the second reign of Rhinotmetus, favoured the re- 
ligious principles of his Armenian countrymen, and 
the people of Byzantium raised to the throne in his 
stead Anastasius II (713-15), an able civilian official, 
who restored the orthodox faith. But when he at- 
tempted to check the insubordination of the army, 
which had made three emperors since 695, the troops 
of the Opsikion ihema (from the territory of the Troad 
as far as Nica?a) proclaimed as emperor the unwilling 
Theodosius (715-17), an obscure official of one of the 
provinces. At the same time the Caliph Suleiman 
was equipping a vast armament to ravage the fron- 
tier provinces. Thus the empire which the army, 
under the great military emperors, Heraclius, Con- 
stans, and Constantine, had saved from the threat- 
ened invasion of the Arabs, seemed fated to be 
brought to destruction by the selfsame army. But 
the army was better than the events of the preceding 
twenty-two years might seem to indicate. Leo and 
Artavasdus, commanders, respectively, of the two 
nn i i important themata, the Anatolic and the Ar- 
menian, combined forces. Theodosius voluntarily 
abdicated, and again the throne of Constantine was 
Occupied by a great Byzantine ruler, fitted by nature 
for his position, Leo of Ccrmanicia (now Marash) in 
.\oi them Syria. 

This brief review of the various rulers suffices to 

show thai tin- diseased mentality of Justinian II 

brought to an end the prosperous period of the Her- 
dynasty. The attempt has been made to prove 
thai this prince inherited an unsound mind, and to 
discover corresponding symptoms of insanity in his an- 
cestors. This much is certain: that a strength of will 
carried at times to the point of foolhardiness and in- 
corrigible obstinacy and a propensity to the despotic 
exercise of powei distinguish the whole dynasty. 

Even Heraclius, by a personal inclination to which he 
clung in defiance of reason and against the remon- 
strances of his well-wishers, placed the peace of the 
State and the perpetuation of his dynasty in serious 
peril. This was his passion for his niece Martina, 
whom he married after the death of his first wife in 

Justinian II and His Wife Sophia, Copper Coin Struck 
at Constantinople (4th Year of His Reign) 

defiance of all the warnings of the great Patriarch 
Sergius. Martina is the only woman of any political 
importance during these warlike times. Her char- 
acter w-as distinguished by a consuming ambition, 
and her influence may have increased when, after 
the loss of Syria to the Arabs, Heraclius, becoming 
afflicted with an internal disease, fell into a state of 
lethargy. On the death of her husband (641) she 
sought to obtain the supreme power for her own son 
Heracleonas, to the prejudice of her step-son Con- 
stantine. The army recognized both princes as sov- 
ereign, a state of things which contained the germ 
of further complications. Fortunately Constantine, 
who had long been ailing, died a few weeks after his 
father, and the army, ignoring Martina and Heracle- 
onas, placed Constans, the son of Constantine, on the 
throne. Thus it was that the almost uninterrupted 
succession of the three emperors, Heraclius, Con- 
stans, and Constantine IV, Pogonatus came about. 
As has been repeatedly observed, the activity* of 
these rulers was concentrated on the Herculean task 
of defending the empire against the foreign foes that 
were bearing down on it from all sides. Fortunately, 
the Avars, who from the time of Justinian had been 
bought off with an annual tribute, but who as lately 
as 623 and 626 had besieged Constantinople, were 
gradually hemmed in by the onrushing Slavs and Bul- 
garians upon the Hungarian lowlands, and thereby 
removed from immediate contact with the Byzantine 
Empire. All the more persistent, however, were the 
attacks of the Slavic races. During the time of Her- 
aclius the Croats and Serbs established themselves 
in their present homes. The Roman cities of Dal- 
matia had difficulty in defending themselves. Pres- 
ently the Slavs took to the sea, and by 623 they had 
pushed their way as far as Crete. Still their visits 
were only occasional; they made no permanent set- 
tlements on the islands, and on the mainland the 
larger cities escaped subjection to Slavic influence. 
Thessalonica was attacked again and again, most 
seriously in 675, but was saved each time by the 
heroism of her citizens. The Slavs, fortunately, were 
still split into different tribes, so that tiny could be 
held in check by timely expeditions, such as that 
which Constans had made near Thessalonica. It was 
otherwise with the Bulgarians. In 635 Heraclius 
concluded an alliance with their prima', Kuvrat, so 
as to use them in opposing the Avars and Slavs. 
However, then' soon arose in the territory between 
the Danube and the Balkan Peninsula, under the 
leadership of the Bulgarians, a state composed of 
Slavonic and Finnic-! grian elements. Their organ- 
ization differed widely from that of the Serbs and 

Croat i, who »eiv held together by no political bond. 
In 679 the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus suffered 

a serious defeat at the hands of the Bulgarians; by 




695 things had come to such a pass that Justinian II 
reconquered Constantinople through Bulgarian as- 
sistance. In later centuries the Bulgarian State be- 
came Byzantium's most dangerous European foe. 

But at this period its most formidable enemies were 
its neighbours, the Persians, Ii will be recalled how 
Anastasius and Justinian 1 had fought with this na- 
tion, and how. in the peace oi 562, Lazistan at least 
had been held as a guarantee of Byzantine supremacy 
over the trade routes to Central Asia. The twenty 
years' war (571-91) brought many vicissitudes. At 
last the Emperor Mauritius obtained possession of 
Dara and Martyropolis, in Syria, as well as the 
greater part of Armenia. Nisibis, however, remained 
Persian. So far. an important advantage had been 
gained for Byzantium. But the assassination of 
Mauritius effected a marked change. Chosroes II, 
Parvez, commenced war against the usurper Phocas, 
which he continued against his successor, Heraclius. 
In 606 Dara fell, and in 60S the Persians appeared 
for the first time before Chalcedon. In 611 they cap- 
tured Antioch and the eastern part of Asia Minor, 
in 613 Damascus, and in 614 Jerusalem. The True 
Cross fell into their hands and was carried off to 
Persia. In 615 a Persian army stood before Chalce- 
don for the second time. In 619 they conquered 
\ncvra. in Asia Minor, and even Egypt. Heraclius 
saved himself splendidly from this terrible situation. 
In three daring campaigns (622-28) he freed Ar- 
menia from her oppressors. By the peace of 62S 
Ann. nia and Syria were recovered. On 14 Septem- 
ber. 629. the True Cross, restored by the Persians, 
was again set up in Jerusalem, and in 629 Egypt like- 
wise was wrested from the Persians. Then came the 
fearful reverses consequent on the Arab rising; in 
635 Damascus fell; in 637 Jerusalem was surrendered 
by the Patriarch Sophronius, after a siege of two 
years. At first (634) Heraclius himself came to An- 
tioch to organize the campaign; then followed the 
lethargy due to his sickness, and he supinely allowed 
the Arabs to advance. At his death (lillj Egypt 
was virtually lost; on 29 September, 643, Amru en- 
tered Alexandria; in 647 the province of Africa, and 
in 697 its capital. Carthage, fell into the hands of the 
Arabs. Meanwhile the Arabs had built a navy, and 
soon the war raged on all sides. They had taken Cyprus 
in 648; in 655 they first thought of attacking Con- 
stantinople. Fortunately their Beet was vanquished 
off the Lycian coast. Later they established them- 
selves in Cyzicus, and from 673 to t>77 menaced the 
capital. At the same time 1 1 1 < \ conquered Armenia 
(654) and ravaged Asia Minor. In 668 they pushed 
on to Chalcr 'don. During all these losses, tic ( . reeks 
could show only one step gained or rather one suc- 
cessful attempt to safeguard their power. Many 
Christian families emigrated from Asia Minor and 
Syria to Sicily, Lower Italy, and Rome, thusstn 
ening the Byzantine power in the West, and the Em- 
I lonstans could use Sicily the re- 

conquest of Africa (662). Be is thought to have 
intended making Home once more the capita] of the 
empire. In 60S. however, lie was murdered in Syra- 
cuse, during a military upri ing and with him these 
vast plans came to an end. Hi- tinelV, 

was very young at the time oi hi till he 

was not only able to assert his authority in the face 
of an unruly army, but soon, like his tat her and great- 
grandfather, proved himself •< brave warrior, ami 
displayed consummate gem ralship against the Arabs, 
the Slav.-, an I tin- Bulgarians. 

The splendid prowess of Byzantium is still bril- 
liantly apparent, in spite of these losses. This was 

due. in the first place, to its excellent military equiji- 
ment. The period of the Arab peril, a peril which at 
a later date in the West, during the time of Charles 
Martel. -.a the introduction of cavalry wearing de- 
fensive armour in place of the Roman and Germanic 

infantry, marked a like innovation in the East, at 
an earlier period. The Byzantine cuirassiers, or 
eataphracti, probably originated at this time. More- 
over, the State was now thoroughly organized on 
military lines. The system of themata, after the 
model of the exarchate of Ravenna and Africa, 
found acceptance in Asia Minor, and gradually 
spread through the whole empire. The thrnia of the 
( 'ihyrrhaiits, in southern Asia Minor, belonged to 
the districts which during the Roman Republic had 
produced the most notorious pirates. In the Saracen 
wars the fleet played a very important part; the 
Byzantine victory, therefore, showed that the Byz- 
antine fleet was not only equal to that of the Arabs 
in point of men and solidity of construction, but 
had an important technical advantage. During 
the great leaguer of Constantinople, from April to 
September, 673, Callinicus, a Syrian, is said to have 
taught the Greeks the vise of gunpowder, or "Greek 

It remains to discuss the ecclesiastical disputes 
of the seventh century. At fust everything seemed 
to point towards a compromise. The Persian in- 
vasions, which had swept over the Christian peoples 
of the Orient since 606, probably strengthened a 
feeling of kinship among Christian nations. Even 
during his Armenian campaign, Heraclius began to 
prepare the way for the union with the Oriental 
Churches. He was supported in his efforts by Ser- 
gius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Pope Hono- 
rius I. As a basis of dogmatic unity, Heraclius pro- 
claimed as a formula of faith the "union of the two 
Natures of the God-Man through the Divine-human 
energy". Everything seemed propitious, the only 
opponent of the movement being Sophronius. Pa- 
triarch of Jerusalem, who was afterwards forced to 
surrender the city to the Arabs. His antagonism 
lent the opposition movement stability and per- 
manence. Heraclius, in his effort to conciliate the 
Monophysites, in his "Ecthesis" of 638 emphasized 
still more emphatically the union of the two natures 
by one will (Monothelitism). Immediately the West 
— and particularly Africa, the scene of St. Maxinius's 
labours — set up the standard of opposition. It was 
of no avail that Emperor Constans II in his "Typus" 
(648) forbade all contention over the number of wills 
and energies, and that he caused Pope Martin I. as 
well as St. Maximus, to be apprehended and ban- 
ished to Cherson. The West was temporarily de- 
feated, though destined finally to conquer. After 
Syria, Egypt, and Africa had been lost to the 
Arabs, there was no further object in trying to es- 
tablish Monothelitism. At the Sixth (Ecumenical 
Council (680-81) orthodoxy was re-established by the 
Emperor Constantine IV. That this move was in 
harmony with the desire of the Creek people, was 
evident during the reign of Philippicus, the Armenian. 
His attempt to restore Monothelitism in the Rome 
of the East resulted in his dethronement. Once 
more the Creeks had cut themselves loose from the 
Armenians; whether to the advantage ol the empire 
is a question which receives various answers. 

(3) Iconoclasm; 717-867. 

Leo III. the Syrian (Isaurian) 

Constantine V, Copronymus 

Leo 1 V Irene 


( ionstantine VI 


Nicephorus I 


Michael I, Rhangabe 




Leo V, the Armenian 
Michael II Balbus, the Phrygian (from Amorium) 




Michael III, the Drunkard. 

During this period two dynasties occupied the 
throne, each lasting for several generations. Both 
were of Eastern origin, the one from Northern Syria, 
the other from Phrygia. Leo V (813-20) also was 
of Oriental extraction. On the other hand, Nicepho- 
rus I (802-11) and his son-in-law Michael I, Rhan- 
gabe (Sll 13), were Greeks. In other words, the 
government of the empire became orientalized. 
This racial antagonism must be borne in mind in 
order to grasp the bitterness of the religious conten- 
tions of the period. The same period shows a second 
dynastic anomaly: for the first and last time there 
is an empress on the throne not as regent, but with 
the full title Basileus. This is Irene, perhaps the 
most disagreeable character of all the great Byzan- 
tine women. Like Athenais, she was an Athenian, but 
in the charm of the Muses she was totally lacking. 
Two passions possessed her soul: ambition and re- 
ligious fanaticism; but her piety was of a strange kind. 
She persisted in her devotion to her party with the 
unswerving conviction that her opinion was right, 
and she did not hesitate to commit the most atro- 
cious crimes of which a woman could be guilty in 
order to ruin her son morally and physically. Not 
without reason has Irene been compared to Cathe- 
rine de' Medici. On the death of her husband, Leo IV 
(775-80), in her desire for power she strove to keep 
her son as a minor as long as possible, and finally to 
set him aside altogether. Of her own authority she 
cancelled the betrothal of Constantine VI (7S0-97) 
to Rotrud. the daughter of Charlemagne, and forced 
him to marry Maria, an Armenian, a woman wholly 
distasteful to him. When the seventeen-year-old 
emperor showed a disposition to escape her power, 
she had him scourged with rods. She finally lent her 
sanction to his marriage with a woman of the court, 
Theodota, a union regarded by the Church as biga- 
mous. In this way she thought to make his acces- 
sion to power impossible. The worst, however, was 
still to come; Irene took advantage of an uprising 
to rid herself of her son permanently. Constantine 
V 1 . blinded at the command of his mother, ended his 
life in an obscure apartment of the imperial palace, 
where Theodota bore him a son. His mother now 
ruled alone (797-802) until the elevation of the grand 
treasurer, Nicephorus, put an end to her power, and 
she spent her remaining years on the island of Lesbos 
in sickness and poverty. 

Irene is honoured as a saint in the Greek Church, 
because it the Seventh General Synod of Nica?a (787), 
she obtained important concessions in the matter 
of the veneration of images. Though the adoration 
of images, as well as other abusive practices of ven- 
eration, which had already been condemned as 
idolatrous, were again wholly forbidden, prostrate 
veneration, incense, and candles were permitted. 
Theodora achieved a similar prominence. After the 
fall of Irene, the Iconoclasts again sained the upper 
hand, and the brief reign of Michael I, who supplanted 
his brother-iii 1 ,\ Stauracius (811 I, "as powerless to 
change this. The Emperor Theophilus (829 12) in 
the vigourof his religious persecution approached the 
energetic Constantine V (Vti 75), Known to the op- 
posite party, and later to historians, by the insulting 
epithet of Copronymus. When Theodora became re- 
gent, through the early death of her husband, she 
introduced milder measures. A compromise >■ 

fected between the partii \t the -ynod ol s|:i per- 

mission was given for the veneration of images, and at 

the same time the anathema was removed from the 
name of the Emperor Theophilus. In order to re- 
move it, Theodora, it is said, was guilty of a pious 
fraud and the false declaration that the emperor, 
before his death, had been converted to the venera- 
tion of images. Of more importance, however, is 
the fact that the members of the ecclesiastical party, 
by removing the anathema against the emperor, 
yielded to state authority, and while victorious in the 
dogmatic controversy acknowledged that they were 
vanquished in the ecclesiastico-political. 

The questions of this time seem to have concerned 
matters of far-reaching importance, problems which, 
despite their strange dress, appear fundamentally 
quite modern and familiar. The dogmatical side of 
these contests was not connected with the old con- 
troversy about the two natures of Christ, but with 
the heretical views of different Oriental sects, in- 
fluenced by Judaism and Mohammedanism. The 
eastern frontier of the empire in Asia Minor was the 
home of these multifarious sects, which guaranteed 
the separate existence of the tribes which belonged 
to them and regarded themselves as the "faithful" 
in opposition to the state Church. Leo III, the Sy- 
rian (717-41), who saved Byzantium from the Ara- 
bian peril, repulsed the last serious attack of the 
Arabs on the capital (September, 717, to August, 
718), by his reforms made the empire superior to 
its foes, and brought the views of these sectaries into 
the policy of the Byzantine empire. In the celebrated 
edict of 726 he condemned the veneration of images, 
a decree which he considered part of his reforming 
activity. Probably he hoped by this means to bring 
the people of the empire closer to Islam, to lessen 
the differences between the two religions. This may 
be regarded as another attempt to orientalize the 
empire, such as the dynasty of Heraclius and others 
before had previously made. The Greek nation 
answered by promptly repudiating the attempt, all 
the more emphatically because here again dogmatic 
and national antagonisms were connected with the 
struggle between Church and State. 

It is unjust to attribute unworthy motives to the 
party who called themselves image-worshippers and 
rallied around such men as Plato, abbot of the mon- 
astery of Saceudion, and his nephew Theodore, 
afterwards Abbot of Studium. The fact is that the 
whole movement was based on a deeply religious 
spirit which led to detachment from the world and 
indeed to complete insensibility towards all earthly 
ties, even the most legitimate. The ideal of thi - 
men is not the Christian ideal of to-day; their rigorous 
stand might not always meet with our approval. 
But it was a party that exerted a powerful influence 
on the people, which could only be intensified by 
persecution. In this movement it seems possible to 
discern the forerunner of the great reform movement 
of the West during the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
a movement which tended to intensify rel 
life and which stood for the liberation of the Church 
from the control of the State. 

The Iconoclasts, on the other hand, represented a 
principle which we know to have been forced into 
the Greek-Byzantine world as something foreign. 
It encountered sentiments and views, however, with 
which it could combine, In spite of the Christianiza- 
tion of Byzantium, then' remained there a residue 
of ancient pagan Roman ideas. The Byzantines of 
this school often appear s, > modern to us precisely 
because they were permeated with rationalistic, anti- 
ecclesiastical sentiments. Such men were found most 
frequently among the cultured classes, the high 
dignitaries of Church and State. This is why lcono- 
clastn, which was sympathetic to this rationalistic 

tendency, could develop into a general movement, 

and why it reminds lis in so many ways of the ration- 
alistic movement of the eighteenth century; it also 




explains why the Iconoclastic emperors always found 
supporters in the higher ranks of the clergy. Thus 
it was that Leo III conducted his attack against 
the protesting popes through the Patriarch Anas- 
tasius. When Pope Gregory II refused in recognize 
the edict of 726, the emperor withdrew from his 
jurisdiction Sicily, Lower Italy, and [Uyria, and 
placed them under the Patriarch of Constantinople. 
Constantine Copronymus had similar support. Up- 
held by prelates in favour of a national Church, he 
.nice more, through the council of 754, prohibited 
tin' veneration of images. We know of the numerous 
martyrdoms caused by the execution of the decree, 
and how the Empress Irene, herself a friend of the 
'image-worshippers", finally yielded. There soon 
followed tin' reaction of tic Iconoclasts under Leo V, 

the Armenian, and the Phrygian dynasty, and at last 
tin- legal restoration of image-worship by Theodora. 
We have already seen thai this victory of the ortho- 
dox party, viewed from an ecclesiastico-political 
standpoint, was riot complete. The reason of this 
partial defeat lay not in the existence of a party 

among the higher clergy favouring a national Church, 
l>ut in the fart that the orthodox party gradually 
lost their hold on the people. We know how the 
antagonism ol the Greeks to the Latins had gradually 
grown more intense. It was regarded as unpatriotic 
when Theodore of Studium and Ins friends so openly 
declared for Rome. The strength of this National- 
Church movement came into most perfect evidence 

with tlie advent of the great Photius. His rise and 

the fall of the Patriarch Ignatius «cre connected 

with a shabby court intrigue, the Patriarch Ignatius 
having ventured to oppose the all-powerful Bardas 
during the reign of Michael 111 (842 67). Ai in t 
the proceedings oi Photius differed in no n 
from those of a common office-seeker. Hut by op- 
■ the claims of Old Rome to Bulgarian obedience 

lie suddenly gained immense popularity, and thus 
paved the way lor the ultimate separation of the 
hi I .aim ( 'hurdles. 
It was Boris (852-88), the Bulgarian Tsar, who 
stirred up the entire question. Willi the help of 
Si. (lenient, a disciple of Methodius, the Apostle of 
the Slavs, lie had introduced Christianity among his 
people; cm the occasion of his own baptism, the 
Emperoi Michael III was sponsor. Soon afterwards 
Boris tried to withdraw from the influence of East 
Louie, and enter into closer relations with ( >ld Koine. 
At the same tune the Holy See renewed its claims to 
the Illyrian obedience. Photius's answer was the 
fyict/jcXios 1-wutto\ti (circular letter) of 867, by which 
he soii-hl to establish the separation from (lid Koine 
Loth in ritual and in dogma. In spite of the many 

vacillations of Byzantine politics between the par- 
tisans of Ignatius ami those of Photius during the 
next decades, this was the first decisive step towards 
the schism of 105 I 

During this whole period the Bulgarians had 

f'ven great trouble to the Byzantine Empire. The 
mperor Nicephorus I fell in battle against them, 
and his successors warded them off only with the 
I difficulty. Equally violent, were the wars 

i the Saracens and the Slavs. There was 

no second investment of the capital by the Syrian 

Arahs. it is true, though on the other hand, in 

sen. the city was hard pressed by the Varangian 

Kos, I. ut all the more danger was to !*■ apprehended 
from the Arahs who had been expelled from Spain 

ami had settled in Egypt in 815. In 826 they con- 
quered Crete, and about the seme time the \i al'- 
of Northern Africa began to settle in Sicily, a 
migratory movement which finally resulted in the 
complete loss of the island to the Byzantines. 
As once they had conic from Syria and Asia Minor. 
so now many Greek families migrated to Lower 
Italy and the Peloponnesus. The ( iiristianization 

I a . n i 

and hellenization of the Slavs was now begun, and 
soon produced rich fruits. It is difficult, as we 
have already said, to determine how great an ad- 
mixture of Slavic blood flows in the veins of the 
Greeks of to-day; on the other hand, it. is certain 
that the Slavs have left many traces of their laws 
and c u s f o ms. 
The agrarian law, 

dating, possibly, 

i em i he time of 
the Emperoi Leo 

III, shows the 
strength of the 
Slavic influence 
on the develop- 
ment of the By- 
zantine agrarian 

Ii remains to 
touch on the re- 
lations between 
t h e Byzantine 
Empire and the 
West during this 

period. In the West, the Frankish nation had gradu- 
ally taken the lead of all other Germanic peoples. As 
we know, the relations of Byzantium with these na- 
tions were always somewhat unstable. One thing only 
had remained unchanged: the Byzantine rulers, as 
legitimate successors of the Roman emperors, had 
always maintained their claim to sovereignty over 
the Germanic peoples. For the most part this had 
Keen unconditionally admitted, as is evident from 
the coinage. At the time of the Empress Irene, 
however, a great change set in. The restoration of 
the Roman Empire of the Wist by Charlemagne 
(800) was the signal for a complete break with all 
previous traditions. The West stood now on the 
same footing as the East. As we know, this important 
step had been taken in full accord with the papacy. 
Historically, it is thus a part of the controversies 
which began with the withdrawal of Illyrian obe- 
dience, and culminated in the ^-yKwcXtos liriaroX-q of 

Photius. The idea of a national imperial Church 
seemed to prevail in both East and West; to be sure 
this was only seemingly so, for the popes did not give 
up their universal supremacy , but soon began again 
to utilize politically their advantageous location 

midway between East and West. 

(4 ) Period oj Political Balance; S67-1057. 
Michael III Eudocia Ingerina Basil I 

Leo VI 


Romanus I, (Lacapenus) 

Constantine VII Helena Stephen Constantine 

Romanus II Theophano Nicephorus II, Phocas 

Basil II Constantine VIII Theodora John Zimisces 

(1) Romanus III 

Maria (2; Michael IV 

Michael V (3) Constantine IX, . 

The period of the highest development of Byzan- 
tine power was not dynastically the most fortunate 




Seldom has there been such an accumulation of moral 
filth as in the family of Basil the Macedonian (867- 
86). The founder of the house, a handsome hostler 
of Armenian extraction, from the vicinity of Adrian- 
ople, attracted the notice of a high official by his 
powerful build and his athletic strength and later 
gained the favour of the dissolute emperor Michael 
III, the last of the Phrygian emperors. Basil was 
also a favourite with women. His relations with the 
elderly Danielis of Patras, whom he had met whilst 
in the retinue of his master, were most scandalous. 
The gifts of this extremely wealthy woman laid the 
foundations of Basil's fortune. The depth of his 
baseness, however, is best seen in his marriage to the 
emperor's mistress, Eudocia Ingerina. Michael III 
stipulated that Eudocia should remain his mistress, 
to that it is impossible to say who was the father of 
Leo VI, the Wise (886-912). His physical frailty 
and taste for learned pursuits — during his reign the 

Code of the Basilica was prepared in sixty books — 
as also the mutual aversion between Basil and Leo 
are no evidence for the paternity of the Macedonian. 
If this view be correct, Basil's line was soon extinct, 
as his real son, Alexander, reigned only one year 
(912-13). Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus (913- 
59), the long wished-for heir, by the fourth marriage 
of Leo the Wise, inherited the learned tastes of his 
father, but was not completely deficient in energy. 
It is true he left the government at first to his father- 
in-law, Romanus I, Lacapenus (919-44), and later 
to his wife Helena; still, when Romanus had become 
too overbearing, Constantine VII showed himself 
possessed of enough initiative to enlist the aid of 
Stephen and Constantine, sons of Romanus, in over- 
throwing the power of their father, and, later, to 
set aside his brothers-in-law (945). In Romanus II 
(959-63) the dissolute nature of his great-grandfather 
Michael III reappeared. His reign, fortunately, 
lasted only a few years, and then Theophano, his 
widow, the daughter of an innkeeper, took into her 
hands the reins of government, for her minor sons. 
Circumstances compelled her marriage with Nicepho- 
rus II, Phocas (963-69), an old and fanatically 
religious warrior. He is the first of that series of 
great military leaders who occupied the Byzantine 
throne, and who soon raised the empire to undreamed- 
of heights of power. As in the dynasty of Heraclius, 
three <>t these reigned in succession: Nicephorus II, 
John Zimisces, ami Basil II. John I, Zimisces (969- 
76), was the nephew of Nicephorus, but very unlike 
him. The younger man was as joyous and life-loving 
in disposition as the older was grim and unlovable. 
Theophano, therefore, did not hesitate to introduce 
into the palace the murderer of her morose husband. 
Hut like Sophia, niece of the great Theodora, she saw 
her hopes dashed to the ground. The new emperor 

ied her in a convent and, to legitimize his power, 

i Married Theodora, sister of Basil and Const ant inc. t he 
two young emperors. Like his uncle, John Zimisces 
was only coregent, but he showed great force in his ad- 
ministration of affairs. At his death the elder of the 
young emperors was competent to take charge of the 
SI iti Luckily, Basil II (976 1025) proved as capable 
a military leader ae his two predecessors. It. was un- 

der his brother, Constantine VIII (1026-28), that the 
reaction set in. In opposition to the great imperial 
generals who had brought the empire to an unhoped- 
for pinnacle of power, a civilian party had grown up 
which had for its aim the curtailment of military 
power. This party was successful during the reigns 
of Constantine and his successors. Constantine VlII 
left two daughters, Zoe and Theodora. Zoe (102S-50) 
was forty-eight years of age at the death of her 
father, but even after that married three times, 
and by her amours and her jealousy brought many 
trials upon her younger sister. Zoe's three husbands, 
Romanus III, Argyrus (1028-34), Michael IV (1034- 
41), and Constantine IX, Monomachus (1042-54), 
all came from the higher bureaucratic circles. Thus 
the civil party had gained its end. This explains 
why neither Zoe nor the nephew of her second hus- 
band, whom she had adopted, and who proved so 
ungrateful, Michael V (1041-42 — termed the Caulker 
because his father was a naval engineer) could uphold 
the glory attained by the State during the times of 
the great military emperors. Even generals as great 
as Georgius Maniaces and Harold Hardrada — the 
latter, chief of the North-German (Varangian) body- 
guard which was coming more and more into promi- 
nence^ — were powerless to stem the tide of the de- 
cline. The general discontent was most manifest 
when Theodora, on the death of her sister and 
her last surviving brother-in-law, assumed the reins 
of power, and not unsuccessfully (1054-56). On 
her death-bed she transferred the purple to the aged 
senator Michael VI, Stratioticus (1056-57). This 
was the signal for the military power to protest. 
The holders of great landed estates in Asia Minor 
gave the power instead to one of their own faction. 
Isaac I, Comnenus, inaugurates a new era. 

During the period of its greatest power, i. e. under 
the military emperors, the Byzantine State was able 
to expand equally in all directions. It had its share 
of reverses, it is true. The most important was the 
final loss of Sicily to the Saracens; in 87S Syracuse 
fell, and in 902 Tauromenium (Taormina), the last 
Byzantine stronghold on the island, was taken by 
the Arabs. Two years later Thessalonica was sub- 
jected to an appalling pillage. As compensation for 
the loss of Sicily, however, the Byzantines had 
Lower Italy, where, since the conquest of Bari (875), 
the Lombard thema had been established. This led 
to the renewal of relations with the Western pow- 
ers, especially with the recently founded Saxon line. 
The Byzantines were still able to hold their own with 
these, as formerly with the Carlovingians. Con- 
spicuous was the success of the campaigns against 
the Arabs in the East: the fall of the Caliphate of 
Bagdad rendered it possible to push forward the fron- 
tier towards Syria; Melitene (928), Nisibis (942 13), 
Tarsus and Cyprus (965), and Antioch (968-69) 
were captured in turn. About the same time (961) 
Crete was wrested back from the Arabs. These were 
the battlefields on which the great generals of the 
empire, chiefly Armenian, Paphlagonian, and Cappa- 
docian by race, won distinction. Under Romanus 1 
it was the great Armenian Kurkuas. and later the 
Cappadocian Nicephorus Phocas who achieved these 
victories. Nicephorus. as husband of Theophano, 
ascended the throne, and as emperor he achieved 
his victorious campaign against the Arabs. His 
assassination brought to the throne his nephew 
John Zimisces, an Armenian, and fortunately a war- 
rior as great as his uncle. 

John made preparations for the subjugation of the 

Bulgarians. 1 1 will be recalled how Tsar Boris in- 
troduced Christianity into Bulgaria and, even at 
that period, thought, by ingratiating himself with 

Rome to escape from Byzantine influence. Tsar 

Synieon (893 927) devised another way of attaining 
independence, He raised his archbishop to the rank 




of patriarch, thereby proclaiming the ecclesiastical 
autonomy of Bulgaria. His ultimate aim became 
evident when he assumed the title of Tsar of the 
Bulgarians and Autocrat of the Romans. This 
dream, however, was not to be realized. Though 
Symeon had extended the boundaries of his domin- 
ions as far as the Adriatic Sea, though he held Adrian- 
ople for a time, and in 917 inflicted a crushing defeat 
on the Greeks, still, under his successor Peter (927- 
69), Macedonia and Illyria shook off the Bulgarian 
and established a West Bulgarian State under 
the usurper Shishman and his successors. Even 
under these trying circumstances the policy of By- 
zantium was skilful: it recognized the Bulgarian 
patriarchate — thus widening the breach with Koine 
— but on the other hand lost no time in inciting the 
neighbouring peoples, the Magyars, Petchenegs, 
Cumani, and Croatian*, against the Bulgarians. 
The Russians, also, who in 941 threatened Constan- 
tinople for the second and last time, were stirred up 
against the Bulgarians. Hut soon it was recognized 
that the devil had been expelled with the help of 
Beelzebub. The grand Duke Svjatoslav of Kiev 
settled south of the Danube, and in 969 seized the 
old Bulgarian capital of Preslav for his residence. 
The Emperor John Zimisces now interfered. In 971 
he captured Preslav and Silistria, but did not re- 
establish the Bulgarian State. Tsar Boris II was 
taken lo Constantinople and received as compensa- 
tion the title of M agister; the Bulgarian patriarchate 
was suppressed. There now remained only the West 
Bulgarian State under Shishman. 

Basil II is Ajuioub, from MS. Psalter, End of X Century 
The work begun by John Zimisces was completed 

by Basil II, "Slayer of Bulgarians". In three great. 
campaigns the Bulgarians were subjugated with 
monstrous cruelty. The work, however, was accom- 
plished. When, m 101 I, the emperor celebrated his 
victory with imposing ceremonies in the church of 

Panagia at Athens (tl Id Parthenon), the Greek 

Km [>ire st 1 on a height it was never again to reach, 

Basil II was succeeded by his brother Constantine 

VIII, who never distinguished himself, and by the 
daughters of the latter, Zoe and Theodora. The 

government passed from the hands of the military 
party into those of high civilian officials, and soon 
defeat followed on defeat. Under heroes like Georgius 
Maniaces, and Harold Hardrada, it is true, headway 
was made against the most, various foes. But after 
1021 Armenia, which had reached a high state of 
prosperity under the rule of the Bagratides, and had 
been annexed to Byzantine territory by Basil II 
and Constantine IX, gradually passed under the sway 
of the Seljuk Turks, and after 1041 Lower Italy was 
conquered by the Normans. This is the first appear- 
ance of the two foes who were slowly but surely to 
bring about the destruction of the empire, and the 
worst feature of their case was that the Greeks them- 
selves prepared the way for their future destroyers. 
As formerly Blessed Theodora and her successors had 
persecuted the heterodox Paulicians, who were the 
brave protectors of the frontier of Asia Minor, and 
whom John Zimisces later established near Philip- 
popolis, so now the Greek clergy were treating the 
Bulgarians and Armenians most harshly. The West- 
ern Church also at times wounded national feelings 
and sometimes provoked the hostility of individual 
nations by financial exactions. It would be difficult, 
however, to point out in the history of Rome such 
complete disregard of the obligations of the universal 
Church as was shown by the Patriarchs of Constan- 
tinople. It is not a matter for surprise, then, that 
the oppressed nations became more and more alien- 
ated from Byzantium anil finally welcomed hostile 
invasions as a sort of relief, though of course ulti- 
mately they found out their error. This turned out 
to be the case not only in Bulgaria, but also in North 
Syria, Armenia, and the eastern part of Asia Minor 
which contained a large Armenian population. 

There was another circumstance that caused the 
Seljuk Turks to appear as liberators. In the course of 
the preceding centuries, a body of provincial nobility 
had been in process of formation in all parts of 
the empire. In Asia Minor — for conditions were not 
the same in all parts of the empire — this nobility 
acquired its predominance from its large landed 
possessions. And this, indeed, is reason for believing 
that no monetary system of economics existed in 
the older Byzantine Empire, and that the power of 
capitalism did not originate on its soil. Rich families 
invested their wealth in landed possessions, and the 
poorer population had to make way for them. This 
decline oi the peasantry was a grave menace to the 
empire, the military strength of which declined with 
the decline of popular independence. Moreover, this 

monopolization Of the land tended to undermine 
a military institution -thai of feudal tenures. It is 
not known when this institution originated; possibly 
it was an inheritance from the Roman Empire, de- 
veloped afresh, during the struggles with the Arabs, 
in the form of cavalry fiefs on the frontiers of Asia 
Minor and Syria, and as naval liefs in the Cibyrrhseol 
tin urn. But in any case, the danger to this institu- 
tion was recognized at court, and attempts were made 

to meet it. Romanus I, Lacapenus, descended from 
an Armenian family "I archons, seems to have been 
tin' first lo devise legislation against the further 

extension of the landed interests. Other measures 
date from Constantine VII, Korphyrogenitus, P.o- 
manus II, and NicephorUS II, Phocas. Xieephorus 

II. also, was descended from a Cappadocian family 

of great landed proprietors, but this did not prevent 
him from vigorously continuing the policy of Ro- 
manus I. His stern piety— for the old warrior, after 
the death of his wife and his only son always wore a 
hair shut, never ate meat, and slept on the bare 
floor — did not prevent his opposing the further ex- 
tension of ecclesiastical property. I'or ecclesiastical, 
particularly monastic, holdings had gradually l>egun 
to ab 'iih the estates "I smaller land-holders. These 

in' i ires against the Church were one' of the causes 




of the fall of old Nieephorus and of the elevation of 
light-hearted young John Zimisces to the throne. 
Still, even under John Zimisces and Basil II, the 
struggle of the great landed interests continued. 
It was only the reaction after the death of Basil that 
gave the aristocratic party the final victory. It 
gained strength under the regime of the civilian 
emperors. Ultimately this party was strong enough 
to decide the succession to the imperial crown. 
(5) Period of Centrifugal tendencies; 1057-1203. 

which was to give the empire three more brilliant 
rulers, Alexius I, John II, and Manuel I. 

The splendour of the Comneni was the splendour of 
the setting sun. It was a period of restoration. Men 
hoped again to raise literature to the standard of 
the classic authors and to revive the ancient language, 
and thus they hoped to restore the glory of the Roman 
Empire. Only too often it was merely a jugglery 




Isaac I John Constantine X Eudocia Romanus IV 

Alexius I Michael VII Nieephorus III 


I I I 

John II Isaac . . 

Manuel I Andronicus I 


Alexius III Isaac II 

Alexius II 

Alexius V, Murtzuphlos Eudocia Alexius IV 

The powerful body of landed proprietors were of ad- 
vantage to the empire in one particular. Since the 
decline of the old military organization they upheld 
the military prestige of the empire. This was all 
the more significant because, unfortunately, since the 
revival of learning an antagonism had arisen between 
the civil officials, who had studied in the schools of 
the rhetoricians, and the officers of the imperial 
army. We have already noted that during the last 
years of the so-called Macedonian dynasty, under the 
empresses Zoe and Theodora, the influence of the 
civil-service party was all-powerful. For that very 
reason a council of the landed proprietors of Asia 
Minor raised Isaac Comnenus (1057-59), much against 
his will, to the throne. Isaac regarded the crown as a 
burden. Weary of strife with the senatorial aris- 
tocracy, he soon gave up the sceptre and retired to 
the monastery of Studium. He considered himself 
defeated and accordingly designated as his successor 
not his capable brother John, and his sons, but an 
official high in the civil service, Constantine X, 
Ducas (1059-67), a man who during Isaac's brief 
reign had greatly assisted the emperor, who was 
wholly unversed in affairs of administration. This 
meant a fresh victory fur the civil bureaucracy, 
who signalized their accession to power by setting 
aside army interests, and even the most pressing 
requirements for the defence of the empire. This 
naturally led to a severe retribution, ami as a eon- 
sequence popular sympathy reverted to the military 
party. V.1 the death of Constantine, the widowed 
I Impress Eudocia took a step decisive for the fate of 
the empire by recognizing the need and choosing as 

her husband Romanus IV, Diogenes (1067 71), an 
able officer and one ol t he heroic figures of Byzantine 
history. Romanus was pursued by misfortune, and 
after four years the government again fell into the 
hands of the civil party. Michael VII, Parapinaces 

111)71 78), the pupil of Psellus, was raised to the 

throne. Soon the crisis became so serious thai an- 
other military emperor was placed on the throne, 
Nieephorus [II, Botaniatee (1078 81). The old man, 
however, was unable to bring order out of the uni- 
versal chaos. The Comneni Were recalled. Alexius I, 
Comnenus (1081 1118), who had been excluded from 
the .succession by Ins uncle, took the reins of govern- 
in. hi and founded the last of the great dynasties, 

with high sounding words. Never were the titles of 
state officials more imposing than during the period 
of the Comenni; and never, on the other hand, was 
the empire in a more precarious position, despite all 
its outward splendour. The old Byzantine army 
was demoralized; foreign mercenaries had replaced 
the native troops. Saddest of all was the decay of 
the fleet. Things had come to such a pass that no 
shame was felt at lining dependent on the allied 
Italian seaports. Still, not a little was achieved. 
Clever diplomacy replaced actual power, and suc- 
ceeded in preserving for some time the semblance of 
Byzantine supremacy. Moreover, the Greeks seem 
to have learned the art of husbanding their resources 
better than they had, and this was due largely to the 
co-operation of the Western nations. We know for a 
certainty that during the time of the Comneni ground- 
rents were levied in coin. This income was increased 
by the heavy receipts from custom duties. In a word, 
the economic administration of both public and pri- 
vate business was admirable during this period. It 
was most unfortunate that this splendour should be 
darkened by the deep shadows of official corruption, 
the depreciation of currency, and a total disregard of 
the Byzantine national, or rather civic, conscience. 

Abroad, the Byzantine State was menaced, as of 
old, on three sides: on the East by the Seljuk Turks, 
who had supplanted the Arabs; on the West by the 
Normans, who had succeeded the Arabs in that quar- 
ter; on the North by the Slavs. Bulgarians, and Finnic- 
I'grian peoples (Magyars, Petchenegs, and Cumani). 
All three perils were bravely met. though at the cost 
of heavy losses. In 1004 the Seljuk Turk Alp-Arslan 
destroyed Ani, the centre of Armenian civilization, 
whereupon many Armenians emigrated to Little 
Armenia in the Cilician Taurus. In 11)71 the brave 
Romanus IV was made a prisoner by the Seljuks 
near Mantzikert. Having been released by the 
chivalrous Alp-Arslan, he was put to death in the 
most barbarous manner in his own country, during 
the frightful revolution which placed Michael VII 
on the throne. In the same year 1,1071) Bari was lost 
to the Normans, and in 1085 Ahtioch was captured 
by the Turks. This period also marked the beginning 
of the Norman raids on the Balkan Peninsula. Be- 
tween 1081 and 1085 Mbania and Thcssaly were 

threatened by Robert Guiscard and his son Bohe- 

mund who were twice defeated in naval encounters 

by the Byzantines in league with the Venetians, On 

land, however, they proved their superiority in se\ eral 
places, until the death of the elder ('.Discard put an 
end to their projects and gave the Byzantine State 
half-a-century of peace in that direction. After that 
period, however, the raids were renewed. In 1147 
Thebes and Corinth were taken by King Roger, on 
which occasion many silk-weavers were deported to 




Sicily. In 1185, at the command of King William II 
of Si.ily. Thessalonica was reduced to ashes. To the 
north, the outlook was no brighter. The Byzantine 
State was successful, it is true, in keeping the Serbs 
in nominal subjection, and in entering into diplomatic 
and family relations with the royal family of Hun- 
gary, but the Bulgarians finally broke loose from 
Byzantine control. In HS(i they established their 
new kingdom at Tirnovo, with an autocephalous 
archbishopric. Soon after this they began once more 
to push farther to the west and thus laid the founda- 
tion of their present ethnographic homes in Thrace 
and Macedonia. 

These heavy reverses, however, were counter- 
balanced by successes; at the same time it was of 
great moment that this period marked the beginning 
of that great movement of the West towards the East, 
the Crusades. The Byzantine Empire derived great 
advantage from this', and in some respects fully 
realized the fact. Even the First Crusade brought 
about two important results: the victory of the cm 
saders at Dorykcum 1 1 097) brought "the western 
part of Asia Minor directly under Byzantine control, 
and Antioch indirectly, through the oath of fealty 
exacted of Bohemund (1108); the Second Crusade, 
during which the Emperor Manuel allied himself 
with the Emperor Conrad III (1149). neutralized 
the power of the Italian Normans, Manuel now 
conceived far-reaching plans. He avenged King 
Roger's incursion into central Greece (1147) by the 
recapture of Corfu (1149i and the occupation of 
Aneona (1151), in this way becoming a factor in 
Italo-German complications. He actually dreamed, 
as Justinian and Constans II had, of re-establishing 
the Roman Empire of the West. These ambitious 
demands found no favour with the popes, with whom, 
since the quarrel about the Norman possessions in 
South Italy, under the Patriarch Michael Cerularius 
(10.54), a final rupture had taken place. Thus the 
urn lei taking resulted in failure. Great offence had 
been given to the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 
which became manifest when he allied himself with 
the Seljuk Turks and the Sultan of Egypt. 

Byzantium also reaped great advantage from the 
lishment of the principalities of the crusaders in 
Syria. The invasion of the East by the rm 
also brought n . inch grew constantly more 

menacing. Even before this the constant and mani- 
fold intercourse be! ipire and tin- Italian 
maritime states, a- well as the settlement of the Amal- 
fians, Pisans. Genoese, anil Venetians in Byzantine 
cities, had involved many inconveniences. It is true 
that the victory over the Normans in the campaign 
of 1081-85 was gained with the aid of the Veni 

1126 war was in progress with Venice. The 
commercial republics of Italy grew constantly more 
arrogant, demanding trading privileges as payment 
for aid rendered bj them, and ret iliating tor any 
slights by hostile invasions. It was only the rivalries 

Ol the Italian Cities that enabled the Byzantn 

maintain their supremacy in their own country. 
As a matter of fact, the Italians had Ions; regarded 
the empire merely and SO it was in- 

bli ili it the hatred of the Greek nation should 
be slowly gathering strength. Even the spirit of 

dministration had long since become Western - 
■ in Emperor Manuel lived like a Western knight 

twice married European princesses -when it 
became ' the pent-up hatred must 

break forth. The crisis cam" after the death of 

. during thi cond wife. 

Maria of Antioch. and with frightful results. At 
tin head of the movement was a man wholly devoid 
of principle, but of great personal charm and m 
ism. This was Vadronicus the Liberator [Hi I 

at that time about sixty-seven years of age. The 
movement began (1182) with the appalling slaughter 

of the Latins; Andronicus was placed on the throne 
(1183), and in 1184 the young Emperor Alexin- was 
assassinated. The Latins, however, took a terrible 
vengeance. In 11S5 Dyrrachium and soon after- 
wards Thessalonica were captured amid frightful 
cruelties. These disasters reacted on the capital. 
The Byzantines were no longer able to uphold their 
independence, and a counter-revolution was inau- 
gurated. The aged Andronicus was beheaded, and 
the first of the Angeli, Isaac II (11S5-95. and again 
1203-04), ascended the throne. We know how the 
difficulties between Isaac and his elder brother 
Alexius III (1195-1203) resulted in an appeal by 
the dethroned emperor to his brother-in-law. Philip 
of Swabia, and how, owing to various circumstances, 
the Fourth Crusade was turned against Constanti- 
nople. The Fourth Crusade ended this period of 
Byzantine history; the empire was in ruins, out of 
which, however, deft hands contrived to build up a 
new Byzantine State, and a feeble reproduction of 
the former magnificence. 

(6) The D, , . I iSS. 

Theodore I. Lascaris Frederick II of Hohenstaufen 

Constantino Irene John III, Ducas Vatatzes Anna 

Theodore II, Lascaris 
John IV. Lascaris 

Michael VIII, Palxologus 

Andronicus II 



John '\ I, Cantacuzene Andronicus III Anne of Savoy 

John V 

Andronicus IV Manuel II 

I I 

John VII John VIII 

Constantine XI 

The fact that there had been no regular order of 
succession made the Byzantine throne the focus of 
numerous dissensions. It is undeniable, however, 
that this often redounded to the advantage of the 
inasmuch as military and palace revolutions 
frequently brought tin' most capable men to the head 
of affairs at a decisive' moment. The sentiment in 
favour of dynastic succession, however, had been 
gaining ground under the so-called Macedonian 
dynasty. The views of Constantine Porphyrogenitus 
furnish clear evidence of thi-: a prool even stronger 

is the touching devotion exhibited by the people 

towards Zoe and Theodora, t'ne last representatives 
of that dynasty. Still the last period of Byzantine 
history thrice witnessed the accession of men outside 
the regular line of succession. John III, Vatatzes 
(1222 his brother-in-law, Constantine, 

thus becoming tic immedi i of Theodore 

1 .in- \ military revolution placed Michael VIII, 

PabeologUS (1259 82), at the head of the State, in 
place iii tiie child John IV, I i- 59). 

John VI, Cantacuzene (1341 55) contrived to obtain 

ion of the sovereign power under similar 

circumstances. It m oi John Vatatzes and 

'i el Palajologus that event e I the 

interruption of the order of succession. But the 
elevation of John Cantacuzene must be counted, like 




the family dissensions of the Palceologi, as among the 
most unfortunate occurrences of the empire. It is a 
sorry spectacle to see Andronicus II (1282-1328) 
dethroned by his grandson Andronicus III (1328-41) 
and immured in a monastery, and John V (1341- 
76 and 1379-91) superseded first by Cantaeuzene, 
then by his own son Andronicus IV (1376-79), and 
finally by his grandson John VII (1390). It is true 
that the neighbouring states, the Turkish Empire 
in particular, were rent with similar dissensions. 
The house of the Palseologi, moreover, produced 
some capable rulers, such as Michael VIII, Manuel II 
(1391-1425), Constantine XI (1448-53). Still, the 
contests for the throne, at a period when the imperial 
glory was manifestly on the wane, could not but be 
ruinous to the best interests of the empire, and con- 
tribute mightily to its dissolution. 

At first it seemed as though such capable rulers 
as Theodore I, Lascaris (1204-22), John III, Vatatzes 
(1222-54), and Theodore II, Lascaris (1254-58), 
must bring back prosperous times to the empire. 
It was no small achievement, to be sure, that the 
Greeks were able not only to make a brave stand 
against the Franks, but to expel them again from 
Constantinople, a task which was all the more diffi- 
cult because at that time the Greek nation had under- 
gone a dismemberment from which it never recovered. 
The Empire of Trebizond, tmder the Comneni, 
survived the fall of the capital on the Bosphorus 
(1453) for some years. The task of reabsorbing into 
the body of the empire the state, or rather the states, 
of the Angeli in Thessalonica, Thessaly, and Epirus 
was accomplished slowly and with difficulty. It was 
impossible to drive the Franks from Byzantine soil. 
Split up into various minor principalities after the 
fall of Thessalonica (1222) and Constantinople 
(1261), they settled in the central part of Greece and 
in the Peloponnesus, in Crete, Euboea, Rhodes, and 
the smaller islands. Moreover, during the course of 
the fourteenth century, the Serbs rose to unexpected 
heights of power. During the reigns of Stephen 
Urosh II, Milutin (1281-1320), and Stephen Du- 
shan (1321-55), it seemed as though the Serbs were 
about to realize the old dream of the Bulgars, of a 
Byzantine Empire under Slavonian rule. This 
dream, however, was shattered by the Turkish vic- 
tory on the Field of Blackbirds (1389). It was not 
easy for the Greeks to maintain themselves against 
so many enemies for two and a half centuries, and it 
often appeared as though the end had come. The 
Frankish Emperor of Constantinople, Henry (1206- 
16), had come very mar to destroying Greek inde- 
pendence, and would probably have succeeded had 
he not been snatched away by an early death. A 
second crisis came during the minority of the Latin 
Emperor Baldwin II (1228-61), when the Frankish 
princes were considering the appointment of the 
Bulgarian Tsar John II, Ason, as guardian of the 
young emperor, and regent of the empire. The plan 
failed of execution only because of the stubborn oppo- 
sition of the Latin clergy, and the final choice fell on 
the old King of Jerusalem, John of Brienne (1229-37). 
Thus the danger was temporarily averted, and the 
Emperor John Vatatzes was wise enough to gain the 
favour of the Bulgarian powers by prudent deference 
to their wishes, as, for instance, by recognizing the 
Archbishop of Tirnovo as autocephalous patriarch. 

The Latin Empire became dangerous lor the third 
and lasl time when the Franks began, in the year 
1236, to renew their heroic attempts in regain their 
conquests. John Vatatzes, however, succeeded in 

garrying the blow by forming .in alliance with the 
Imperor Frederick II. whose daughtei \ime he 
espoused. Even alter the fall of the capital (1261), 
the fugitive Frankish emperor became a Bource of 

danger, inasmuch as he ceiled to the Angevins his 
right as Lord' Paramount of Achaia. As early as 

the year 1259 there had been serious complications 
with the principality of Achaia. At that time 
Michael VIII, by the conquest of Pelagonia had suc- 
ceeded in withstanding a coalition formed by William 
of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaia, Michael II, 
Despot of Epirus, and Manfred of Sicily. When 
Charles of Anjou replaced Manfred the situation be- 
came more serious. In 1267 Charles captured Corfu, 
and in 1272 Dyrrachium; soon afterwards he re- 
ceived at Foggia John IV, Lascaris, who had been 
overthrown and blinded by Michael VIII, Paleeologus. 
In this crisis Palteologus knew of no other resource 
than to call upon the pope for assistance. At the 
Council of Lyons, his representative, Georgius Acro- 
polites, accepted the confession of faith containing 
the "Filioque", and recognized the primacy of the 
pope, thus securing the political support of the 
papacy against Anjou. Only the Sicilian Vespers 
gave him permanent immunity from danger from 
this source (1282). After this the Byzantine Empire 
was no longer menaced directly by the Norman peril 
which had reappeared in the Angevins. The Byzan- 
tines were gradually entering into a new relationship 
with the West. They assumed the role of coreligion- 
ists seeking protection. But of course the reunion 
of the churches was a condition of this aid, which, 
as at an earlier period, was vehemently opposed by 
the people. The national party had already taken 
a vigorous stand against the negotiations of the 
Council of Lyons, which had found an excellent ad- 
vocate in the patriarch, John Beccus. This opposition 
was made manifest whenever there was any question 
of union with Rome from political motives, and it 
explains the attitude of the different factions in the 
last religious controversy of importance that con- 
vulsed the Byzantine world: the Hesychast move- 
ment. This movement had its inception at Athos, 
and involved a form of Christian mysticism which 
reminds us strongly of certain Oriental prototypes. 
By motionless meditation, the eyes fixed firmly on 
the navel (whence their name, Omphalopsychites), the 
devotees pretended to attain to a contemplation of 
the Divinity, and thereby absolute quietude of soul 
(hesychia, whence Hesi/chasts). The key to this 
movement is found in the needs of the time, and it 
was not confined to the Greek world. Many Eastern 
princes of this period assumed the "angel's garb", 
and sought peace behind monastery walls. The 
sect, however, did not fail to encounter opposition. 
In the ensuing controversy, Barlaam. a monk of 
Calabria, constituted himself in a special manner the 
adversary of Hesy chasm. It is significant that Bar- 
laam's coming from Southern Italy, which was in 
union with Rome, and his having been under the 
influence of the Scholasticism of the West did not 
commend him to the good graces of the people, but 
rather contributed to the victory of his adversaries. 
Thus the great mass of the people remained as 
before, thoroughly averse to all attempts to bring 
about the union. The Byzantine rulers, however, 
in their dire need, were obliged as a last resource to 
clutch at this hope of salvation, and accordingly had 
to face the deepest humiliations. When the un- 
fortunate Emperor John Y. after hastening to tin- 
papal court at Avignon to obtain assistance tor Con- 
stantinople, was on his homeward journey, he was 
detained at Venice by creditors who had furnished 
the money for the journey. His son. Andronicus [V, 
who acted as regent at Constantinople, refused to 
advance the requisite amount. At last the younger 
son, Manuel II, then regent of Thessalonica, collected 
suilieiiiii monej i" redeem his father (1370). Con- 
sidering the wretched state of Byzantine affairs and 
the unfriendly spirit of the people, it was certainly 
generous that the West twice sent a considerable 
body of reinforcements to the Byzantines. Both 
expeditions, unfortunately, proved unsuccessful. In 




[396 the Western Christians were defeated near 
Nicopolia by the Sultan Bayazid, and it was only the 
vigorous action of Marechal Boucicaut, who had been 
sent by the French, that saved Constantinople from 
conquest by the Turks. The final catastrophe was 
temporarily averted by an almost fortuitous event, 
the victory of Timur-Leng over the Turks near An- 
gora (1402). This storm quickly passed over; but 
soon Constantinople was again on the verge of cap- 
ture (1422V The Emperor John VI 11 (1425 is) 
once more attempted to effect a union. At Florence 
(1439) it was consummated, so far. at least, as the 
Florentine formula of union later served as a basis 
for the union with the Orthodox ltuthenians. Ruman- 
ians, and others. 

Close upon the union followed another attempt 
to succour Constantinople. After some preliminary 
victories, however, defeat ensued near Varna. Mil. 
The quarrels of various pretenders to the throne 
and the lack of unity among those in power within 
the city precipitated the final catastrophe. On 
29 May, 1453, the Turks captured Constantinople. 
and seven years later (1460) the last remnant of the 
empire, the principalities on the Peloponnesus. Con- 
stantino XI. the last emperor, by his heroic death 

shed lustre on the last hours of the empire. Even 

the Western Christian may reflect with sadness on 
the downfall of this Christian empire, once so mighty. 
He will also trust in the 'ultimate victory of the 
Cross over the Crescent. But where is the strong 
hand capable of bringing so many nations and re- 
ligions into ecclesiastical and political unity, which 
is the first requisite for cultural and industrial pros- 

Bury, Appendixes to Gibbon** Decline mid Fall of the Roman 
Empire (London, 189(1-1900); Krtjmbacher, Oeech. der buzan- 
• I.Utiratur (Munich, L897); Gei.zf.r, s.ttur, .1, .!:,,■ 
Ajricn; ■ Wi.. ,/,, r/L-Mfi,,,,,',,!.)/!, Uapzin, I *9N 

IIiKsrn. Byzantinische Studien (Leipzig, 1876)1 Potthast, 
edit am (Berlin, 1S95 97); Marc, Plan 
> h. n Urkunden (Munich, L903); Fix- 
ed ToZER, -1 //' ' """ It* <'iiTl>,iiiyt hit tin- 
lime (Oxford, 1S77'; thus, Th, Byzan 
tin- Empirt (London, fS92); Le Reav. ed. Saint-Martin, 
Hietoire du Bat-Empire (Paris, 1824-36); Hon '.'. eh. Gri 

1/ itt'lnltirs lil.s uuj ltns> rr /-ill Ml 

u»n Grober, Encuclopadie (Leipzig. 18f>7 list. Sec. I. 
Vols. LXXXV, LXXXVI; Hertzberg, Geech. Qriechenlande 
em Ibsterben <i> s aniik. n /.< h< " ■ In < mr <;<-<}< nwarl (Gotha, 
1876 7 ' der ByzanHner und des oemanisehen 

Reichee bia gegen Ende des 16. Jahrhunderis (Berlin, 1883); 
Paparregopoulos, liTTopia tou 'EWtjvikov tdvovs (Athens, 

1SS7 88 ; | IMPROS, TCTOpia TJJS 'EWdoOS lAtllOIlS. 1SSS ; 

ierbuzantinizi ' ■ ■ ■'. Km ub u her, 

' i, I .it. ralur, 01 1 -1067; VON Si *i I, 

in Hi Li II U ■■ ■'■ I eipzig 1904 . \ : Botb, 

■ Ri het in Sammluno GoBchen (Leip- 
zig 1904); Torga, ] >•■ Byzantine Empire in Th. Fem\ 
Pi inu r« (London, 1907); Hesseun.;. Kauai imr In ■ 

I'lin-, 1007'; Hirsch, Hiizmilii" I ■ !>'■■■>■ . 
: i I'.rrlin. 1 S7S — ); Bu- 

cht /- itschrift (Leipzig, 1892 — ); VizanHiskij l>< nu a ml 
(Si. Petersburg, 1894—); Lamprob ed., NVos 'EXXTjwj/ii'TJ/zwi' 
(Athens. 1904—). 

Ernst Gerland. 

Byzantine Literature.— To grasp correctly the es- 
sential characteristics of Byzantine literature, it is nec- 
essary first to analyze the elements of civilization 
that find expression in it. and the sources v. hence they 

sprintr. If Byzantine literature is the expret 
the intellectual life of the Greek race ot the I 
Roman Empire during the Christian Middle A 
is evident that there is question here oi an organism 

not simple hut multiform; a combination of Creek 
and Christian civilization on the common foundation 

of the Roman political system, set in the intellectual 
thnograpnic atmosphere <,f tin Near I ast, In 
Byzantine literature, therefore, four different cul- 
tural element* an to !»■ reckoned with: the Greek, 
n . Christian, the Roman, and the Oriental. Their 
reciprocal relations may be indicated by three inter- 
-ei ting circles all enclosed within a fourth and larger 
circle representing the Orient. Thus in each of the 
III— 8 

three smaller circles we shall have to determine the 
influence of the Orient. 

The oldest of these three civilizations is the (ireek. 
Its centre, however, is not Athens hut Alexandria; 
the circle accordingly represents not the Attic but 
the Hellenistic civilization. Alexandria itself, how- 
ever, in the history of civilization, is not a unit, but 
rather a double quantity; it is the centre at once 
of Atticizing scholarship and of Grace-Judaic racial 
life. It looks towards Athens as well as towards 
Jerusalem. Herein lies the germ of the intellectual 
dualism which thoroughly permeates the Byzantine 
and partly also the modern Greek civilization, the 
dualism between the culture of scholars and that of 
the people. Even the literature of the Hellenistic 
age suffers from this dualism; we distinguish in it 
two tendencies, one rationalistic and scholarly, the 
other romantic and popular. The former originated 
in the schools of the Alexandrian sophists and cul- 
minated in the rhetorical romance, its chief repre- 
sentatives being Lucian, Achilles Tatius. lleliodorus, 
and Longus, the latter had its root in the idyllic 
tendency of Theocritus, and culminated in the 
idyllic novel of Callimachus, Musseus, Quintus of 
Smyrna, and others. Both tendencies persisted in 
Byzantium, but the first, as the one officially recog- 
nized, retained predominance and was not driven 
from the field until the fall of the empire. The first 
tendency, strong as it was. received additional sup- 
port from the reactionary linguistic movement known 
as Atticism. Represented at its height by rhetori- 
cians like Dionysius of Halicamassus, and gramma- 
rians like Herodian and Phrynieus at Alexandria, this 
tendency prevailed from the second century B. c. 
onward, and with the force of an ecclesiastical dogma 
controlled all subsequent Creek culture, so that the 
living form of the Greek language, even then being 
transformed into modern Greek, was quite obscured 
and only occasionally found expression, chiefly in 
private documents, though also in popular literature. 

While Alexandria, as an important central and 
conservative factor, was thus influential in confining, 
and. during the Byzantine period, directing, the 
literary and linguistic life of the later Greek world, 
a second conservative factor is found in the influence 
of the Roman culture-circle on the political and 
judicial life of the Eastern Empire. Alexandria, the 
centre of intellectual refinement, is balanced by 
Home, the centre of government. It is as a Roman 
Empire that the Byzantine State enters into history; 
its citizens are known as Romans CPsywubOi its capi- 
tal city as Xew Rome. Its laws were Roman; so 
were its government, its army, and its official class, 
and at first also its language and its private and pub- 
lic hie. In short, the whole organization of the 
State was that of the Roman imperial period, with 
its hierarchy and bureaucracy entire and destined 
yet to play an important part. To these two ancient 

forces, Hellenistic intellectual culture and Roman 
governmental organization, are now to be added as 
important expressions of the new environment, the 
emotional life of Christianity and the world of ( >rien- 
tal imagination, the last enveloping all the other 

It was in Alexandria also that ' '.ra-co-Oriental 
Christianity had its birth. There the Septuagint 
translation hail been made; it was there that that fu- 
sion -if Greek philosophy and Jewish religion took 

place -'huh found in 1'hilo its most important repre- 

sentative; there flourished the mj tic speculative 

neo Hat. .in~iii associated with the names ..t Plotinus 
and Porphyry. At Alexandria the great Qreekeccle- 
siastical writers pursued their studies with pagan 
rhetoricians and philosophers; in fact several of 
them were born here, e. g. Origin. Athanasius, and 
his opponent Arius. also Cyril and Synesius. Not 
indeed in the city of Alexandria, but yet upon Egyp- 




tian soil, grew up that ascetic concept of life which 
attained such great importance as Byzantine monas- 
ticism. After Alexandria, Syria was important as a 
home of Christianity, its centre being Antioch, where 
a school of Christian commentators flourished under 
St. John Chrysostom, and where later arose the 
Christian universal chronicles. In Syria, also, we 
find the germs of Greek ecclesiastical poetry, while 
from neighbouring Palestine came St. John of Damas- 
cus, the last of the Greek Fathers. 

It is evident that Greek Christianity had of ne- 
cessity a pronounced Oriental character; Egypt and 
Syria are the real birthplaces of the Gneeo-Oriental 
church, and indeed of Grseco-Oriental (i. e. Byzan- 
tine) civilization in general. Egypt and Syria, with 
Asia Minor, became for the autochthonous Greek 
civilization a sort of America, where hundreds of 
flourishing cities sprang into existence, and where 
energies confined or crippled in the impoverished 
home-land found an unlimited opportunity to dis- 
play themselves; not only did these cities surpass in 
material wealth the mother-country, but soon also 
cultivated the highest goods of the intellect (Krum- 
bacher). Under such circumstances it is not strange 
that about nine-tenths of all the Byzantine authors 
of the first eight centuries were natives of Egypt, 
Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor. 

After this brief characterization of the various ele- 
ments of Byzantine civilization, it is to be inquired 
in what relation they stood to each other, how they 
mingled, anil what was the product of their combina- 
tion. It is extremely instructive to notice how the 
two fundamental elements of Byzantinism, the 
Roman and the Hellenistic, are connected, both 
with each other and with the culture of the East — 
what each one gains and what it loses, and what in- 
fluence it has upon the other. The Roman suprem- 
acy in governmental life did not disappear in By- 
zantium. It was even amplified, through the union 
of Roman Caesarism with Oriental despotism. More- 
over, the subjection of the Church to the power of 
the State led to that governmental ecclesiasticism 
always irreconcilably opposed to the Roman Church, 
which had triumphed over the secular power. On 
the other hand, the intellectual superiority of the 
Greek element was shown by its victory over the 
Latin tongue as the official language of the Govern- 
ment. Its last Latin monument is the "Novella;" 
of Justinian. As early as the seventh century the 
Greek language made great progress, and by the 
eleventh the supremacy of Greek was secure, although 
it was never able to absorb the numerous other lan- 
guages of the empire. Moreover, while the Greek 
world might artificially preserve the classic form of 
its ancient literature, the same cannot be said of the 
poetical feeling and the imagination. It was precisely 
in a stlii ti'- culture that the Byzantine Greek broke 
completely with the ancient traditions; in literature 
and in the plastic arts the spirit of the Orient was 
everywhere victorious. On the one hand, some 
ancient literary types, ( >. gr lyric verse and the drama, 
becai [uite extinct, while only in the minor de- 
partments of literature was any great degree of skill 
attained; on the other hand, the ancient sense of 
proportion, the feeling for beauty, and the creative 
DO ■! in poetry were wholly lost, and wire replaced 
by a delight in the grotesque ami the dispropor- 
tioned on the one hand, and in ornamental trifles mi 
the other. This injury, affecting literature and its 

free development, was a result of social conditions 
which contrast markedly with those oi ancient Athens 

anil ancient Home, while tiny lit in perfectly with 

the masterful ways of the Orient. There is no trace 

of a body of free : 1 1 1 < 1 < citizens, which 

iii keeping with the Roman policy of close centrali- 
zation, and the consequently slight developmenl 
of municipal life. Constantinople was the city, and 

no rivals were permitted. Literature was, therefore, 
wholly a concern of the high official and priestly 
classes; it was aristocratic or theological, not repre- 
sentative of the interests of the citizens. Thus 
classical standards could be imitated because only 
the upper classes concerned themselves with litera- 
ture. For the same reason it lacked genuine spon- 
taneity, having no roots in the life of the people. 
The Church alone — and here we come to its influence 
on Byzantine civilization — for some time infused fresh 
life into literature. But even this life was an Orien- 
tal growth, for Greek hymnology is of Syrian origin. 
In Byzantium therefore, ecclesiastical and Oriental 
influences coincide. The Oriental influence is es- 
pecially apparent in Byzantine plastic art. Here the 
ancient sources of inspiration are even more com- 
pletely obscured than in the domain of literature, 
and we notice the same principles: complete absence 
of feeling for architectonic proportion of members, 
transference of the artistic centre of gravity to the 
interior, i. e. to the wall-surfaces, and there the re- 
placing of form by colour, of the plastic effect by 
the picturesque; not, however, by broadly drawn 
fresco treatment, but by the more artisanlike work 
in mosaic, with its predominance of ornamental 
motives. Wall-decoration and minor ornament are 
thus combined in a fashion analogous to the By- 
zantine treatment of annalistic and epigrammatic 
poetry. And while Byzantine art, like its poetry, 
goes back to the Alexandrian, yet it is greatly 
altered and modified by influences from Syria, 
Persia, and Asia Minor, so that it approaches the 

The next point to be discussed is the influence of 
the Orient upon Church and State. Here we must 
distinguish between direct and indirect forces. Chief 
among the former is the office of Emperor. In so 
far as the emperor unites in himself both secular 
and spiritual power, there falls upon him a glamour 
of Oriental theocracy; his person is regarded as 
sacred; he is a representative of God, indeed the very 
image of God, and all must prostrate themselves 
before him; everything that serves for his use is 
sacred, even the red ink with which he underlines 
his signature. The Oriental character of the Byzan- 
tine Church appears in its tenacious dogmatic spirit, 
the establishment of Christian doctrines by councils, 
the asceticism which affected monastic life so far as to 
hinder the formation of regular orders with com- 
munity life, and also the mad fanaticism against the 
Roman West and the Church, which in the eleventh 
century finallv led to an open breach. The Oriental 
character of Church and State is still more pronounced 
considered in its effect upon civic life. The lack of 
a vigorous citizen-body, owing to the lack of large 
cities, has already been mentioned. The landed no- 
bility, officials, and priests controlled political, social, 
and religious life. Hence the aristocratic, exclusive, 
and non-popular character of the language ami 
literature, and the one-sided development of both, 
down to the twelfth century. The Church, too. kept 
in subjection by the State, though failing to ennoble 
the inner religious life of the citizens, sought all the 
more zealously to fashion their external life upon an 
ecclesiastical model. The church edifice even served 
as a model for secular building; every house had its 
ilin , and the family life followed ecclesiastical forms. 
On the other hand, we do not find the rich and fruit- 
ful interact ion between spiritual and secular affairs 
thai we do in western countries. The religious de- 
votion to Mary gave rise to no chivalric devotion to 
woman, and from the oratories there came no reli- 
gions drama. Theological and dogmatic interests out- 
weighed the religious and ethical; the individualistic 
sentiment was stronger than the social. Such, ap- 
proximately, was the result of the mingling of the 
diverse elements in the body of Byzantine culture. 




What then were the cultural effects emanating from 
this complex organism? 

The most momentous effect of the establishment 
of the Eastern Roman Empire on European civiliza- 
tion was the division of the latter into two parts: 
one Romance and Germanic, the other Greek and 
Slavic. Ethnographically, linguistically, ecclesias- 
tically, and historically, both cultures are sharply 
distinct from each other, as is evident from a com- 
parison of alphabets and calendars. The former 
division is the more progressive; the latter is the more 
conservative, and very slow to adapt itself to tin- 
West. Byzantium exerted a decided and effective 
influence only in the eastern half of the empire. 
Russia, the Balkan countries, and Turkey are the 
modern offshoots of Byzantine civilization; the first 
two particularly in ecclesiastical, political, and cul- 
tural respects (through the translation and adapta- 
tion of sacred, historical, and popular literature); the 
third in respect to civil government. 

For the European West the Byzantine Empire and 
its culture are significant in a twofold way. Indirectly, 
this Empire affected the West in forming a strong 
bulwark against the frequent advances of the Asiatic 
races and protecting Europe for centuries from the 
burdens of war. Byzantium was also the store- 
house of the greatest literature of the ancients, the 
Greek. During the Middle Ages, until the capture of 
Constantinople, the West was acquainted only with 
Roman literature. Greek antiquity was first un- 
locked for it by the treasures which fugitive Greek 
humanists carried to Italy. Byzantine culture had 
a direct influence especially upon Southern and Cen- 
tral Europe, that is to say on Italy, in church music 
and church poetry, though this was only in the very 
early period (until the seventh century); it had a 
permanent and wider influence in ecclesiastical arch- 
itecture, through the development of the so-called 
Romanesque style (in the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies), the Oriental and Byzantine origin of which 
has been more clearly recognized of late. This in- 
fluence was transmitted through the Prankish and 
Salic emperors, primarily Charlemagne, whose rela- 
tions with Byzantium are well known. Probably it 
was also in this way that Byzantine titles and cere- 
monial were introduced into Central Europe, and that 
Central and Eastern European official life assumed 
its hierarchical and bureaucratical character. Finally, 
though not very numerous, the effects of Byzantine 
culture upon the countries of the Near East, especially 
upon the Armenians, the Persians, and the Arabs, 
must not be underestimated. Even if Byzantium re- 
ceived from these nations more than it imparted, 
still the Byzantines gave a strong intellectual im- 
pulse to the Orient, particularly by enriching its 
scholarly literature, though even in this they served 
chiefly as intermediaries. 

In the following account Byzantine literature is 
classified in live groups. The first three include rep- 
resentatives of those kinds of literature which con- 
tinued the ancient traditions: historians (including 
also the chroniclers), encyclopedists, and essayists, 
and writers of secular poetry. The remain it 
groups include the new literary species, ecclesiastical 
and theological literature, and popular poetry. 

I. Historians and Annalists. -The two groups 
of secular prose literature show dearly the dual char- 
acter of Byzantine intellectual life in its social, re- 
ligious, and linguisti from this point of 
view historical and annalistic literature supplement 
each other; the former is aristocratic, the latter is 
of the people, both in origin and aim; the former is 
secular, the latter ecclesiastical and monastic; the 
former is classical, the latter popular. The works 
of the historians belong to scholarly literature, those 
of the annalists (or chroniclers) to the literature of 
the people. The former are carefully elaborated, the 

latter give only raw material; the former confine 
themselves to the description of the present and the 
most recent past, and thus have rather the charac- 
ter of contemporary records; the latter cover the 
whole history of the world as known to the Middle 
Ages. The former are therefore the more valuable 
for political history; the latter for the history of 
civilization. The following detailed account will 
bring to light still further differences. 

A. Historians. — Classical literary tradition set the 
standard for Byzantine historians in their grasp of 
the aims of history, the manner of handling their 
subjects, and in style of composition. Their works 
are thoroughly concrete and objective in character, 
without passion, and even without enthusiasm. Ar- 
dent patriotism ami personal convictions are rarely 
evident. They are diplomatic historians, expert in 
the use of historical sources and in the polished tact 
called for by their social position; they are not closet- 
scholar-;, ignorant of the world, but men who stood 
out in public life: jurists like Procopius, Agathias, 
Evagrius, Michael Attaliates; statesmen like Joannes 
Cinnamus, Nicetas Acominatus, Gcorgius Pachy- 
meres, Laonicus Chalcondyles; generals and diplo- 
mats like Nicephorus Bryennius, Georgius Acropoli- 
tes, Georgius Phrantzes; and even crowned heads, 
like Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Anna Comnena. 
John VI Cantacuzene, and others. The Byzantine 
historians thus represent not only the social but also 
the intellectual flower of their time, resembling in this 
their Greek predecessors, Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Xenophon, and Polybius, who became their guides 
and models, In some eases a Byzantine chooses 
one or another classic writer to imitate in method and 
style. The majority, however, took as models sev- 
eral authors, a custom which gave rise to a peculiar 

style, quite characteristic of the Byzantines. 
This was nol always due to mere caprice, but often 
resulted from a real community of feeling, effectually 
preventing, however, any development of an indi- 
vidual style. For the continuity of historical style 
it would surely have been desirable for an historian 
of such great influence on posterity as Procopius to 
have chosen as his model Polybius rather than Thucy- 
dides. That such was not the case, however, is not 
the fault of the Byzantines but of the "Atticists", 
who had checked the natural course of the develop- 
ment. Nevertheless, within the limits of this devel- 
opment, it is certainly no accident that military 
characters like Nicephorus Bryennius (eleventh and 
twelfth centuries) ami Joannes Cinnamus (twelfth 
century) emulated Xenophon in the precision of 
their diction, and that a philosophic character like 
Nicephorus Gregoras (thirteenth century) took Plato 
as his model. On the other hand, it is doubtless due 
to chance that writers trained in theology like Leo 
Diaconus and Georgius Pachymeres elms,, t,, orna- 
ment their pages with Homeric turns. On the whole 
it is in the later historians thai the dualism of By- 
zantine civilization — ecelesiastico-political matter in 
el. ical form — becomes most apparent. 

Although the Byzantine historians are thus for 
the most part dependent on foreign models, and 
while, to outward appearances, they form a con- 
tinuous series in which each begins where his prede- 

topped, ye( they do not blend into a uniform 
whole, distinguishable only under the light east on 
them from classic literature. There are. on the con- 
trary, clearly marked groups within which individual 
personalities stand out with distinctness. Most of 

the historians come in either the period embracing 

the sixth and seventh centuries, or that extending 
from the eleventh to the fifteenth century, i. e. either 

during the reif Roman emperors or those 

of the i i ilogi. At the time of 

its zenith under the Macedonian emperors (the ninth 
ami tenth centuries) the Byzantine world produced 




great heroes, but no great historians, if we except the 
solitary, and therefore more conspicuous, figure of 
the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. 

The first period is dominated by Proeopius, not 
so much because of his personal character, as on ac- 
count of his share in historical events of universal 
interest, and his literary importance. As a man he 
was typically Byzantine, as is evident from a com- 
parison of two of his works, in one of which his de- 
preciation of the Emperor Justinian is as emphatic 
as his unqualified apotheosis of him in the other. 
In literature, and as a historian, however, he still 
has one foot on the soil of antiquity, as is evident in 
the precision and lucidity of his narrative acquired 
from Thucydides, and in the reliability of his infor- 
mation, qualities of special merit in the historian. 
Signitieantlj r enough, Proeopius and to a great degree 
his continuator, Agathias, remain the models of de- 
scriptive style, even as late as the eleventh century. 
Proeopius is the first representative of the over-laden, 
over-ornamented Byzantine style in literature, and 
in this is surpassed only by Theophylaktos Simo- 
kattes in the seventh century, while others continued 
to imitate the historian of the Gothic War. In spite 
of their unclassical form, however, they approach tin- 
ancients in their freedom from ecclesiastical and 
dogmatic tendencies. 

Between the historical writings of the first period, 
in form and content half antique, and those of the 
second, characterized by reverence for an artificial 
classicism, there is an isolated series of works which 
in matter and form offer a strong contrast to both 
the aforesaid groups. These are the works current 
under the name of the Emperor Constantine VII Por- 
phyrogenitus (tenth century), dealing respectively 
with the administration of the empire, its political 
division, and the ceremonial of the Byzantine Court. 
They treat of the internal conditions of the empire, 
and the first and third are distinguished by their use 
of a popular tongue. Their content also is of great 
value; the first is an important source of information 
for the ethnological conditions of the empire, while 
the last is an interesting contribution to the history 
of civilization in the Byzantine Orient. 

The second group of historians present very dif- 
ferent characteristics. In their works a classical ec- 
lecticism veils theological fanaticism quite foreign 
to the classic spirit and an arrogant chauvinism. 
Bevelling in classical forms the historians of the 
period of the Comneni and Palreologi were absolutely 
devoid of the classical spirit; there are among them, 
however — and this goes far to palliate their faults — 
much stronger and more sympathetic, personalities 
than in the first period. It seems as if. amid all the 
weakening of civil and imperial power, a few great 
individual personalities stood out, all the more strik- 
ing because of the general decay. Indeed, the in- 
dividuality of each is so vigorous that it impairs the 
objectivity of his work. This is particularly true of 
those historians who belonged to an imperial family 
or were closely related to one. Most of these writers 
produced partisan works. Such are the "Alexiad", 
the pedantic work of the Princess Anna Comnena 
i i glorification of her father Alexius, and of the re- 
organization of the empire set afoot by him), the his- 
tories! work of her husband, Nicephorus Bryennius 
(eleventh and twelfth centuries; a description of the 
internal conflicts thai accompanied the rise of the 
Comneni, done in the form of a family chronicle), 
and lastly tin' self-complacenl narrative of his own 
achievements by one of the Palaeologi, John VI 
Cantacuzene (fourteenth century). The historical 
writers of this period exhibit also very striking an- 
titheses, both personal and objective." Beside Cin- 

namus, who In stly hated everything Western, 

stand the broad-minded Nicetaa Acominatus (twelfth 
century) and the conciliatory but dignified Geor- 

gius Acropolites (thirteenth century); beside the 
theological polemist, Pachymeres (thirteenth cen- 
tury), stands the man of the world, Nicephorus 
Gregoras (fourteenth century) , well versed in philoso- 
phy and the classics. While these and other similar 
writers are less objective than is desirable in their 
presentation of internal Byzantine history, they are 
all the more trustworthy in their accounts of ex- 
ternal events, being especially important sources 
for the first appearance of the' Slavs and Turks on 
the borders of the Empire. 

B. Chroniclers. — Unlike the historical works, By- 
zantine chronicles were intended for the general pub- 
lic; hence the difference in their origin, development, 
and diffusion, as well as in their character, the method 
in which materials are handled, and their style of com- 
position. The beginnings of the Byzantine chronicle 
have not yet been satisfactorily traced. That they 
are not very remote seems certain from their com- 
paratively late appearance, as compared with his- 
torical literature (sixth century), and from their total 
lack of contact with hellenistic (pagan) tradition. 
In point of locality, also, the chronicle literature is 
originally foreign to Greek civilization, its first im- 
portant product having been composed in Syria. 
by an uneducated Syrian. Its presumable prototype, 
moreover, the " Chronography " of Sextus Julius 
Africanus, points to an Oriental Christian source. 
Accordingly, the origins and development of the 
chronicle literature are confined to a much narrower 
circle; it has no connexion with persons of distinction 
and is not in touch with the great world; its models 
are bound almost exclusively within its own narrow 
sphere. The high-water mark of the Byzantine chron- 
icle was reached in the ninth century, precisely at 
a time when there is a gap in historical literature. 
Afterwards it falls off rather abruptly; the lesser 
chroniclers, met with as late as the twelfth century, 
thaw partly from contemporary and partly, though 
at rare intervals, from the earlier historians. In the 
Pala?ologi period there are, significantly enough, no 
chroniclers of any note. 

The importance of Byzantine chronicles lies not 
in their historical and literary value, but in their re- 
lation to civilization. They are not only an important 
source for the history of Byzantine civilization, but 
themselves contributed to the spread of that civiliza- 
tion. The most important chronicles, through nu- 
merous redactions and translations, passed over to 
Slavic and Oriental peoples and in this way became 
one of their earliest sources of civilization. Their 
influence was chiefly due to their popular tone ami 
bias. They depict only what lies within the popular 
world of consciousness, events wonderful and dread- 
ful painted in glaring colours, ami interpreted in a 
Christian sense. The method of handling materials 
is extremely primitive. Beneath each section of a 
chronicle lies some older source usually but slightly 
modified, so that the whole story resembles a crude 
collection of material, rather than ingenious mo- 
saic like the narratives of the historians. The dic- 
tion corresponds with the low level of education in 
both author and reader, and is naturally that of the 
popular tongue in its original purity, therefore these 
chronicles are a rich treasure-house for the compara- 
ti >e study of languages. 

Representative Byzantine chronicles, typical also 
of the different stages in the development of the 
chronicle, are the three of Joannes Malalas. 1 1 1 . ■. •- 
phanes Confessor, and Joannes Zonaras respei ti 
The first is the earliest Christian Byzantine monastic 
chronicle, and was composed at Antioeh in the sixth 
century by a hellenized Syrian (consequently Mono- 
physite) theologian. Originally a chronicle of the 

city, it was later expanded into a worl.l-elironiele. 
It is a popular historical work, full of the gravest 
historical and chronological errors, and the first 




monument of a purely popular Hellenistic civilization. 
It is tHe chief source for most of the later chroniclers, 
as well as for a few church historians; it is also the 
earliest popular history, which was translated into 
Old-Bulgarian, about the end of the ninth or the Lie- 
ginning of the tenth century. Superior in substance 
and form, and more properly historical, is the Chron- 
icle of Theophanes, a monk of Asia Minor, written 
in the ninth century, and in its turn a model for later 
chronicles. It contains much valuable information 
from lost sources, and its importance for the Western 
world is due to the fact that by the end of the ninth 
century it Had been translated into Latin. A third 
guide-post in the history of Byzantine chronicles is 
the twelfth-century Universal Chronicle of Zonaras. 
There is already apparent in it something of the at- 
mosphere of the renaissance that occurred under the 
Comneni; not only is the narrative better than that of 
Theophanes, but in it many passages from ancient 
writers arc worked into the text. It is not to be 
wondered at, therefore, that this chronicle was trans- 
lated not only into Slavic and Latin, but also, in the 
sixteenth century, into Italian and French. 

II. Encyclopedists and Essayists. — The spirit 
of antiquarian scholarship awoke in Byzantium 
earlier than in the West, though it proved less pro- 
ductive. It is extremely significant, however, that 
the study of antiquity at Byzantium was begun not 
by laymen, but by theologians. For this reason it 
always had a certain scholastic flavour; the By- 
zantine humanistic spirit savoured alike of antiquity 
and the Middle Ages; neither ever really gained the 
upper hand. A pronounced interest in the literature 
of Greek antiquity was first manifested at Constanti- 
nople in the second half of the ninth century. It was 
primarily directed to the systematic collection and 
sifting of manuscripts. With the twelfth century 
begins the period of original productions in imitation 
of antique models, a revival of the Alexandrian essay 
and rhetorical literature, a number of writers show- 
ing vigorous originality. Quite isolated between the 
two periods stands Michael Psellus, a universal genius 
of the eleventh century who bridges over the periods. 
While the humanism of the ninth and tenth centuries 
retained throughout a strong theological colouring 
and maintained a hostile attitude towards the West, 
that of the twelfth to the fourteenth century de- 
veloped several writers who consciously or uncon- 
sciously sought to break away from orthodox classi- 
cism, and to attain a true humanism, and so bee ime 
the earliest forerunners of the Italian Renaissance. 
The new spirit first found expression in at: academy 
founded for classical studies at Constantinople in 
863. About the same time the broadly trained and 
energetic Photius, patriarch of the city and the great- 
est statesman of the Creek Church ivjit so; . ex- 
hibited much enthusiasm in the collection of manu- 
scripts and an intuitive genius for the revival of 
forgotten works of antiquity and the discovery of 
works hitherto unknown, in which his attention, 
however, was chiefly directed to the prose writers, 
a fact indicative of his sound practical sense. Photius 
made selections or excerpts from all the works he 
discovered, and these were the beginning of his cele- 
brated "Bibliotheca" (Library), which, despite its 
dry and schematic character, is the most valuable lit- 
erary compendium of the Middle Ages, containing, as 

it does, trustworthy summaries of many ancient works 
that have .since been lost, together with which many 
good characterizations and analyses are given, e. g. 
those of Lucian and Heliodorus. Strangely enough, 

tin' -:uia' Photius, who thus laid a foundation lor the 
renewed study of antiquity, also prepared the way 
for the Creek Schism, that momentous break of the 
Creek world from the West and its civilization. Even 
within his own Church, however, he appears greater 
as an ecclesiastical state-man than as a theologian. 

The encyclopedic activity in Byzantium which had 
been begun by Photius was more assiduously pursued 
in the tenth century, particularly in the systematic 
collecting of materials, which is usually associated with 
the name of the Emperor Constantine VII Porphy- 
rogenitus (913-959). Scholars did not confine them- 
selves solely to collecting materials, but formed great 
compilations, arranged according to subjects, on 
the basis of older sources. Among them was an en- 
cyclopedia of political science which contained ex- 
tracts from the classical, Alexandrian, and Roman- 
Byzantine periods; it is preserved, however, only in 
a lew, fragments. If we take account also of the fact 
that in the same century originated the collection 
of ancient epigrams known as the "Anthologia 
Palatina", as well as the scientific dictionary which 
goes under the name of Suidas, we may rightly desig- 
nate the tenth century as that of the encyclopedias. 
A typical representative of the period appears in 
the following century in (he person of the greatest 
encyclopedist of Byzantine literature, Michael Psel- 
lus.' Like Bacon, he stands between the Middle Ages 
and modern times. He is not, like Photius, a theolo- 
gian, but a jurist and a man of the world; his mind 
is not only receptive but productive; he not only 
does not undervalue the old philosophers, as does 
Photius, who was more concerned with points of 
philosophy and grammar, but is himself of a philo- 
sophic temperament. He was the first of his intellec- 
tual circle to raise the philosophy of Plato above that 
of Aristotle and to teach philosophy as a professor. 
Though surpassing Photius in intellect and wit, he 
lacks that scholar's dignity and solidity of charac- 
ter. A certain restless brilliancy characterized the 
course of his life, as well as his literary activity. At 
first a lawyer, he then became a professor of philoso- 
phy, was for a time a monk, then a court official, anil 
ended his career as prime minister. He was equally 
adroit and many-sided in his literary work, in this 
respect resembling Leibniz. In harmony with the 
polished, pliant nature of the courtier is his ele- 
gant Platonic style, as it is exhibited most distinctly 
in his letters and speeches. His extensive corre- 
spondence furnishes endless material for an under- 
standing of his personal and literary character. In 
his speeches, especially in his funeral orations, we 
recognize clearly the ennobling influence of his Attic 
models; that delivered on the death of his mother 
shows deep sensibility. Compared with Photius, 
Psellus had something of a poetic temperament, as 
several of his poems show, though indeed they owe 
their origin more to satirical fancy or to external 
occasions than to deep poetic feeling. Though Psel- 
lus exhibits more formal skill than original, creative 
talent, his endowments proved most valuable for his 
time, which was particularly backward in the direction 
of aesthetic culture. The intellectual freedom of the 
great scholars (polyhistores) , ecclesiastical and secular, 
oi the twelfth to the fourteenth century would be 

inconceivable without the activity of Psellus, the 
first great victor over Byzantine scholasticism, who 
cleared the way for his successors. 

In one point indeed, and that important in passing 
any judgment on him, Psellus was surpassed by most 
of his intellectual posterity, i. e. in character. It is 
true there are also among his successors many 
morally corrupt and hollow natures, like Nicephorus 
Blemmydes, and Hyrtakenos; the majority, however, 
are admirable for their rectitude of intention and 
sincerity of feeling, and their beneficently broad 
culture. Among these great intellects and strong 
characters of the twelfth century several theologians 
are especially conspicuous, e, g, Kustathius of Thes- 
salonica, Michael ItalicUS, and Michael Acoininatus; 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries several 
secular scholars, like Maximus Planudes, Theodorus 
Metochites. and. above all, Nicephorus Gregoras. 




The three theologians first named are best judged 
by their letters and minor occasional writings. 
Eustathius seems to be the most important among 
them, not only because of his learned commentary 
on Homer and Pindar, but particularly because of 
his own original writings. Therein he reveals a 
candid character, courageously holding up every evil 
to the light and intent upon its correction, not shrink- 
ing from sharp controversy. In one of his works 
he attacks the corruption of the monastic life of that 
day and its intellectual stagnation; in another, one 
of the best of the Byzantine polemical writings, he 
assails the hypocrisy and sham holiness of his time; 
in a third he denounces the conceit and arrogance of 
the Byzantine priests, who were ashamed of their 
popular designation, "pope". For a rhetorician 
like Michael Italicus, later a bishop, it is extremely 
significant that he should attack the chief weakness 
of Byzantine literature, external imitation; this he 
did on receiving a work by a patriarch, which was 
simply a disorderly collection of fragments from 
other writers, so poorly put together that the sources 
were immediately recognizable. 

Noteworthy also is the noble figure of the pupil 
and friend of Eustathius, Michael Acominatus 
(twelfth and thirteenth centuries) Archbishop of 
Athens and brother of the historian Nicetas Aco- 
minatus. His inaugural address, delivered on the 
Acropolis, compared by Gregorovius with Gregory 
the Great's sermon to the Romans in St. Peter's, 
exhibits both profound classical scholarship and high 
enthusiasm; the latter, however, is somewhat out of 
place in view of the material and spiritual wretched- 
ness of his time's. These pitiful conditions moved 
him to compose an elegy, famous because unique, 
on the decay of Athens, a sort of poetical and anti- 
quarian apostrophe to fallen greatness. Gregorovius 
compares this also with a Latin counterpart, the 
lament of Bishop Hildebert of Tours on the demoli- 
tion of Rome by the Normans (1106). More wordy 
and rhetorical are the funeral orations over his 
teacher, Eustathius (1195), and over his brother 
Nicetas, both of them, nevertheless, fine evidences 
of a noble disposition and deep feeling. In spite 
of his humanism, Michael, like his brother, remained 
a fanatical opponent of the Latins, whom he called 
"barbarians". They had driven him into exile at 
Ceos, whence he addressed many letters to his friends, 
which are of great value for the understanding of 
his character. In his style he is strongly influenced 
by Eustathius; hence the ecclesiastical note in his 
otherwise classical diction. 

With Theodoras Metochites and Maximus Planudes 
we come to the universal scholars (polyhistores) of 
the time of the Palseologi. The former gives evi- 
dence of his humanistic zeal in his frequent use of 
the hexameter, the latter in his knowledge of the 
Latin, both being otherwise unknown in Byzantium, 
and acquaintance with them foreboding a new and 
broader grasp of antiquity. Both men show an un- 
usually fine grasp of poetry, especially of the poetry 
of nature. Metochites composed meditations on the 
beauty of the sea; Planudes was the author of a long 
poetic idyll, a kind of literature otherwise little cul- 
tivated by Byzantine scholars. On the whole, Me- 
tochites was a thinker and poet, Planudes chiefly an 
imitator and compiler. Metochites was of the more 
speculative disposition, as his collection of philo- 
sophical and historical miscellanies show. Planudes 
was more precise, as his preference for mathematics 
proves. It is worth noting, as an evidence of contem- 
porary progress in philosophy, that Metochites openly 
attacks Aristotle, lie also deals more frankly with 
political questions, as is shown, for instance, in his 

comparison of dem y, aristocracy, and mon- 
archy. In spite of tliis breadth of interest his cul- 
ture rests wholly on a Greek basis, while Planudes, 

by his translations from the Latin (Cato, Ovid, 
Cicero, Caesar, and Boethius), vastly enlarged the 
Eastern intellectual horizon. 

This inclination toward the West is most notice- 
able in Nicephorus Gregoras, the great pupil of Me- 
tochites. His project for a reform of the calendar 
alone suffices to rank him among the modern and 
superior intellects of his time, as he will surely be 
admitted to have been if ever his numerous and 
varied works in every domain of Byzantine intel- 
lectual activity are brought to light. His letters, 
especially, promise a rich harvest. His method of 
exposition is based on that of Plato, whom he also 
imitated in his ecclesiastico-political discussions, 
e. g. in his dialogue "Florentius, or Concerning Wis- 
dom". These disputations with his opponent, Bar- 
laam, dealt with the question of church union, in 
which Gregoras stood on the side of the Unionists. 
This attitude, which places him outside the sphere 
of strictly Byzantine culture, brought upon him 
bitter hostility and the loss of the privilege of teach- 
ing; he had been occupied chiefly with the exact 
sciences, whereby he had already earned the hatred 
of orthodox Byzantines. 

While, therefore, the Byzantine essayists and en- 
cyclopedists stood, externally, wholly under the in- 
fluence of ancient rhetoric and its rules, and while 
they did not, like Bacon, create an entirely new form 
of the essay, yet they embodied in the traditional 
form their own characteristic knowledge, and thereby 
lent it a new charm. 

III. Secular Poetry. — As the prose literature, 
both historical and philosophical, followed one or 
more ancient models — the former Thucydides in par- 
ticular, the latter Plato — so poetry likewise had its 
prototypes; each of its principal classes had, so to 
speak, an ancient progenitor to whom it traced back 
its origins. Unlike the prose literature, however, 
these new kinds of poetical Byzantine literature and 
their models are not to be traced back to the classical 
Attic period. The Byzantines write neither lyrics 
nor dramas and imitate neither Pindar nor Sophocles. 
They imitate the literature of the post-classic or 
Alexandrian period, and write romances, panegyrics 
epigrams, satires, and didactic and hortatory poetry. 
The chief Alexandrian representatives of these species 
of literature are the models for the Byzantines, in 
particular Heliodorus and Achilles Tatius, Asclep- 
iades and Posidippus, Lucian and Longus. For 
didactic poetry it is necessary to go back to an earlier 
prototype, a work ascribed to Isocrates, by whom, 
however, it was not actually written. The poetic 
temperament of the Byzantines is thus akin to that 
of the Alexandrian, not of the Attic, writers. This 
statement is of great importance for the understand- 
ing of the poetry of Byzantium. Only one new 
poetic type was evolved independently by the By- 
zantines — the begging-poem. The five ancient types 
and the new one just mentioned are not contem- 
poraneous in the Byzantine period; the epigram and 
the panegyric developed first (in the sixth and seventh 
centuries), and then only, at long intervals, the 
others, i. e. satire, didactic and begging poetry, fi- 
nally the romance. All of these appear side by side 
only after the twelfth century, that is to say in the 
period of decay, they themselves marking a decadence 
in literature. 

The epigram was the artistic form of later antiq- 
uity which best suited the Byzantine taste for the 
ornamental and for intellectual ingenuity. It cor- 
responded exactly to the concept of the minor arts, 

which in the Byzantine period attained such high 

development. It made no lofty demands on the imag- 
ination of the author; the chief difficulty lay rather 
in the technique and the attainment of the utmost 
possible pregnancy of phrase. Two groups may be 
distinguished among the Byzantine epigrammatists: 




one pagan and humanistic in tendency, the other 
Christian. The former is represented chiefly by \u r a- 
thias (sixth century) and Cliristophorus of Mitylene 
(eleventh century); the latter by the ecclesiastics. 
Georgius Pisides (seventh century) and Theodoras 
Studites (ninth century). Between the two groups, 
in point of time as well as in character, stands 
Joannes Geometres (tenth century). The chief 
phases in the development of the Byzantine epigram 
are most evident in the works of these three. Aga- 
thias. who has already been mentioned among the 
historians, as an epigrammatist . lias the peculiarities 
of the school of the semi-Byzantine Egyptian Nonnus 
(about a. D. 400). He wrote in an affected and tur- 
gid style, in the classical form of the hexameter; he 
abounds, however, in brilliant ideas, and in his skil- 
ful imitation of the ancients, particularly in his erotic 
pieces, he surpasses most of the epigrammatists of 
the imperial period. Agathias also prepared a collec- 
tion of epigrams, partly his own and partly by other 
writers, some of which afterwards passed into the 
"Anthologia Palatina" and have thus been preserved. 
The abbot Theodoras Studites is in every respect the 
opposite of Agathias; a man of deep earnestnes and 
simple piety, with a fine power of observation in 
nature and life, full of sentiment and warmth and 
simplicity of expression, his writings are free from 
servile imitation of the ancients, though he occasion- 
ally bet rays the influence of Nonnus. Of his epigrams, 
which touch on the most varied things and situations, 
those treating of the life and personnel of his mon- 
astery offer especial interest for the history of civi- 
lization. Joannes Geometres is in a way a combina- 
tion of the two preceding writers. During the course 
of his life he filled both secular and ecclesiastical 
offices; his poetry also was of a universal character; of 
a deeply religious temper, he was still fully appre- 
ciative of the greatness of the ancient Greeks. Along- 
side of epigrams on ancient poets, philosophers, 
rhetoricians, and historians, are others on famous 
Church Fathers, poets, and saints. In point of poetic 
treatment, the epigrams on contemporary and secu- 
lar topics are superior to those on religious and classic 
subjects. He is at his best when depicting histori- 
cal events and situations that have come within his 
own experience, and reflect his own spiritual moods 

Less agreeable than the epigrams are the official 
panegyrics on emperors and their achievements, 
which unfortunately even the best writers often 
could not escape composing. Typical of this kind 
of literature are the commemorative poem of Paulus 
Silentiarius on the dedication of the church of St. 
Sophia, and that of Georgius Pisides on the victory 
of Heraclius over the Persians; each comprises over 
a thousand verses and celebrates not the importance 
of these great events, but the glory of the prince. Un- 
favourable conclusions must not be drawn, however, 
as lo the character of these poets, when it is borne 
in mind that such eulogies were composed not only 
ntiers like Psellus and Manuel Holobolos (thir- 
teenth century), but also by dignified and independ- 
ent characters like Eustathius and Michael Acom- 
inatus. In tut tin- species of literature had become 

traditional, and had been handed down from im- 
perial Home to Byzantium as a part of ancient 
rhetoric with all the extravagance of a thoroughly 
decadent literature (I. Gregorovius). It was a sort 
of necessary concession to despotism; populai 
it in general offended by it. 
\- previously Btated, the i hie! kinds of poetry dur- 
ing the period of tin- decline (eleventh to thirteenth 
century) were Batire and pai »ly. didactic ami horta- 
tory poetry, the begging-poem, anil the erotic ro- 
mance. In form this literature is characterized by 
\i~ • xtensive use of the popular forms of speech ami 
verse, the latter being the "political" verse, a tro- 

chaic verse of fifteen syllables, still the standard 
verse of modern Greek popular poetry. In content, 
however, all this literature continues to bear the im- 
print of Byzantine erudition. The father of Byzan- 
tine satire is Lucian. His celebrated "Dialogues of 
the Dead" furnished the model for two works, one 
of which, the "Timarion" (twelfth century), is marked 
by more rude humour, the other, "Mazaris" (fif- 
teenth century), by keen satire. Each describes 
a journey to the underworld and conversations with 
dead contemporaries; in the former their defects are 
lashed with good-natured raillery; in the latter, how- 
ever, under the masks of dead men, living persons and 
contemporary conditions, especially at the Byzantine 
Court, are sharply stigmatized; thus the former is 
more of a literary satire, the latter a political pam- 
phlet, with keen personal thrusts and without lit- 
erary value, but with all the greater interest for the 
history of civilization; the former is in a genuinely 
popular tone, the latter is vulgar and crude. [Ci 
Tozer in "The Journal of Hellenic Studies " (1881 I, 
II, 233-270; Krumbacher, op. cut.. 198-211.] Two 
popular offshoots of the "Timarion". the "Apoko- 
pos" and the "Piccatoros" will be discussed later. 
Another group of satires takes the form of dialogues 
between animals, manifestly a development from the 
Christian popular book known as the " Physiologus ". 
Such satires describe assemblages of quadrupeds, 
birds, and fishes, and recite their lampooning remarks 
upon the clergy, the bureaucracy, the foreign nations 
in the Byzantine Empire, etc. (Krumbacher, 3S5-390). 
Here belong also the parodies in the form of church 
poems which are mentioned below, ami in which the 
clergy themselves took part, e. g. Bishop Nicetas of 
Seme (eleventh century). One of the worst examples 
of this sacrilegious literature, which is not yet, how- 
ever, fully understood, is the ".Mockery of a Beard- 
less Man" in the liturgical form of Mass-Chants. 
This is one of the most obscene products of Byzantine 
literature (fourteenth century). (Krumbacher, 337.) 

As the Byzantine satire had its prototype in Lucian, 
the didactic poetry found its model in the dialogue, 
"To Demonikos", erroneously ascribed to Isocrates. 
The greatest example of this type of literature in 
Byzantium is the "Spaneas" (twelfth century), a 
hortatory poem addressed by an emperor to his 
nephew, a sort of "Mirror for Princes . Some few 
offshoots from this are found in the popular litera- 
ture of Crete in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
handed down under the names of Sachlikis and 
Depharanas. Here also belong the ranting theo 
logical exhortations resembling those of the Capu- 
chin in Schiller's "Wallenstein . Such, for instance, 
are that of Georgillas after the great plague of Rhodes 
(lt'.tsi and the oracular prophecies on the end of 
the Byzantine empire current under the name of 
Emperor Leo (886 911). (Krumbacher, 332, 336, 

A late Byzantine variety of the laudatory poem is 
the begging-poem, the poetical lament of hungry 
authors ami the parasites of the court. Its chief 

representatives an- Th lorus Prodromus and the 

still more contemptible Manuel Philes, the former 
of whom lived under the Comneni (twelfth century), 
the latter under the Palseologi (thirteenth century). 

For the history of civilization such poetical wails 
of distress as Prodromus addressed to the emperor 
are of value because they give interesting pictures 

of street and business life in the capital. (( 'f. Krum- 
bacher, 321. 333.) 

The Alexandrian erotic romance "as imitated by 
tho'' late writers of the twelfth century: Eustathius 
Makrembolites, Theodoras Prodromus, ami Nicetas 
Eugenianus. E. Rohde's criticism of the last i a true 
of all three: " Nothing original is found anywhere; on 
th.- contrary, Nicetas unhesitatingly steals his flowers 
of speech and gallant turns from everywhere, from 




the Anacreontics, from the bucolic poets, from Mu- 
sseus, from the epigrammatists of the Anthology, 
even from Heliodorus and Longus, and especially 
from Achilles Tatius". The tone of these romances is 
characterized by a combination of sickening affecta- 
tion of style and a crude coarseness of material. (Cf. 
Krumbacher, 313. 318, 319; Rohde, Der griechische 
Roman, Leipzig, 1876, 522 sqq. I 

The epigram was thus the only form of secular 
poetry which had an independent revival in Byzan- 
tine literature, and this at the very time when eccle- 
siastical poetry also reached its highest perfection, 
in the sixth and seventh centuries. This age is there- 
fore the most flourishing period of Byzantine scholarly 
poetry; its decline in the twelfth century is con- 
temporary with the rise of popular poetry. 

IV. Ecclesiastical and Theological Litera- 
ture. — While the most flourishing period of _ the 
secular literature of Byzantium runs from the ninth 
to the twelfth century, as already seen in the account 
of its three principal groups, its religious literature 
developed much earlier. Christianity entered the 
world as a new force, with all the vigour of youth, be- 
tween antiquity and the Byzantine Middle Ages; 
indeed, it first gave to those Middle Ages their dis- 
tinctive characteristic, that theological element which 
permeates all Byzantine culture. From the Eastern 
provinces, Asia Minor and Palestine, came the first 
great ecclesiastical writers of the fourth century: 
Athanasius from Alexandria, Eusebius from Pales- 
tine, Cyril from Jerusalem, Synesius from Gyrene, 
and above all, the three great Fathers from Cappa- 
docia, Basil and the two Gregories (of Nyssa and of 
Nazianzus). The contribution of these districts to 
Eastern Christianity was twofold: the rhetorical 
and speculative spirit of Hellenistic thought as it had 
developed in Alexandria and in Asia Minor, the old 
home of Greek culture; and the ascetic and dogmatic 
spirit peculiar to the Orient. The two blended in 
Byzantine Christianity into a new and peculiar unity 
which, however, was from the beginning strangely op- 
posed to the Christian ideal of the Western world, 
and which finally separated from the latter. Be- 
cause of the excessive emphasis it laid on asceticism 
the Eastern Church lost moral influence on practical 
life, and through its preference for the pagan ideal 
of ornate discourse, traditional indeed, but in forms 
no longer generally understood, that church estranged 
itself from the great masses of the people. " No Greek 
Father of the Church", says Krumbacher, "rose to 
the level of the golden sentence of Augustine: 'Let 
the grammarians find fault with us, if only the people 
understand us' ". Thus even the ecclesiastical litera- 
ture of Byzantium, precisely at the period of its first 
florescence, is Eellenistic in form and Oriental in 
spirit. This period falls in the fourth century' and 
is closely associated with the names (if the ecclesiasti- 
cal writers already mentioned. Their works, which 
cover the whole field of ecclesiastical prose literature, 
dogma, exegesis, and homiletics, became typical, even 
canonical, for the whole Byzantine period, which can 
therefore show no independent work in this field; on 
the contrary, scientific theology fell into decay as 
early as the sixth century; tin- last important work 
is the ecclesiastical history of Evagrius. Everything 
later consists, if »< except the controversial writ- 
ings against sectaries ami the Iconoclasts, of mechani- 
cal compilations and commentaries, in the form of 
the so-callr.l I'nlrmr: even the "fountain of Knowl- 
edge" of John of Damascus (eighth century), the 
fundamental manual of Greek theology, though syste- 
matically worked out by a learned and keen intellect, 

is merely' a gigantic collection of materials. Even 
the homily clings to a pseudo-classical, rhetorical 
foundation, and tends more and more to mere ex- 
ternal breadth, not to inwardness and depth. 

Only three kinds of ecclesiastical literature, which 

were as yet undeveloped in the fourth century, ex- 
hibit later an independent growth. These were the 
ecclesiastical poetry of the sixth century, popular 
lives of the saints of the seventh, and the mystic 
writings of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The 
history of Greek ecclesiastical poetry proves irre- 
futably how completely ancient poetry had exhausted 
itself in content and form, and how insufficient were 
its forms to express new and living thoughts. In 
ecclesiastical prose literature it was still possible 
to attempt to preserve ancient forms artificially, but 
even here we sometimes meet with foreign principles 
of literary art, which presuppose a new sense of 
poetry. It has been noticed that in several collections 
of early Christian correspondence it is not the rhyth- 
mic laws of Greek rhetorical style which govern the 
composition, but those of Semitic (Syriac) prose. 
This fact would be in perfect harmony with the other 
relations existing between late-Greek and Semitic cul- 
ture, and the hypothesis of Cardinal Pitra, that the 
rhythmical poetry of the Byzantines has its origin 
in the Jewish Psalms of the Septuagint, receives 
therefrom a new support. As this rhythmic princi- 
ple accords with the linguistic character of the later 
Greek, which had no musical, but only a stress, ac- 
cent, and as it had already been developed in Syriac 
poetry, we need not wonder that Romanos, the first 
great ecclesiastical poet of the Greeks to adopt this 
principle, was a Syrian Jew, who had become a Chris- 
tian at an early age. 

About his life as little is known as about that of 
his contemporary and fellow-countryman, the chroni- 
cler Malalas, who also made a vigorous attempt to 
reform the language. What Malalas is to prose, 
Romanos is to the Christian poetry of the Greek 
Middle Ages. If he did not go so far as Malalas, yet 
he strongly modified the language of poetry and re- 
leased it from the fetters of the ancient metric laws; 
he brought it into harmony with the latest idea of 
poetical form prevailing in his native country as well 
as with the character of the Greek language. Ro- 
manos, in fact, did not remain in Syria, but soon went 
to Constantinople, where he became a deacon of the 
church of St. Sophia, and where he is said to have first 
developed his gift for hymn-writing. 

Romanos borrowed not only the form of his poems, 
but also their material and many of their themes, 
partly from the Old and New Testaments, partly 
from the (metrical) homilies of the Syrian Father, 
Ephrem (fourth century). He wrote hymns on the 
Passion of the Lord, on the betrayal by Judas. Peter's 
denial, Mary before the Cross, the Ascension, the Ten 
Virgins, the Last Judgment, whilst among his Old Tes- 
tament themes mention may be made of the history 
of Joseph and that of the three young men in the 
fiery furnace. In giving poetical form to this matter 
he is said to have composed about a thousand hymns, 
of which, however, only eighty have come down to 
us, evidently because in the ninth century the hymns 
of Romanos were crowded out of the Greek Liturgy 
by the so-called canones, linguistically and metri- 
cally more artistic in form. Thenceforth his hymns 
held their own in only a few of the remoter monas- 
teries. Characteristic of the technical treatment of 
his material by Romanos is the great length of his 
hymns, which are regularly composed of from twenty 
to thirty stanzas of from twelve to twenty-one verses 
each, very finely wrought and varied in metrical 
BtrUCture, and in construction transparent and terse. 
To appreciate rightly the great length of the hymns 
we must compare them, not with the more concise 
Latin hymns, but with the modern oratorios. This 
resemblance is emphasized by their antiphonal render- 
ing by alternate choirs. This also explains the 
dramatic character of many hymns, with their inserted 
dialogues and choric songs, as in "Peter's Denial", 
a little drama of human toastfulness and weakness, 

ink Time ok Justinian to its Fall in 1452 




and the last part of the "History of Joseph", the 
"Psalm on the Apostles", and the "Birth of .lesus". 
Other pieces, like the hymn on the Last .Imminent, 
are purely descriptive in character, though even in 
them the rhetorical and dogmatic elements seriously 
impair the artistic effect. 

With regard to an aesthetic judgment of Romanos, 
it does not seem that the last, word has been said. 
Some, like Bouvy and Krumbacher, place him among 
the greatest hymn-writers of all times; others, like 
Cardinal Pitra, are more conservative. For a final 
judgment a complete edition of the hymns is needed. 
Even now, however, it is certain that Komanos is 
not to be placed on the same level with the great 
Latin church poets like Ambrose ami Prudentius. 
Two faults are especially obvious: his abundant use 
of rhetorical devices and his loudness for digressions 
into dogmatic theology. In both respects he is es- 
sentially Byzantine. He is fond of symbolic pictures 
and figures of speech, antitheses, assonances, es- 
pecially witty iiiix d'esprtt, which tire in strange 
contrast with his characteristic simplicity of diction 
and construction, and by their graceless embellish- 
ments destroy the smooth flow of his lines. Not only 
the form but also the sequence of thought in his 
hymns is often beclouded by the dragging in of dog- 
matic questions, e. g. in tin' celebrated Christmas hymn 
the question of the miraculous birth of Jesus is dis- 
cussed no less than four times, and that too with a 
comfortable amplitude which betrays the theologian 
and for the time thrusts the poet completely aside. 
The theologian is also too evident in his allusions to 
the Old Testament when dealing with New Testa- 
ment incidents; Mary at the birth of Jesus compares 
her destiny to that of Sarah, the Magi liken the star 
which guided them to the pillar of fire which went 
before the Israelites in the wilderness, and so on. 
The frequent citation of passages from the prophets 
also greatly weakens the poetic impression as well as 
the effect of the religious fervour of the poet, many 
passages seeming more like unimpassioned para- 
phrases than like inspired poetry. In fact Komanos 
does not control the abundant and highly-coloured 
imagery of the earliest Greek church poets, nor their 
fine grasp of nature. The reader also gathers the 
impression that the height of the poet's imagination 
is not in proportion with the depth of his piety; 
on the contrary, there often appears in him something 
naive, almost homely, as when Mary expresses her 
pleasure in the gifts of the Magi and calls attention 
to their utility for the impending Flight into Egypt. 
There are passages, however, in which devout fer- 
vour carries the imagination along with it and ele- 
vates the poetical tone, as in the jubilant invitation 

to the dance (in the Easter-song), in which thoughts 
of spring and of the Resurrection arc harmoniously 

Why thus faint-hearted? 

Why veil ye your faces? 

Lift up your hearts! 

Christ is arisen! 

Join in the dances, 

And w ilh US proclaim it: 

The Lord is ascended, 

( Steaming and glorified, 

He who was born 

Of the giver of light. 

I lease then your mourning, 

Rejoice in blessedness: 

Springtime has come. 
So bloom now , ye lilies, 
Bloom and l«- fruitful! 

Naught bringetb destruction. 

' 'lap v ur hands 

And shout : Risen is He 
Who helpeth the fallen ones 
To rise again. 

Ecclesiastical poetry, like ecclcsiastico-historical 
literature, did not long remain on the high level to 
which Romanos had raised it. The "Hymnus Aca- 
thistus" (of unknown authorship) of the seventh 
century, a sort of Te Peum in praise of the Mother of 
God, is the last, great monument of Greek church 
poetry, comparable to the hymns of Romanos, which 
it has even outlived in fame. It has had numerous 
imitators and as late as the seventeenth century was 
translated into Latin 

As early as the seventh century, the period of 
Andrew of Crete, begins the rapid decline of Greek 
hymnology. The delicate flower of religious senti- 
ment was overgrown and choked by a classical for- 
malism which stifled all vitality, as had happened in 
tin' ease of contemporary secular poetry. The over- 
valuation of technique in details destroyed the sense of 
proportion in the whole. This seems to be the only 
explanation for the monstrosities called canones first 
found in the collection of Andrew of Crete. A cation 
is a combination of a number of hymns or chants 
(generally nine) of three or four strophes each. The 
"Great Canon" of Andrew actually numbers 250 
strophes. Such length could only result in poverty 
of thought, as a "single idea is spun out into serpen- 
tine arabesques". 

Pseudo-classical artificiality found an even more ad- 
vanced representative in John of Damascus, in the 
opinion of the Byzantines the foremost writer of 
canones, who took as a model Gregory of Nazianzus, 
even reintroducing the principle of quantity into 
ecclesiastical poetry. If it be true that the sublimity 
of religious poetry is in this way reduced to mere 
trifling, this is, strictly speaking, the case here. For 
in the eleventh century, which witnessed the decline 
of (inek hymnology and the revival of pagan hu- 
manism, are found for the first time the parodies 
of church hymns, afterwards so popular. Their au- 
thor was none other than Michael Psellus. Didactic 
poems took this form without being regarded as 
blasphemous. Another evidence of the few religious 
needs of the Byzantines is the absence of any re- 
ligious drama such as developed among the people of 
the West during the Middle Ages. The only example, 
the "Suffering of Christ" (Christus Patiens), written 
in the eleventh or twelfth century, and even now 
frequently valued too highly in theological circles, 
can hardly be called a religious drama; it is the off- 
spring of a pagan, rather than a Christian, spirit; 
of its 2,640 verses, about one-third are borrowed 
from ancient dramas, chiefly from those of Euripi- 
des, and Mars', the chief character, sometimes re- 
cites verses from the "Medea" of Euripides, again 
from the "Electra" of Sophocles, or the "Prome- 
theus'' of .Eschylus. In her action, also, Mary im- 
presses the reader as but feebly Christian. The com- 
position is evidently a poor production of a theologian 
trained in the classics, but without the slightest idea 
of dramatic art. It is made up chiefly of lamenta- 
tions and reports of messengers. Even the most ef- 
fective scenes, those which precede the Crucifixion, 
are described by messengers; almost two-thirds 
of the text are given to the descent from the 
Cross, tin- lament of Man - , and the apparition of 
Christ. (Cf. Van Cleef, "The Pseudo-Gregorian 
Drama Xpwrbs -rr&crxwv in its relation to the text 
of Euripides" in "Transactions of the Wisconsin 
Academy of Sciences", VIII, 363-37S; Krumbacher, 

Between ecclesiastical poetry and ecclesiastical 
prose stands the theologico-didactic poem, a fa- 
vourite species of ancient Christian literature. One 
of its best examples is the "Hexaemeron" of Georgius 
Pisides, a spirited hymn on the universe and its mar- 
vels, i. e. all living creatures. Taken as a whole, it is 
somewhat conventional; only in the description of 
the minor forms of life, especially of the animals, are 




revealed the skill of the epigrammatist and the nature- 
lover's gift of affectionate observation. 

Besides sacred poetry, hagiography flourished from 
the sixth to the eleventh century. This species of 
literature developed from the old martyrologies, and 
became the favourite form of popular literature. The 
most flourishing period extended from the eighth to 
the eleventh century, and was concerned principally 
with monastic life. Unfortunately, the rhetorical lan- 
guage was in violent contrast with the simple nature 
of the contents, so that the chief value of this litera- 
ture is historical. 

More popular in style are the biographers of saints 
of the sixth and seventh centuries. The oldest ami 
most important of them is Cyril of Scythopolis (in 
Palestine), whose biographies of saints and monks 
are distinguished for the reliability of their facts and 
dates. Of great interest also for their contributions 
to the history of culture and of ethics, and for their 
genuinely popular language, are the writings of 
Leontius", Archbishop of Cyprus (seventh century), 
especially his life of the Patriarch John (surnamed 
The Merciful), Eleemosynarius of Alexandria. (Cf. 
Gelzer, Kleine Schriften, Leipzig, 1907.) This life 
describes for us a man who in spite of his peculiarities 
honestly tried "to realize a pure Biblical Christianity 
of self-sacrificing love", and whose life brings before 
us in a fascinating way the customs and ideas of 
the lower classes of the people of Alexandria. Still 
another popular work of Byzantine origin ranks 
among those that have won for themselves a place 
in universal literature; it is the romance of Barlaam 
and Joasaph (q. v.), the "Song of Songs" of Chris- 
tian asceticism, illustrated by the experience of the 
Indian prince Joasaph, who is led by the hermit 
Barlaam to abandon the joys of life, and as a true 
Christian to renounce the world. The material of 
the story is originally Indian, indeed Buddhistic, 
for the original of Joasaph was Buddha. The Greek 
version originated in the Sabbas monastery in Pales- 
tine about the middle of the seventh century. It 
did not circulate widely until the eleventh century, 
when it became known to all Western Europe through 
the medium of a Latin translation. [Cf. Conybeare, 
The Barlaam and Josaphat Legend, in Folk-Lore 
(1896), VII, 101 sqq.] 

The ascetic conception of life was deeply imbedded 
in the Byzantine character, and was strengthened 
by the high development of monastic institutions. 
The latter in turn brought forth an abundant ascetic 
literature, though it shows little if any advance on the 
asceticism of the Fathers of the Church, especially 
that of its great exponent, St. Basil. Less exten- 
sively cultivated, but excelling in quality, are By- 
zantine mystical writings. The true founder of By- 
zantine mysticism was Maximus Confessor (seventh 
century), who first stripped it of its neo-Platonic 
character and harmonized it with orthodox doctrine. 
Later and more important representatives were 
Symeon and Nicetas Stethatos in the eleventh, and 
Nikolaos Kavasilas in the fourteenth, century. The 
Byzantine mystical writers- differ from those of 
Western Europe chiefly in their attitude to eccle- 
siastical ceremonial, to which they adhered implic- 
itly, siring in it not a tendency to replace the spirit- 
ual life of tlic church by external pomp, but rather 
a profound symbol of this life. Accordingly Symeon 
strictly observed the ceremonial rules of the church, 
regarding them, however, only as a means to the at- 
tainment of ethical perfection. Mis principal work 
(published only in Latin) is a collection of prose 
[liens and hymns on communion with Clod. He is 
akin to thr chief German mystics in his tendency 
tun. mis pantheism, of Symeon's equally distin- 
guished pupil, Nicetas Stethatos, we need only say 
that he cast off his teacher's pantheistic tendencies. 
The last great mystic, Kavasilas, Archbishop of 

Saloniki, revived the teachings of Dionysius the 
pseudo-Areopagite, but in the plan of his principal 
work, "Life in Christ", exhibits a complete inde- 
pendence of all other works and is without a parallel 
in Byzantine asceticism. 

V. Popular Poetry. — The capture of Constan- 
tinople by the Latins in the year 1204 released pop- 
ular literature from the aristocratic fetters of official 
Byzantium. The emotional and imaginative life 
long latent, awoke again in the Byzantine world; 
in response to new influences from the Roman West, 
the withered roots of popular literature showed signs 
of new life. They needed only assiduous care to put 
forth fresh shoots, being as deeply imbedded in 
popular consciousness as those of literary poetry. 
As the latter springs from the rationalistieo-classical 
atmosphere of the Hellenistic period, even so the 
popular poetry, or folk-song, is an outgrowth of the 
idyllic or romantic literature of the same period. 
The artificial literature had its prototypes in Lueian, 
Heliodorus, Achilles Tatius, and Nonnus; on the other 
hand, the popular literature of medieval Byzantium 
imitated Apollonius of Rhodes, Callimachus, Theocri- 
tus, and Musecus. The chief characteristic of folk-song 
throughout the Greek Middle Ages is its lyric note, 
which constantly finds expression in emotional turns. 
In Byzantine literature, on the other hand, the re- 
finement of erotic poetry was due to the influence of 
the love-poetry of chivalry introduced by Frank ish 
knights in the thirteenth century and later. These 
Westerners also brought with them in abundance ro- 
mantic and legendary materials that the Byzantines 
soon imitated ami adapted. Lastly, Italian influences 
led to a revival of the drama. The celebration of the 
achievements of Greek heroes in popular literature was 
the result of the conflicts which the Greeks sustained 
during the Middle Ages with the border nations to the 
east of the empire. There were, in addition, popular 
books relating the deeds of ancient heroes, which 
had long beeii^ current , and were widespread through 
the East; these revived heroic poetry, to which a 
deep romantic tinge w-as imparted. The result was 
a complete upheaval of popular ideals and a broaden- 
ing of the popular horizon, both to the East and West ; 
the oppressive power of ancient standards was grad- 
ually replaced by the beneficial influence of modern 

There was, consequently, a complete reconstruc- 
tion of the literary types of Byzantium. Of all the 
varieties of aFtistic poetry there survived only the ro- 
mance, though this became more serious in its aims, 
and its province expanded. Of metrical forms there 
remained only the political (fifteen-syllable) verse. 
From these simple materials there sprang forth an 
abundance of new poetic types. Alongside of the 
narrative romance of heroism and love there sprang 
up popular love lyrics, and even the beginnings of the 
modern drama. 

The only genuine heroic epic of the Byzantines is 
the "Digenis Akritas", a popular poetic crystalliza- 
tion of the conflicts between the Byzantine wardens 
of the inarches (aKpLrai) and the Saracens, in Eastern 
Asia. Minor, during the tenth and eleventh centuries. 
The nucleus of this epic goes back to the twelfth or 
thirteenth century, its final literary form to the fif- 
teenth. The original poems have suffered much in the 
final redaction from the mutilations of the schoolmen. 
An approximate idea of the original poem may be 
gathered from the numerous echoes of it extant in 
popular poetry. The existing versions exhibit a 
blending of several cycles, quite after the manner 
of the Homeric poems. Its principal subjects are 
love, adventures, battles, and a patriarchal, idyllic 

enjoyment of life; it is a mixture of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey, the majority of the material being drawn 
from tl'ie latter, while the atmosphere is Christian. 

With an intimate sympathy with Nature are com- 




bined genuine piety and a strong family feeling, the earliest collection of neo-Greek love songs, known 

In an artistic sense the work can certainly not be as the "Rhodian Love-Songs". Besides songs of 

compared with either the Greek or the Germanic various sorts and origins, they contain a complete 

epics. It lacks their dramatic quality and the romance, told in the form of a play on numbers, a 

variety of their characters. It must be compared youth being obliged to compose in honour of the 

with the Slavic and Oriental heroic songs, among maiden whom he worships a hundred verses, cor- 

which it properly belongs. responding to the numbers one to one hundred, be- 

The love-romance of the Greek Middle Ages is fore she returns his love, 
the result of the fusion of the sophistical Alexandra- Between the days of the French influence in the 

Byzantine romance and the medieval French pop- thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and those of 

ular romance, on the basis of an Hellenistic view of Italian in the sixteenth and seventeenth, there was 

life and nature. This is proved by its three chief a short romantic and popular revival of the ancient 

creations, composed in the thirteenth and fourteenth legendary material. It is true that for this revival 

centuries: " Kallimachos and Chrysorrhoe", "Bel- there was neither much need nor much appreciation, 

thandros and Chrysantza ". "Lybistros and Rho- and as a consequence but few of the ancient heroes 

damne". While the first and the last of these are and their heroic deeds are adequately treated. The 

yet markedly under the influence of the Byzantine best of these works is a romance based on the story 

romance, both in 
thought and in man- 
ner of treatment, the 
second begins to 
show the aesthetic 
and ethical influence 
of the Old-French 
romance: indeed, its 
story often recalls 
the Tristan legend. 
The style is clearer 
and more transpar- 
ent, the action more 
dramatic, than in 
the extant versions 
of the Digenis leg- 
end. The ethical 
idea is the roman- 
tic idea of knights 
hood — the winning 
of the loved one by 
valour and daring, 
not by blind chance 
as in the Byzantine 
literary romances. 
Along with these 
independent adap- 
tations of French 
material, are direct